D348 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Caterpillar


Testing And Adjusting

Usage:



Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting can be difficult. On the following pages there is a list of possible problems. To make a repair to a problem, make reference to the cause and correction.

This list of problems, causes, and corrections, will only give an indication of where a possible problem can be, and what repairs are needed. Normally, more or other repair work is needed beyond the recommendations in the list.

Remember that a problem is not normally caused only by one part, but by the relation of one part with other parts. This list can not give all possible problems and corrections. The serviceman must find the problem and its source, then make the necessary repairs.

Troubleshooting Index

1. Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On.
2. Engine Will Not Start.
3. Misfiring or Running Rough.
4. Stall at Low rpm.
5. Sudden Changes In Engine rpm.
6. Not Enough Power.
7. Too Much Vibration.
8. Loud Combustion Noise.
9. Valve Train Noise (Clicking).
10. Oil In Cooling System.
11. Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine.
12. Fuel Consumption Too High.
13. Loud Valve Train Noise.
14. Too Much Valve Lash.
15. Valve Rotocoil or Spring Lock is Free.
16. Oil at the Exhaust.
17. Little or No Valve Clearance.
18. Engine Has Early Wear.
19. Coolant In Lubrication Oil.
20. Too Much Black or Gray Smoke.
21. Too Much White or Blue Smoke.
22. Engine Has Low Oil Pressure.
23. Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil.
24. Engine Coolant Is Too Hot.
25. Starter Motor Does Not Turn.
26. Alternator Gives No Charge.
27. Alternator Charge Rate Is Low or Not Regular.
28. Alternator Charge Too High.
29. Alternator Has Noise.
30. Exhaust Temperature Too High.
31. Engine Speed Does Not Go Higher Than 1000 to 1200 rpm.
32. Rack Solenoid Does Not Stop Engine.

Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On

Engine Will Not Start

Misfiring Or Running Rough

Stall At Low RPM

Sudden Changes In Engine Speed (rpm)

Not Enough Power

Too Much Vibration

Loud Combustion Noise (Sound)

Valve Train Noise (Clicking)

Oil In Cooling System

Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine

Fuel Consumption Too High

Loud Valve Train Noise

Too Much Valve Lash

Valve Rotocoil Or Spring Lock Is Free

Oil At The Exhaust

Little Or No Valve Clearance

Engine Has Early Wear

Coolant In Lubrication Oil

Too Much Black Or Gray Smoke

Too Much White Or Blue Smoke

Engine Has Low Oil Pressure

Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil

Engine Coolant Is Too Hot

Starter Motor Does Not Turn

Alternator Gives No Charge

Alternator Charge Rate Is Low Or Not Regular

Alternator Charge Too High

Alternator Has Noise

Exhaust Temperature Is Too High

Engine Speed Does Not Go Higher Than 1000 to 1200 rpm

Rack Solenoid Does Not Stop Engine

Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by one or more of the reasons that follow:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.
b. An overload at high altitude.
c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber.
d. Not enough compression.

Fuel System Inspection

A problem with the components that send fuel to the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease engine performance.

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad bend.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter so equipped.

4. Remove any air that may be in the fuel system. If there is air in the fuel system, use the priming pump and loosen the nuts that hold the fuel lines to the outside of the cylinder head, one at a time. Do this until fuel, without air, comes from the fuel line connection.

5. Inspect the fuel bypass valve to see that there is no restriction to good operation.

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that runs rough (misfires) and cause black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine performance, test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an indication of the condition of a fuel injection valve. Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication of an injection valve with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by an injection valve with a defect.

The most common defects found with the fuel injection valves are:

1. Carbon on tip of nozzle or in the nozzle orifice.
2. Orifice wear.
3. Dirty nozzle screen.

Testing Capsule-Type Fuel Injection Nozzles

5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group
5P4720 Fitting5P8744 Adapter or5P4717 Adapter
8S2270 Fuel CollectorFT1384 Extension8S2245 Cleaning Kit


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration oil when tests are made. Dirty test oil will damage components of the fuel injection nozzles. The temperature of the test oil must be 65 to 75°F (18 to 24°C) for good test results.


Order calibration oil by part number, in the quantities needed, according to the information that follows:

Kent-Moore Tool Division
29784 Little Mack
Roseville, MI 48066
J26400-5 [5 U.S. gal. (18.9 litre)]J-26400-15 [15 U.S. gal. (56.7 litre)]J-26400-30 [30 U.S. gal. (113.5 litre)]J-26400-55 [55 U.S. gal. (208.2 litre)]

Viscosity Oil Company
3200 South Western Ave.
Chicago, IL 60608
Viscor Calibration Fluid1487C-SAE J-967CAvailable in 30 U.S. gal. (113.5 litre) or 55 U.S. gal.(208.2 litre) drums.


5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP
A. 5P4721 Tube. B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa) used to test PC capsule-type nozzles. C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa) used to test DI capsule-type nozzles and pencil-type nozzles. D. Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge (B). E. Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge (C). F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve. H. 5P4720 Fitting. J. 5P8744 Adapter for capsule-type nozzles. K. 5P4244 Adapter for pencil-type nozzles.


EXTRA VALVE
L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all times).

The test procedures that follow will give an indication of nozzle condition. A nozzle that has a defect is not always the only cause for a specific engine problem.

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Fuel comes from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The fuel can pierce (go thru) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

--------WARNING!------

Nozzle Tester Preparation


ILLUSTRATION I
1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P8744 Adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter. M. FT1384 Extension. N. 8S2270 Fuel Collector.

Find an old capsule-type fuel nozzle and weld the orifice closed. Keep the fuel nozzle with the tester group for use in the future.

NOTE: Do not weld the fuel nozzles that are to be tested.

Illustration I shows the latest 5P8744 Adapter. Illustration II shows the former 5P4717 Adapter. Unless some indication is made, the procedure is the same for use of either adapter.


ILLUSTRATION II
1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P4717 Adapter (J). J. 5P4717 Adapter.

1. Install the top part of adapter (J) that holds the capsule nozzle.

2. Put test nozzle (1) (with welded orifice) in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J) that holds the capsule nozzle. Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).

3. Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G). Open gauge protector valve (E).

4. Operate the tester pump until a pressure of 3500 psi (24 000 kPa) is read on 2P2324 Gauge (C). Now, close pump isolator valve (G).

5. Check all connections for leaks. Tighten connections to stop any leaks that are found.

6. Open on-off valve (F) and remove test (welded) fuel nozzle (1).

------ WARNING! ------

Do not loosen the bottom half of the adapter to remove fuel nozzle until on-off valve is opened and no pressure is read on the gauge. Unless the high pressure is released in the pump, the fuel discharge from the adapter can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------

NOTE: To prevent fuel leakage, the top surface of the test (welded) nozzle, and all other nozzles that are to be tested, must be free of scratches or burrs (sharp edges). The procedure for NOZZLE TESTER PREPARATION must be done each time any of the conditions that follow exist:

a. The complete 5P8744 or 5P4717 Adapter is removed and installed again.
b. Before and after a series of tests.
c. There is an indication of a problem with the nozzle tester.

Test Sequence - Precombustion Chamber (PC) Fuel Nozzle

To test PC capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the sequence that follows:

I. Nozzle Installation
II. Pressure Loss Test
III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test


NOTICE

Do not use a drill or a reamer on the orifice of a nozzle. Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the valve can be damaged easily.


I. Nozzle Installation

1. Put one of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J). Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).


AIR REMOVAL FROM TESTER
2. Bottom part of adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter.

2. Close on-off valve (F). Open gauge protector valve (D) one-half turn. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.

3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows:

a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (J) one-half turn.

b. Operate the pump until clear test oil (free of air bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of adapter (J).

NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may start to increase before there is an indication of clear test oil. To correct this condition, do Step C.

c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adapter (J).

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and normally needs very little force when turned on bottom part (2) of the adapter.

II. Pressure Loss Test

1. Open gauge protector valve (D) an extra amount of one-half turn (the total amount is now one turn open).


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to 300 psi (2050 kPa), and close pump isolator valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (D) to adjust pressure again to 300 psi (2050 kPa).

3. After 30 seconds, take a pressure reading from the gauge. The pressure at this time must not be below 100 psi (690 kPa) reading on the dial face.


PRESSURE LOSS RANGE FOR GOOD NOZZLE

4. If the pressure loss is not in the 200 psi (1380 kPa) range as shown, stop the test sequence. Do not use the fuel nozzle again.

5. If the nozzle is in specification range, see VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) TEST.

III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test

1. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzle is to be tested, keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the FT1384 Extension and 8S2270 Fuel Collector. Fuel from the orifices in the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slowly until test oil comes from the nozzle tip.

3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time must be in the pressure range as follows:


VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) RANGE FOR GOOD NOZZLE

4. If the valve opening pressure (VOP) is not in the 400 to 750 psi (2750 to 5200 kPa) range as shown, do not use the fuel nozzle again.

Fuel Injection Service

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from the precombustion chamber, test the nozzle before it is again installed in the precombustion chamber. See TESTING CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJECTION NOZZLES.

Check and clean the seat in the precombustion chamber or adapter before the fuel injection valve is installed. It is important to keep the correct torque on the nut that holds the fuel nozzle in the precombustion chamber or adapter. Tighten the nut to 105 ± 5 lb.ft. (142 ± 7 N·m). There will be damage to the nozzle if the nut is too tight. If the nut is not tight enough, the nozzle can leak.

Checking The Plunger And Lifter Washer Of An Injection Pump

The timing dimension should be checked and adjusted, if necessary, with the fuel injection pump off the engine. If the timing dimension is too small, injection will begin early, and if too great, injection will be late.

When pump plunger wear becomes excessive, the lifter washer may also be worn so it will not make full contact with the end of a new plunger. To avoid rapid wear on the end of the new plunger, replace the lifters having washers showing visible wear.


These are patterns of wear between washer and plungers. Fig. A illustrates the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger and a new lifter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger and lifter washer have worn considerably. Fig. C shows how the flat end of a new plunger makes poor contact with a worn lifter washer, resulting in rapid wear to both parts.

A pump can maintain a satisfactory discharge rate and yet be unserviceable because of delayed timing resulting from wear on the lower end of the plunger. When testing a pump that has been in use for a long time, check the plunger length with a micrometer. Discard the pump if the plunger measures less than the minimum length (worn) dimension.

Inspect the upper diameter of the plunger for wear. The performance of pumps worn in this manner can be checked as described in the Instructions for Fuel Injection Test Apparatus.

Removing And Installing Fuel Injection Pump Assemblies

1. Remove the timing pin assembly from its storage position and install one of the retaining bolts (head down) through one of the flange holes. Install a nut at the top to hold the bolt in place. The bolt head limits the depth the pin can be inserted into the housing.

2. Insert the pin assembly (1) in the timing hole. Move the governor control or rack linkage back and forth slowly between SHUTOFF and LOW IDLE, to allow the pin to pass through the notch in the rack. The pin is in place when the head of the inverted bolt touches the fuel pump housing.


TIMING PIN INSTALLED
1. Timing pin.

NOTE: The fuel pump housing and rack are now ready for installing or removing the fuel injection pump assemblies.

3. With the flat on the pump gear segment and alignment pin visually aligned, install the injection pump assembly into the fuel pump housing and install the pump retaining bolts finger tight. If the injection pump cam lobe is up, use downward pressure (by hand) to push the pump body flush with the fuel injection pump housing. This ensures the gear segment is positioned by the alignment pin during installation. It also prevents sheering the alignment pin while tightening the retaining bolts.


LIFTER ASSEMBLIES (TOP VIEW)
Align the flat on the back of the gear segment with alignment pin (2) located in the top of the lifter assembly as the fuel pump and body are placed into position. This flat and locating pin provide for correct rack tooth and gear segment alignment.

4. Remove the timing pin and place it in the storage position.


NOTICE

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, it is possible for the engine to run out of control when started. When any of the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed with the fuel injection pump housing on the engine, make reference to START-UP PROCEDURE.


Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and the 5P144 Fuel Line Socket to tighten the fuel line nuts to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m).

Start-Up Procedure

Use the following procedure when starting an engine for the first time after work is done on the fuel injection pump or governor.

1. Remove the air inlet elbows and piping from the air inlets of the turbochargers.


AIR INLET OF TURBOCHARGER

2. Have another person in position near each turbocharger air inlet with a piece of steel plate large enough to completely cover the turbocharger air inlet.

3. If the engine starts to run too fast or does not react correctly to the controls, immediately put the steel plates against the air inlet to the turbocharger. This stops the air supply to the engine and the engine will stop.


STOPPING THE ENGINE

Locating Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group

No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke is the reference point for all timing procedures.

Viewing from the flywheel end of the engine, remove the right side valve covers. The four valves at the front of the engine are the intake and exhaust valves for No. 1 cylinder.

1. Remove the cover over the flywheel timing pointer, located on the left side of the flywheel housing.

2. Install the necessary parts of the 5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group in one of the starting motor locations.


TIMING MARK ALIGNED WITH TIMING POINTER

3. Rotate the flywheel clockwise (as viewed from the flywheel end of the engine) at least 30°. Now rotate the flywheel counterclockwise (as viewed from the flywheel end of the engine) until the TC1-11 mark on the flywheel is aligned with timing pointer in the flywheel housing.

NOTE: If timing mark is passed, do not back up, repeat Step 3 again.

4. Observe the position of the camshaft gears. The "V" marks on the camshaft drive gears must be in alignment. The pointer (1) in the camshaft housing must be in alignment with the dash mark on the gear, and the camshaft timing pin must fit into the groove in the camshaft. All four valves for No. 1 cylinder must now be closed.

If all of these are in alignment, the engine is at top center compression position for No. 1 piston.


CAMSHAFT DRIVE GEARS
1. Pointer.

If not, rotate the flywheel counterclockwise another 360°, using the procedures in Steps 3 and 4 again.

Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing; On Engine

Checking With Timing Pin

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group
9S8521 Rod9S8519 Plug
5P7307 Engine Turning Tool

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Disconnect governor control linkage rod from the governor lever.


MOVING SPEED LIMITER PLUNGER
1. 9S8521 Rod. 2. 9S8519 Plug.

3. Remove the speed limiter access plug. Loosely install plug (2). Through the opening in the plug, install rod (1) and push in the speed limiter plunger. Tighten plug to cause a clamp action on the rod. This will let the governor control lever move through its complete length of travel.

4. Remove timing pin (3) from storage hole (5) and install it in timing hole (4) in the fuel injection pump housing. Move the governor control lever until the timing pin goes through the notch in the rack. Push the timing pin farther into the fuel injection pump housing. If the timing pin goes into the timing slot in the fuel pump camshaft the flange of the timing pin will be against the fuel injection pump housing.

5. If the timing pin (3) goes into the fuel pump camshaft slot, the fuel pump camshaft is correctly in time with the engine crankshaft. If the timing pin does not go into the fuel pump camshaft timing slot, one of the problems that follow has happened.


TIMING PIN LOCATION
3. Timing pin. 4. Timing hole. 5. Storage hole.

(a) Free movement (backlash) between timing gears has increased during machine operation.
(b) Variable timing drive gear has moved or was not adjusted correctly.
(c) Variable timing unit failure.

Make reference to the subjects, CHECKING MOVEMENT OF THE VARIABLE TIMING UNIT and ADJUSTING VARIABLE TIMING UNIT DRIVE GEAR.

Checking Movement Of The Variable Timing Unit

1P3500 Injection Timing Group1P3499 Timing Light1P3498 Transducer5P7307 Engine Turning Tool

1. Install 1P3498 Transducer (2) on the fuel injection pump for No. 11 cylinder. Connect No. 11 fuel line to the transducer. Be sure the arrow on the transducer is in the direction of fuel flow.


1P3500 INJECTION TIMING GROUP

2. Locate the top center of No. 1 piston. No. 1 and 11 piston are at top center position at the same time. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON. It is not necessary for No. 11 piston to be on the compression stroke.


1P3498 TRANSDUCER INSTALLED ON NO. 11 PUMP
1. Clip. 2. 1P3498 Transducer. 3. Small wire.

3. Make a mark on the vibration damper and install a temporary pointer (6) on the timing gear housing that is in alignment with the mark on the vibration damper.


NOTICE

Do not use a hammer and punch to mark the vibration damper.


4. Put the small wire connector (3) on the terminal on the transducer and put clip (1) on the fuel line. Connect the power cord to an electrical source of 120 volts A.C.

5. Start the engine and run at low idle speed.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------


NOTICE

Do not operate the engine with a load with the transducer installed. Damage to the transducer will be the result.


6. Move switch (7) on the side of the timing light to the "ADV" position and push in the trigger. Put the timing light in position so that the mark on the vibration damper and the pointer can be seen.

7. Turn adjustment knob (5) on the timing light to make the mark on the vibration damper be in alignment with the pointer. Make a note of the reading on the top scale of meter (4).

8. Run the engine at high idle speed and do Step 7 again. Be sure to hold timing light in the same position for both readings.


USING TIMING LIGHT (TYPICAL EXAMPLE)
4. Meter. 5. Adjustment knob. 6. Pointer. 7. Switch.

9. The readings must agree with the numbers in the chart within ± 1°.

10. Return engine to low idle speed. Turn the knob past the detent to the "time" position and leave switch in the "ADV" position. Slowly increase engine speed to high idle. Look at the mark on the vibration damper to see that it moves smoothly through the speed range.

NOTE: The mark on the damper will move in the wrong direction until the timing advance unit begins to operate.

Checking Timing Dimension with 6F6922 Depth Micrometer

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump. Put micrometer into the bore and measure timing dimension (A) as shown.

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart, make reference to FUEL INJECTION PUMP CAMSHAFT TIMING.

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart and the camshaft timing for the fuel injection pump is correct, make reference to FUEL PUMP TIMING DIMENSION SETTING: OFF ENGINE.

3. The correct timing dimension (ON engine) is as follows:


MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
A. Timing Dimension

------ WARNING! ------

After working on the fuel injection pumps, make reference to the topic START-UP PROCEDURE, before starting the engine.

--------WARNING!------

Checking Timing by Measuring Timing Dimension

5P4165 Dial Indicator Group
8S3158 Indicator3P1565 Collet Clamp5P4156 Base5P4161 Contact Point, 2.75 in. (69.9 mm) long5P4158 Gauge 2.0 in. (50.8 mm)5P4159 Gauge stand
5P7307 Engine Turning Tool

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER (TC) COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.


MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
A. Timing Dimension.

2. Install 3P1565 Collet Clamp in 5P4156 Base. Put 8S3158 Indicator in collet. Be sure the indicator is against the shoulder in the collet and tighten the nut to prevent the indicator from moving in the collet. Put 5P4161 Contact Point 2.75 in. (69.9 mm) long on the indicator.

3. The indicator must be adjusted to zero before any measurements are taken. Put 5P4158 Gauge 2.0 in. (50.8 mm) on the 5P4159 Gauge Stand and put indicator with contact point on the gauge until the indicator base is even with the gauge. Loosen the screw on the dial clamp and turn dial face until the zero is in alignment with the larger pointer. Tighten the clamp for the dial. Make a note of the position of the revolution counter (small pointer). The indicator now reads zero for a measurement of 2.00 in. (50.8 mm).

4. Remove the No. 1 fuel injection pump. Be sure the top surface of the fuel injection pump housing is free of dirt and install the indicator assembly into the pump bore and measure timing dimension (A) as shown.

5. The correct timing dimension (ON engine) is in the chart that follows:

NOTE: If the timing dimension is not correct, check to see if timing pin will go in the slot of the fuel pump camshaft. If the timing pin will not fit, make reference to ADJUSTING VARIABLE TIMING UNIT DRIVE GEAR. If the timing pin does fit, make reference to SETTING FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION: OFF ENGINE.

Checking Timing By the Fuel Flow Method

1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group7M1999 Tube Assembly
8S4951 Cap3B7720 Pipe Coupling 3/8 × 1/82N1288 Elbow, adapter5P6524 Engine Timing Indicator Group
9S215 Indicator3P1565 Collet5P7265 Adapter3S3264 Rod5P7261 Contact Point, 1.25 in. (31.5 mm) long
5P7307 Engine Turning Tool

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove the fuel injection line between the camshaft base and the fuel injection valve nut and remove the nut and fuel injection valve from the precombustion chamber for No. 1 cylinder.

3. Install the 5P7265 Adapter in the precombustion chamber. Tighten the adapter finger tight only to prevent damage to the fuel injection valve seat. Put a small amount of oil on the 3S3264 Rod and put the rod in the adapter with the small end down.

4. Install the 3P1565 Collet on the adapter. Put the 5P7261 Contact Point on the 9S215 Indicator and put the indicator in the collet.


MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL
1. 3P1565 Collet. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator with 5P7261 Contact Point. 3. 5P7265 Adapter. 4. Precombustion chamber. 5. 2S3264 Rod. 6. Inlet port. 7. Piston. 8. Crankshaft.

5. Adjust the indicator to zero. Move the dial indicator in the collet until the mark between the red and black zeros in the window is in alignment with the mark on the face. Tighten the collet to hold the dial indicator in this position. Loosen bezel lock and turn the bezel until the zero on the face of the dial is in alignment with the hand. Tighten bezel lock.


DIAL INDICATOR INSTALLED

6. Turn the engine in a clockwise direction 40 to 50° to make sure all gear clearance (backlash) is removed.

7. Disconnect fuel line (9) at elbow (10). Put 9S4951 Cap on elbow (10). Install 3B7720 Pipe Coupling and 2N1288 Elbow on the end of the hose on the tank assembly. Connect elbow to fuel line (9). Connect the 7M1999 Tube Assembly to the fuel injection pump for No. 1 cylinder.


FUEL LINE TO ENGINE
9. Fuel line. 10. Elbow.

8. Fill fuel tank with 1 gallon (3.8 litres) of clean diesel fuel. Keep the pressure in the tank at 15 psi (105 kPa) by the use of the hand pump or shop air pressure.


NOTICE

If shop air is used, make an adjustment to the regulator so the air pressure in the tank is a maximum of 15 psi (105 kPa).


9. Move governor control lever to low idle position.


7M1999 TUBE ASSEMBLY INSTALLED

10. With fuel pressure to the fuel injection pump housing, slowly turn the crankshaft in a counterclockwise direction. When the fuel flow from the tube is 12 to 30 drops per minute stop turning the crankshaft. This is the point of inlet port closing.

11. Use the chart to change the indicator reading to timing angle. The timing must be within ± 1° of the specified timing angle.

Adjusting Variable Timing Unit Drive Gear

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group
9S8521 Rod9S8519 Plug
5P7307 Engine Turning Tool

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER (TC) COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Disconnect the governor control linkage rod from the governor lever.


MOVING SPEED LIMITER PLUNGER
1. 9S8521 Rod. 2. 9S8519 Plug.

3. Remove the speed limiter access plug. Loosely install 9S8519 Plug (2). Through the opening in the plug install 9S8521 Rod (1) and push in the speed limiter plunger. Tighten the plug to cause a clamp action on the rod. This will let the governor control lever move through its complete length of travel.

4. Remove timing pin (3) from storage hole (5) and install it in the timing hole (4). Move the governor control lever until the timing pin goes through the notch in the rack.

5. Remove the cover for the variable timing unit drive gear and loosen bolts (8) that hold the drive gear (6) to the variable timing unit.


TIMING PIN LOCATION
3. Timing pin. 4. Timing hole. 5. Storage hole.

6. Put a wrench in the plug with 1/2" square hole (7) in the end of the variable timing unit and turn it CLOCKWISE ONLY until the timing pin will engage with the camshaft timing groove.

7. With the drive gear bolts loose and the timing pin engaged in the camshaft timing groove, turn the crankshaft approximately 30 degrees CLOCKWISE beyond the flywheel timing bolt hole.


TIMING UNIT COVER REMOVED
6. Drive gear. 7. Plug with 1/2" square hole. 8. Bolt.

8. Tighten with the fingers of the drive gear bolts and turn the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE until the timing bolt will go into the flywheel.

9. Tighten the variable timing unit drive gear bolts to a first torque of 10 lb. ft. (14 N·m). Remove the flywheel timing bolt and the fuel pump camshaft timing pin. Tighten the drive gear bolts to a last torque of 75 ± 10 lb. ft. (100 ± 14 N·m).

10. Turn the crankshaft two revolutions COUNTERCLOCKWISE and install the timing bolt in the flywheel. If the flywheel timing bolt hole has gone beyond the timing hole in the flywheel housing, do not turn the crankshaft backwards, do Step 10 again.

11. Install the fuel pump camshaft timing pin. If the timing pin engages with the groove in the camshaft the timing is correct. Bend the locks against the bolts of the variable timing unit drive gear and install the cover. If the timing pin does not engage with the groove, the timing is not correct and Steps 5 thru 10 must be done again.

12. Remove timing bolt from the flywheel and install the cover on the flywheel housing. Remove the timing pin from the fuel injection pump housing and install it in the storage hole. Connect the governor control linkage.

Setting Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension: Off Engine

5P6600 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group
1P7410 Plate1P7415 Pointer5P6574 Shaft2S6160 WasherS1594 Bolt (3/8-16 NC 1 in. long)S509 Bolt (3/8-16 NC 3/8 in. long)
5P4165 Indicator Group
8S3168 Indicator3P1565 Collet Clamp5P4156 Base5P4162 Contact Point, 3.75 in. (95.3 mm) long5P4157 Gauge 4.00 in. (101.6 mm)5P4159 Gauge Stand


5P6600 TOOL GROUP
1. 1P7410 Plate. 2. 5P6574 Shaft. 3. 1P7415 Pointer. 4. S1594 Bolt. 5. 2S6160 Washer. 6. S509 Bolt.

1. Remove the fuel injection pumps from the fuel injection pump housing. Mark each fuel pump so it can be installed in the same location. Remove the fuel rack from the pump housing.

2. Remove the variable timing unit from the fuel pump housing and install shaft (2). The key on the large shoulder must engage the groove in the fuel pump camshaft. Install the key and plate (1) on the end of shaft (2). Install washer (5) and nut on shaft and tighten nut. When the nut is tightened, the large end of shaft (2) gets larger and makes the shaft become tight in the end of the fuel pump camshaft.

3. Put the pointer (3) on the fuel pump housing. The dowels in the pointer give correct location for the edge of the pointer.


TOOLS INSTALLED
1. 1P7410 Plate. 3. 1P7415 Pointer. 5. 2S6160 Washer.

4. Turn plate (1) clockwise to make an alignment of the degree setting for No. 1 lifter and the edge of pointer (3). Measure dimension (A) from the top of the fuel pump housing to the top of the spacer in the lifter assembly for No. 1 fuel pump. The off engine timing dimension is 3.0160 ± .0020 in. (76.606 ± 0.051 mm).


MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
A. Timing dimension 3.0160 ± .0020 in. (76.606 ± 0.051 mm). B. Lifter thickness.

5. If dimension (A) is not correct, new lifter assemblies must be installed. Make reference to the lifter chart for lifters that are available.


NOTICE

The spacers in the lifters are not to be removed. A wrongly installed spacer can cause engine failure if it becomes loose.


6. Make reference to the lifter setting chart and check the remainder of the lifters.

Governor Adjustments

Low and High Idle Adjustment

5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter5P2149 Engine Horsepower Meter Attachment Group
9N641 Adapter Group5P1758 Shaft Assembly9S3047 Tachometer Generator5P2159 Tachometer Cable


NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make adjustments to the low and high idle rpm. Damage to the engine can be the result of an incorrect governor adjustment.


A tachometer with good accuracy must be used to check engine rpm. The Digital Tachometer in the 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter can be used. Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7050 for instructions for the use of the 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter.

1. Install the 5P1758 Shaft Assembly, 9N641 Adapter Group, and 9S3047 Tachometer Generator on the front of the L.H. camshaft base. Connect the 5P2159 Tachometer Cable between the tachometer generator and the horsepower meter.

2. Remove the cover for the idle adjustment screws.

3. Start the engine and get it to the normal temperature of operation.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

4. To make an adjustment to the low idle rpm, turn low idle adjustment screw (2) clockwise to make a decrease in engine rpm. Turn the adjustment screw counterclockwise to increase engine rpm.

NOTE: Make reference to the RACK SETTING INFORMATION for the correct low and high idle rpm.

5. To make an adjustment to the high idle rpm, turn high idle adjustment screw (1) clockwise to make a decrease in engine rpm. Turn the adjustment screw counterclockwise to increase engine rpm.


GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS
1. High idle adjusting screw. 2. Low idle adjusting screw.

6. After each high or low idle adjustment is made, move the governor lever to change the engine rpm. Move the governor lever back to the point of first adjustment and check the idle adjustment. Do this until the idle rpm is correct.

7. Install the cover for the idle adjustment screws.

Fuel Rack Setting

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group
9S215 Dial Indicator3S3268 Contact Point, .25 in. (6.4 mm) long5S8157 Extension9S239 Adapter5S8088 Rod Assembly9S8519 Plug9S8521 Rod8S4627 Circuit Tester


RACK SETTING TOOL GROUP
1. 5S8088 Rod Assembly. 2. 5S8157 Extension. 3. 9S239 Adapter. 4. 8S4627 Circuit Tester. 5. 9S8521 Rod. 6. 9S215 Dial Indicator with 3S3268 Contact Point. 7. 9S8519 Plug.

1. Remove the air-fuel ratio control. Disconnect the governor control linkage rod from the governor lever.


MOVING SPEED LIMITER PLUNGER
5. 9S8521 Rod. 7. 9S8519 Plug.

2. Remove the speed limiter access plug. Loosely install plug (7). Through the opening in the plug, install rod (5) and push in the speed limiter plunger. Tighten the plug to cause a clamp action on the rod. This will let the governor control lever move through its complete length of travel.


TIMING PIN LOCATION
8. Timing pin. 9. Timing hole. 10. Storage hole. 11. Plug.

3. Remove timing pin (8) from storage hole (10) and install one of the bolts (head down) through one of the flange holes. Install a nut at the top to hold the bolt in place. The bolt head is a stop for the timing pin.

NOTE: Install a bolt in hole (A) to help remove the timing pin. Remove the bolt before the timing pin is used.

4. Put timing pin (8) in timing hole (9). Move the governor control lever until the timing pin goes through the notch in the rack. The pin is in place when the head of the bolt makes contact with the fuel pump housing.


TIMING PIN ASSEMBLY
A. Threaded hole.

5. Remove plug (11) from the cover on the side of the fuel pump housing.

6. Install extension (2) on adapter (3). Remove point from rod assembly (1) and install in extension and adapter from the bottom. Install the point on the rod. Install the assembly in the hole for plug (11).

7. Put contact point on dial indicator (6). Remove the dust cover from the top of the dial indicator and install the dial indicator in adapter (3).

8. Hold the governor control lever in the FUEL ON direction and adjust dial indicator (6) to zero. To adjust the dial indicator move it up or down in the adapter until the mark for the revolution counter is between the red zero and the black zero. Tighten the bolt on the adapter to hold the indicator in this position. Loosen the clamp for the dial face and turn the dial until the zero is in alignment with the large hand (pointer). Tighten the clamp for the dial face.


MOVING DIAL INDICATOR STEM

9. Remove the timing pin and install it in its storage location.

10. Connect the clip end of circuit tester (4) to the brass terminal on the governor housing. Put the other end of the tester to a good ground.

11. Move the governor control lever in the FUEL ON direction until the light in the tester comes on.

12. Hold the governor control lever in the FUEL ON direction and slowly push down the dial indicator stem until the light in the tester has a minimum light output (a dim light). In this position the adjustment screw in the stop collar is just making a contact with the torque spring.

13. Read the rack setting measurement on the dial indicator. Make reference to the RACK SETTING INFORMATION for the correct rack setting dimension.


ADJUSTING FUEL RACK
12. Locknut. 13. Adjustment screw.

14. To adjust the fuel rack setting, loosen locknut (12) for adjustment screw (13) and turn screw as needed. Tighten locknut and check the rack setting again.

15. After the adjustment procedure is done, tighten the adjustment screw locknut to 9 ± 3 lb. ft. (12 ± 4 N·m).

NOTE: The same tools that are used in this procedure are also used for the air-fuel ratio control adjustment.

Air-Fuel Ratio Control Adjustment

NOTE: The same tools are needed for the air-fuel ratio control adjustment that was used for the fuel rack setting. Make reference to the FUEL RACK SETTING for the tools needed and instructions to install the tools.


ADJUSTING AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL
1. Cover. 2. Valve.

1. The fuel rack setting must be correct before the air-fuel ratio control can be adjusted. Make reference to FUEL RACK SETTING.

2. Remove cover (1) from the air-fuel ratio control.

3. Start the engine.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

4. Push down on the end of valve (2) and hold it for two or three seconds. This action will manually move the valve into the position for operation.

5. Move the governor control lever from LOW IDLE to the FUEL ON direction several times to remove the air from the oil in the air-fuel ratio control for a more accurate measurement.

6. Rapidly move the governor control lever in the FUEL ON direction and read the measurement on the dial indicator. Read the dial indicator carefully because this measurement will be at a maximum for only a moment. Make reference to RACK SETTING INFORMATION for the correct measurement.

7. To make an adjustment to the air-fuel ratio control, turn valve (2) in a clockwise direction to increase the amount of fuel possible (more rack travel) at the limited rack position. Turn the valve counterclockwise to decrease the amount of fuel possible (less rack travel).

8. After each adjustment is made, the governor control lever must be moved rapidly from LOW IDLE to the FUEL ON direction before an accurate measurement can be made.

9. When the correct adjustment has been made, put cover (1) in alignment with the pin in valve (2) and turn the cover to put it in alignment with the nearest bolt holes. Install the bolts.

10. Stop the engine.

11. After the oil pressure has gone out of the air-fuel ratio control, full rack travel must be available.

12. Install the wire and seal on the control.

Fuel Ratio Control Setting (Engines equipped with 3S8429 Fuel Ratio Control)

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group

The fuel rack must be set correctly before setting the fuel ratio control. The same 8S4627 Circuit Tester set up can be used as for fuel rack setting. See the topic, FUEL RACK SETTING.

Install the fuel ratio control when the governor control lever is in the fuel off position. Then the governor control lever should be moved to the high idle position, with engine stopped, through the remainder of the setting procedure. Be sure the speed limiter is depressed.

1. Remove the override control mechanism and cover.

2. Turn the cover (1) clockwise until the circuit indicator light glows brightly.

3. Turn the cover counterclockwise slowly until the indicator light flickers. This should place the rack in fuel rack setting position. Mark a reference line on the cover and base for adjusting purposes.


SETTING FUEL RATIO CONTROL (Typical Example)
1. Cover. 2. Adjusting bolt.

NOTE: In this application, one revolution counterclockwise of the cover causes .090 in. (2.29 mm) restriction in movement of the rack. Six holes in the cover for the mounting bolts, allow for an additional adjustment of .015 in. (0.38 mm) between holes as related to rack movement in this application.

4. Turn the cover counterclockwise the number of turns plus any fraction for closer hole alignment, to arrive at the dimension closest to that given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

5. Install the cover, override mechanism and remove the rack setting tools.

NOTE: Before starting the engine, make certain the governor control lever will move the governor to the SHUTOFF position and that all parts operate freely.

With the above initial adjustment made, a further adjustment can be made while the engine is running (if necessary) to improve engine performance. To reduce exhaust smoke during acceleration, turn cover (1) out (less fuel) 1/2 turn at a time until satisfactory. When exhaust smoke is acceptable but acceleration is sluggish, turn cover (1) in (more fuel) 1/2 turn at a time until satisfactory.

NOTE: Some exhaust smoke is likely to appear at maximum acceleration.

If acceleration is sluggish and full engine power seems to be lost, inspect the air line to the cover and the cover gasket for air leaks. If no air leaks are apparent, inspect the diaphragm. A damaged diaphragm will not allow the fuel rack to open completely, acceleration will be sluggish and full engine power cannot be obtained.

Fuel Ratio Control Setting (Engines equipped with 8S6419 Fuel Ratio Control)

OVERRIDE CONTROL LEVER: Bench setting adjustment is made in the following manner:


OVERRIDE CONTROL LEVER ADJUSTMENT
1. Control lever. 2. Adjusting screw. 3. Locknut.

1. Place lever (1) in start position.

2. Loosen locknut (3) and turn adjusting screw (2) counterclockwise as far as necessary to cause the lever to snap to run position when bolt (4) is pulled against the large spring pressure. Approximately 40 lbs. (180 N) pull is required to move the bolt.

3. Tighten the locknut.


CHECKING OVERRIDE CONTROL LEVER ADJUSTMENT
4. Bolt in vise.

DIAPHRAGM: Bench test should be made with shop air pressure applied to the chamber above the diaphragm through port (5) in cover.

1. Application of 5 psi (35 kPa) to chamber (6) should start movement of bolt (4).


TESTING DIAPHRAGM
4. Bolt. 5. Port. 6. Chamber. A. Start position. B. Run position.

2. Application of 16.5 to 20.5 psi (114 to 144 kPa) pressure causes bolt (4) to be fully extended.
3. Pressure of 35 psi (240 kPa) applied in the chamber (6) and turned off should drop no more than 2 psi (14 kPa) in 10 seconds.

Balance Point (Full Load Speed) Adjustment

5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter5P2149 Engine Horsepower MeterAttachment Group
9N641 Adapter Group5P1758 Shaft Assembly9S3047 Tachometer Generator5P2159 Tachometer Cable
8S4627 Circuit Tester

The governor balance point is when the governor load stop just makes contact with the torque spring. The engine speed at the balance point is the FULL LOAD SPEED.


NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make an adjustment of the full load speed. Damage to the engine can result if the governor is not adjusted correctly.


A tachometer with good accuracy must be used to check engine rpm. The Digital Tachometer in the 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter can be used. Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7050 for instructions for the use of the 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter.

1. Install the 5P1758 Shaft Assembly, 9N641 Adapter Group, and 9S3047 Tachometer Generator on the front of the L.H. camshaft base. Connect the 5P2159 Tachometer Cable between the tachometer generator and the horsepower meter.

2. Remove the cover for the low and high idle screws.

3. Connect the clip end of the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to the brass terminal on the governor housing. Put the other end of the tester to a good ground.

4. Start the engine and get it to the normal temperature of operation.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

5. Put the engine at HIGH IDLE and make a record of the engine rpm.

6. Add a load to the engine slowly until the light in the tester just comes on (dim light). This is the balance point.

7. Make a record of the engine rpm at the balance point. This is the full load speed.

8. Do Step 6 several times to make sure of the rpm at the balance point.

9. Stop the engine. Make a comparison of the records from Steps 5 and 6 with the information from RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

10. If the full load speed is not correct, adjust the HIGH IDLE speed to make a change in the full load speed.

11. If the high idle speed is out of tolerance and the full load speed is correct, look for a weak governor spring or the wrong governor spring. Both the full load speed and the high idle speed must be in the tolerance given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction (negative pressure difference measurement between atmospheric air and air that has gone through air cleaner) of more than 30 in. (762 mm) of water.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust at outlet elbow and atmospheric air) must not be more than 27 in. (685 mm) of water.

Measurement Of Pressure In Inlet Manifold

The efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a comparison of the pressure in the inlet manifold with the information given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. This test is used when there is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Development of this information is done with these conditions:

a. 29.4 in. (747 mm) of mercury barometric pressure,
b. 85° F (29° C) outside air temperature
c. 35 API rated fuel.

Any change from these conditions can change the pressure in the inlet manifold. Outside air that has higher temperature and lower barometric pressure than given above will cause a lower horsepower and a lower inlet manifold pressure measurement than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Outside air that has a lower temperature and a higher barometric pressure will cause higher horsepower and a higher inlet manifold pressure measurement.

A difference in fuel rating will also change horsepower and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet manifold can be less than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be more than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. BE SURE THAT THE AIR INLET AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RESTRICTION WHEN MAKING A CHECK OF PRESSURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD.

Use the 4S6553 Instrument Group to check engine rpm and the pressure in the inlet manifold.


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. Differential pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. Pressure gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. Tachometer. 7. Manifold pressure gauge.

This instrument group has a tachometer to read engine rpm. It also has a gauge to read pressure in the inlet manifold. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7341 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP

Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7179 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

Turbocharger

Every 7200 hours or if any unusual sound or vibration in the turbocharger is noticed, a quick check of bearing condition can be made without disassembling the turbocharger. Remove the piping from the turbocharger and inspect the compressor impeller, turbine wheel and compressor cover. Rotate the compressor and turbine wheel assembly by hand and check for too much end play and radial clearance. The rotating assembly must rotate freely with no rubbing or binding. If there is any indication of the impeller rubbing the compressor cover or the turbine wheel rubbing the turbine housing, recondition the turbocharger or replace with a new or rebuilt one.

End clearance is best checked with a dial indicator. Install a dial indicator with the indicator point on the end of the shaft. Move the shaft from end to end making note of the total indicator reading.

End play for T18 Turbochargers is .004 to .009 in. (0.10 to 0.23 mm).


CHECKING TURBOCHARGER ROTATING ASSEMBLY END PLAY (Typical Example)

If end play is more than the maximum end play rebuild or replace the turbocharger. End play less than the minimum end play can indicate carbon build up on the turbine wheel. Disassemble for cleaning and inspection.

A more reliable check of bearing condition can be made only when the turbocharger is disassembled and the bearings, shaft journal and housing bore diameters can actually be measured.


CHECKING TURBOCHARGER RADIAL CLEARANCE (Typical Example)

Radial clearance can also be checked with a dial indicator. Remove the oil return line from the turbocharger. Install a dial indicator with an extension indicator point long enough to contact the shaft through the oil return hole. Make sure the contact point is centered on the shaft (highest indicator reading). Raise both ends of the shaft all the way then push down in the opposite direction. Total movement of the indicator must be between .004 in. (0.10 mm) and .009 in. (0.23 mm). If radial clearance is more than .009 in. (0.23 mm) or minimum clearance is less than .004 in. (0.10 mm), the turbocharger must be disassembled and the bearings checked.

NOTE: Care must be taken not to cock the shaft or a false reading will be obtained.

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure

Pistons or rings that have damage can be the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase. This condition will cause the engine to run rough. There will also be more than the normal amount of fumes coming from the crankcase breather. This crankcase pressure can also cause the element for the crankcase breather to have a restriction in a very short time. It can also be the cause of oil leakage at gaskets and seals that would not normally have leakage.

Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or have valves that need adjustment. Use the test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a cylinder that has low compression, or does not have good fuel combustion. Find the speed that the engine runs the roughest, and keep the engine at this rpm until the test is finished. Loosen a fuel line nut at fuel injection pump to stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so the cylinder will have to be checked thoroughly.

NOTE: The test that follows cannot be used with engines that have pistons with keystone rings.

A cylinder leakage test that uses air pressure in the cylinder can be used to indicate the condition of the piston rings, valves, and valve seats. Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. GMG00694 for a list of tools needed and the test procedure. Removal of the head and inspection of the valves and valve seats is necessary to find those small defects that do not normally cause a problem. Repair of these problems is normally done when reconditioning the engine.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head has valves, valve seat inserts, and valve guides that can be removed when they are worn or have damage. Replacement of these components can be made with the tools that follow.

Valves

Valve removal and installation is easier with use of the 5P1330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly and 5S1322 Valve Keeper Inserter.

Valve Seat Inserts

Tools needed to remove and install seat inserts are in the 9S3080 Valve Insert Puller Group. Special Instruction Form No. GMG02114 gives an explanation for this procedure. For easier installation, lower the temperature of the insert before it is installed in the head.

Valve Guides

Tools needed to install valve guides are the 5P1729 Driver Bushing and 7M3975 Driver. The counterbore in the driver bushing installs the guide to the correct height. Use a 1P7451 Valve Guide Honing Group to make a finished bore in the valve guide after installation of the guide in the head. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7526 gives an explanation for this procedure. Grind the valves after the new valve guides are installed.

Checking Valve Guide Bore

Use the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group to check the bore of the valve guides. Special Instruction Form No. GMG02562 gives complete and detailed instructions for use of the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group.

Valve Guides With Shoulders

Use the 7M3975 Driver to install the 2M6414, 9S9040, and 2N3293 Valve Guides. Put engine oil on the outside diameter of the valve guides before installing in the cylinder head.

The bore of the 2M6414 Valve Guides must be .3751 ± .0007 in. (9.528 ± 0.018 mm), the bore of the 9S9040 Valve Guides must be .3748 ± .0007 in. (9.520 ± 0.018 mm), and the bore of the 2N3293 Valve Guide must be .3727 ± .0005 in. (9.467 ± 0.013 mm) after they are installed in the cylinder head. If the bore in the valve guides is smaller than the dimension given after they are installed in the cylinder head, they must be honed. Use the 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement to hone the valve guides. Special Instruction SMHS7526 gives complete and detailed instructions for the use of the 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement.

Valve Guides That Do Not Have Shoulders

Use a 7M3975 Driver and a 5P1729 Bushing to install the 4N3666 Valve Guide. Put engine oil on the outside diameter of the valve guides before installing in the cylinder head.

The bore of the 4N3666 Valve Guide must be a minimum of .3727 in. (9.467 mm) after installation in the cylinder head. If the bore in the valve guide is smaller than .3727 in. (9.467 mm) after it is installed in the cylinder head, it must be honed to size. Use the 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement to hone the valve guide. Special Instruction SMHS7526 gives complete and detailed instructions for the use of 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement.

When honing a 4N3666 Valve Guide, hone to a size as close as possible to the minimum size of .3727 in. (9.467 mm) but do not hone to a size larger than .3736 in. (9.489 mm).

Timing The Camshafts To The Crankshaft (Cluster Gears Previously Timed To Crankshaft)

Installing Camshaft Housing Assembly to Cylinder Head

1. With the camshaft housing removed from the engine, align phasing gear timing marks (2) and install timing pin (1) in inlet camshaft bearing journal.

Timing pin (1) will drop into a slot in the inlet camshaft; and timing marks (2) will align, and the pointer (6) in the camshaft housing will align with the dash marks on gear; when the gears are phased correctly.


TIMING CAMSHAFT GEARS (Typical Example)
1. Timing pin. 2. Timing marks. 3. Inlet camshaft gear. 4. Dowel. 5. Exhaust camshaft gear.

2. Rotate engine crankshaft to position flywheel timing mark to TC 1 and 11 COMPRESSION position. Check to see if No. 1 cylinder is in COMPRESSION position. If it is not, rotate crankshaft additional 360°.

NOTE: Crankshaft is in No. 1 cylinder COMPRESSION position when (a) or (b) occurs:

(a) Timing pin can be inserted into the slot in the fuel injection pump camshaft. See topic ADJUSTING VARIABLE TIMING DRIVE GEAR.
(b) Camshaft housing on opposite bank of engine has not been disturbed and timing pin will drop into inlet camshaft bearing journal.

3. Install camshaft housing assembly on cylinder head being sure it is installed on the correct bank of the engine.


CAMSHAFT GEARS (Typical Example)
6. Pointer.

Valve Clearance Setting

NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) is checked, with a feeler gauge, adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the measurement is in the range given in the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED. If the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is necessary. See the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED, and make the setting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this chart.

To make an adjustment to the valve clearance, first turn the adjustment screw clockwise until no rocker arm movement can be felt. This is zero clearance. Do not turn the adjusting screw beyond this point, incorrect valve clearance setting will be the result. Then turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise to the correct number of detents (clicks) shown in the chart VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED. Valve clearance adjustments can be made by using the procedure that follows:

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER (TC) COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valves for cylinders 1, 3, 6, 7, 10, and 12. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 1, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12.

3. Turn the crankshaft 360° counterclockwise.

4. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valve for cylinders 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 11. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 2, 3, 7, 8, 10, and 11.


VALVE NUMBERING GUIDE
1. Intake valves. 2. Exhaust valves. 3. Front of engine.

Lubrication System

Engine lubrication system problems are usually indicated by one of these symptoms:

EXCESSIVE OIL CONSUMPTIONLOW OIL PRESSUREHIGH OIL PRESSUREUNUSUAL BEARING WEAR

Excessive Oil Consumption

External Leaks

Check crankshaft seals for leakage at both ends of the engine, look for leaks around the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil is being blown from the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gases leaking past pistons. Clogged crankcase breathers will contribute to high crankcase pressure and result in gasket and seal leaks.

Leaking turbocharger shaft seals (turbine end) will cause loss of oil through the exhaust gases. This condition, "slobbering," is evidenced by oil at the exhaust outlet.

Internal Leakage Into Upper Cylinders

Upper cylinder oil leakage can be the cause of blue smoke. There are several possible routes for oil leakage into upper cylinders.

Oil can leak past the ring seals at the impeller end of the turbocharger shafts.

Leakage between worn guides and valves is also possible.

Worn or damaged piston rings or plugged oil return holes can cause oil to enter the upper cylinder. Incorrectly installed compression rings will cause oil to pump into the cylinders.

Excess oil usage can also be the result of oil viscosity being too low for prevailing conditions. Low oil viscosity can be caused by crankcase dilution, incorrect selection of oil weights, or engine overheating.

Oil can enter the inlet air manifold if the air fuel ratio control diaphragm is leaking and a vacuum condition exists in the inlet manifold. Restricted air cleaners can cause this vacuum condition.

Oil can also leak into the cooling system if oil cooler core or gaskets are leaking. Check the radiator or heat exchanger for signs of oil.

Low Oil Pressure

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect may give an indication of low oil pressure.


5P6225 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX

An 8M2744 Gauge which is part of 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box can be used for checking pressure in the system.

Crankcase Lubricant Level

Oil level can be too low for oil pump suction bell pickup. Check oil level and be sure the engine installation angle is not too steep.

Pump Malfunctions

The oil pump inlet screen can be restricting the suction side of the pump which results in cavitation and loss of oil pressure. An air leak in the suction side of the pump will also cause cavitation and loss of pressure. An oil pump bypass valve that is stuck in the open (unseated) position will not allow system pressure to build to maximum pressures. The oil pump gears can be worn sufficiently to cause a reduction in pump output.

Oil Filter and Bypass Valve

If the oil filter is restricted and the filter bypass valve (end of filter housing) is stuck in the closed position, oil will relieve to the crankcase through the oil pump relief valve and pressure to the engine components will be inadequate. Install a new Caterpillar oil filter element, disassemble the bypass valve, clean the spring and plunger. Be sure the plunger moves freely before assembling.

Excessive Clearance in Engine Bearings or Open System

Worn components with extreme bearing clearances can cause engine oil pressure to be abnormally low. Any open, broken, or disconnected oil lines or passages will cause loss of oil pressure. Check gallery and crankshaft plugs to be sure they are in place.

Oil Cooler and Bypass Valve

Check the oil cooler oil passages for sludge. A clogged oil cooler with a stuck cooler bypass valve will be accompanied by high engine operating oil temperatures. Oil pressure will usually not lower due to sludge deposits alone. The cooler bypass valve must be stuck closed, or nearly so, to lower the oil pressure.

High Oil Pressure

This condition will occur when an oil pump bypass valve sticks in the closed position and the full pump volume is directed to the engine bearings.

Unusual Bearing Wear

Single components of the engine showing bearing wear at unusually frequent service intervals can be the result of clogged, restricted or broken oil passages. If the oil pressure gauge shows adequate pressure yet a component shows signs of oil starvation, check the branch supply line to that component.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

This procedure must be followed exactly for the pressure readings to be meaningful.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with SAE 30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the information in the Engine Oil Pressure Chart does not apply.

2. Find a location on the oil manifold to install a tee. The easiest method is to remove the sending unit for the present gauge and install a tee at this location. Install a probe from the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group in one side of the tee. Connect an 8M2744 Gauge from the 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box to the other side of the tee.

3. Run the engine to get the oil temperature at 200 ± 10° F (93 ± 6° C).

4. Maintain the constant oil temperature with the engine at the rated rpm from the chart and read the pressure gauge.

If the results do not fall within the pressure range given in the chart, find the cause and correct it. Continued operation of engine with oil manifold pressure outside this range may result in engine failure or reduction in engine life.

NOTE: Each oil pump may have different spring and washer combinations, and there are three different oil pumps. Make reference to SPECIFICATIONS to find the correct spring and washer combination to get the desired pressure for a specific oil pump.

Cooling System

The engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can operate safely at a temperature that is higher than the normal point where water changes to steam. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (air in inlet of pump) in the water pump. With this type system it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to form in the cooling system.

The cause for an engine getting too hot is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not done. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before testing with testing equipment.

Visual Inspection Of The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing surface for the cap. The sealing surface must be clean.

8. Look for large amounts of dirt in the radiator core and on the engine.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and the height above sea level on the boiling point (steam) of water.

Checking Coolant Temperatures

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

The 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine running too hot) or overcooling (engine running too cool) problems. This group can be used to check the different parts of the cooling system. The complete testing procedure is in Special Instruction SMHS7140.


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

Checking Radiator Air Flow

9S7373 Air Meter Group.

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. Overheating can be caused by installing the wrong fan guard, low fan speed, or a restriction in the radiator core (clogging). The meter will give aid in finding a restriction in the core. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction SMHS7063.


9S7373 AIR METER GROUP

------ WARNING! ------

Make all checks at engine LOW IDLE and on the side of the radiator opposite the fan. Wear eye protection.

--------WARNING!------

Checking Fan Speed

1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.

If the radiator core does not have a restriction, check the fan speed with the 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group. The complete testing procedure is in Special Instruction SMHS7015.


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

Pressure Cap

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a bad seal on the pressure cap of the system. Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or the sealing surface. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, seal or sealing surface must be removed.


SCHEMATIC OF PRESSURE CAP
A. Sealing surface of cap and radiator.

To check the pressure cap for the pressure that makes the pressure cap open, use the following procedure:

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

------ WARNING! ------

Always stop the engine to inspect the cooling system. Loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system, then remove the pressure cap. Hot coolant and steam can cause personal injury. Let coolant become cool before it is drained.

--------WARNING!------

2. Put the pressure cap on the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

3. Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that makes the pressure cap open.

4. Make a comparison of the reading on the gauge with the correct pressure at which the pressure cap must open.

NOTE: The correct pressure that makes the pressure cap open is on the pressure cap and is also in the SPECIFICATIONS.

5. If the pressure cap is bad, install a new pressure cap.

Testing Radiator and Cooling System for Leaks

To test the radiator and cooling system for leaks, use the procedure that follows:

------ WARNING! ------

Always stop the engine to inspect the cooling system. Loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system, then remove the pressure cap. Hot coolant and steam can cause personal injury. Let coolant become cool before it is drained.

--------WARNING!------

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

2. Make sure the coolant is over the top of the radiator core.

3. Put the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group on the radiator.

4. Get the pressure reading on the gauge to 3 psi (20 kPa) more than the pressure on the pressure cap.

5. Check the radiator for outside leakage.

6. Check all connections and hoses of the cooling system for outside leakage.

7. If you do not see any outside leakage and the pressure reading on the gauge is still the same after 5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system does not have leakage. If the reading on the gauge goes down and you do not see any outside leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the cooling system. Make repairs as necessary.

Gauge for Water Temperature

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. or2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.


THERMOMETER INSTALLED (Typical Illustration)

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system could be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage. If a place can not be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the gauge for water temperature. Use the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group or the 2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.

Start the engine and run it until the temperature reaches the desired range according to the test thermometer. If necessary, put a cover over part of the radiator or cause a restriction of the coolant flow. The reading on the gauge for water temperature should agree with test thermometer within the tolerance range in the chart.

Water Temperature Regulators

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is correct for opening the regulator according to the chart. Move the water around in the pan to make it all be the same temperature.

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for 10 minutes.

5. Remove the regulator from the water. Immediately make a measurement of the distance the regulator is open.

6. If the regulator is open to a distance less than given in the chart, install a new regulator.

Water Temperature Contactor

8S4627 Circuit Tester.9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group,2F7112 or 7F6785 Thermometer.

On Engine Test

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when working around an engine that is running. Be careful when working on the cooling system. It can have hot coolant under pressure.

--------WARNING!------

1. Install the thermometer or probe in the nearest location to the position of the water temperature contactor. Make reference to Special Instruction Form SMHS7140 for the procedure for using the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. Remove the wiring from the water temperature contactor. Connect the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to "NO" and "C" terminals.

NOTE: If the engine cooling system can not be changed to let the coolant get hot enough for testing with safety, remove the water temperature contactor. Check it according to the topic, Off Engine Test.

2. Cause a partial restriction to the air flow through the radiator or to the coolant flow through the engine. This must be enough to cause the temperature of the coolant in the engine to get to the temperature which makes the water temperature contactor activate.


NOTICE

Do not let the coolant level in the engine get too low. The water temperature contactor must be in contact with the coolant in the engine for it to operate correctly.


3. Start the engine. Look at the temperature of the coolant as measured by the test tools. The water temperature contactor must activate in the temperature range as shown in the specifications and on the water temperature contactor. The 8S4627 Circuit Tester operates when the water temperature contactor activates.

NOTE: The water temperature contactor does not activate immediately. Start to measure the time when the engine coolant temperature is at the maximum for the water temperature contactor according to specifications. The water temperature contactor must activate in less than one minute.


NOTICE

Do not let the engine coolant temperature get higher than 3° F (2° C) more than the maximum temperature for the water temperature contactor.


4. Let the engine cool and stop the engine. The water temperature contactor must return to its normal contact position according to specification.

5. If the water temperature contactor did not work correctly, install a new contactor. Check its operation according to the same procedure.

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when removing the probe from the adapter. The seal in the adapter does not work immediately and serious injury is possible from the hot coolant coming out of the adapter under pressure.

--------WARNING!------

Off Engine Test

1. Put the small end of the water temperature contactor in a container of water. The small end of the water temperature contactor must be in the water up to the first thread. The thermometer or probe must be approximately 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) from the small end. Connect the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to the "NO" and "C" terminals.


WATER TEMPERATURE CONTACTOR

2. Heat the water to the operating range for the water temperature contactor. The range is on the water temperature contactor and in specifications. The water in the container must be moving against the small end of the water temperature contactor at the rate of 1 ft/sec. (30.5 cm/sec.).

3. Keep the water at the maximum temperature from the specifications. The water temperature contactor must activate in less than one minute. The 8S4627 Circuit Tester operates when the water temperature contactor activates.

NOTE: It is sometimes necessary to use a different liquid. Under these conditions remember that each liquid has a different characteristic for heat transfer (giving or taking heat). The time period for activating from oil is much longer than for water.

Basic Block

Cylinder Liner Projection

1P2396 Adapter Plate.8B7548 Push-Puller Crossbar and three 3H465 Plates.3/4"-10 NC Bolts, 3 in. (76.2 mm) long.3/4"-10 NC Bolts, 7 in. (177.8 mm) long.2F126 Seals.8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement.1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group.

Check liner projection above spacer plate (4) as follows:

1. Make certain that spacer plate (4) and the cylinder liner flange are clean.

2. Install the gasket and spacer plate (4) on the cylinder block. Use 3/4 in.-10 NC bolts, 3 in. (76.2 mm) long, with two 2F126 Seals (3) on each bolt to secure spacer plate (4) to the cylinder block. Place two bolts with washers on each side of the cylinder liner. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 10 lb. ft. (14 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m), 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m) and finally to 70 lb. ft. (95 N·m).


SECURING SPACER PLATE TO CYLINDER BLOCK (Typical Example)
1. 3H465 Plate. 2. 1P2396 Adapter plate. 3. 2F126 Seals. 4. Spacer plate.

NOTE: To avoid moving bolts and seals as each liner is checked, install two bolts with seals on each side of each cylinder liner, along the entire length of the spacer plate.

3. Invert 3H465 Plate (1) from an 8B7548 Push Puller, in the center of adapter plate (2). Center crossbar (6) on the inverted 3H465 Plate. Using two 3/4 in.-10 NC bolts 7 in. (177.8 mm) long and two 3H465 Plates, secure the crossbar to the cylinder block as illustrated. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 5 lb. ft. (7 N·m), 15 lb. ft. (20 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m) and finally to 50 lb.ft. (70 N·m). Distance from bottom edge of crossbar to top plate, must be the same on both sides of cylinder liner.

4. Zero the dial indicator using the back of 1P5507 Gauge with dial indicator (5) mounted in 1P2402 Block (7).

5. Measure liner projection as close as possible to the clamping area and at four locations around the liner. The liner projection must be .0048 ± .0028 in. (0.122 ± 0.071 mm) and the four measurements should not vary more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The average projection between adjacent cylinders must not vary more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The average projection must not vary more than .004 in. (0.10 mm) for all cylinder liners under one cylinder head.


MEASURING LINER HEIGHT PROJECTION (Typical Example)
5. Dial indicator. 6. Crossbar. 7. 1P2402 Block.

NOTE: If liner projection varies from point to point around the liner, rotate the liner to a new position within the bore. If still not within specified limits, move liner to a different bore.

NOTE: Measure and check the following dimensions when installing new parts. With all dimensions correct, proceed with the listed Steps.

a. Spacer plate thickness, .5142 ± .0010 in. (13.061 ± 0.025 mm).
b. Spacer plate gasket thickness, .008 ± .001 in. (0.20 ± 0.03 mm). (All surfaces must be clean and dry when installing gasket.)
c. Cylinder liner flange thickness, .5260 ± .0008 in. (13.360 ± 0.020 mm).

Liner projection can be adjusted by machining the contact face of the cylinder block with use of the 8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement. Form FM055228 is part of the cylinder block counterboring tool arrangement and gives tool arrangement and gives tool usage information.

The counterboring depth ranges from a minimum of .030 in. (0.76 mm) to a maximum of .045 in. (1.14 mm). Put a .030 in. (0.76 mm) shim directly beneath the liner flange and coat the top and bottom of the shim with 7M7260 Liquid Gasket. If more than one shim is installed put the other shims under the .030 in. (0.76 mm) shim and coat only top face of the top shim and the bottom face of the bottom shim with the 7M7260 Liquid Gasket.

Shims of various thicknesses also are available to adjust liner projection.

Piston Ring Groove Gauge

Make reference to GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS: PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001, for instructions for the use of the piston ring groove gauges.

(Pistons With Straight Sides in Ring Grooves)

A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available to check ring grooves with straight sides.


5P3519 PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

(Pistons That Use Keystone Rings)

The 5P4812 Keystone Piston Ring Gauge Group is necessary for measuring these grooves. Put the pin end of gauge "1" in the groove at four places around the circumference. Do this to both grooves. The flat edge of the gauge must be between the grooves. If there is clearance between the flat edge of the gauge and the piston at all test locations, for both grooves, the piston is reusable. If the flat edge is in contact with the piston, at any of the test locations, the piston is not reusable. Install a new piston.


5P4812 KEYSTONE PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE GROUP


NOTICE

Do not install pistons with KEYSTONE rings into cylinder liners that have been used with earlier pistons unless you remove the wear ridge that is toward the top of the cylinder liner. If the wear ridge is not removed, the result can be immediate damage to the top ring or the piston at the time the engine is started.


Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use 7M3978 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use 5P3526 Piston Ring compressor to install pistons in the cylinder liner.

Tighten connecting rod bolts in the following Step sequence.

1. Put 5P3931 Anti-Seize Compound on bolt threads and bolt head seats.

2. First tighten to 90 ± 5 lb. ft. (120 ± 7 N·m).

3. Put a mark on cap and head of bolt.

4. Tighten additional (from mark) 120°.

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Bearings are available with a smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than the original size). Main bearings are available with a larger outside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger than the original size). Connecting rod bearings are available for connecting rods which have been "bored."

NOTE: The rods are marked "Even Cyl Only..." or "Odd Cyl Only...". The rods must be installed in the correct bank and the part numbers on the rods must be toward the flywheel.

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

8S2328 Dial Indicator Group

Flywheel Ring Gear

Heat the ring gear to a maximum of 600°F (316°C) to install. Install the ring gear so the chamfer on the gear teeth is next to the starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearances must be removed to get correct measurements.

Make tool setup from parts of the 8S2328 Dial Test Indicator Group.

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the indicator anvil will touch the flywheel housing face.

2. Push the crankshaft to the rear to remove all end play before reading the indicator at each point.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL HOUSING FACE RUNOUT
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

3. With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at point (A), rotate crankshaft and take readings at points (B), (C) and (D).

4. The difference between the lowest and highest readings taken at all four points should not exceed .012 in. (0.30 mm), which is the maximum permissible flywheel housing face runout.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This notation is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

1. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft shaft up against the top bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

2. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).

3. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

4. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Add lines I & II by columns.

8. Subtract the small number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

10. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable", the flywheel housing must be changed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Move the flywheel to the front or rear to remove all end play.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°. Be sure to remove end play the same way each time.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment.

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH PILOT BEARING BORE

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed .005 in. (0.13 mm).

Electrical System

Most of the tests of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections must be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully charged. If the on-engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

Battery

5P300 Electrical Tester.9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger-Tester.5P957 or 5P3414 Coolant and Battery Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7006, and to the instructions inside the cover of the tester, when the 5P300 Electrical Tester is used.

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit will result if the connections (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is in operation. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage will damage, not only the charging unit, but also the regulator and other electrical components.

------ WARNING! ------

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to personnel can be the result.

--------WARNING!------


9S1990 BATTERY CHARGER-TESTER

Load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. To do this, put a resistance across the main connections (terminals) of the battery. For a 6, 8 or 12 V battery, put a test load of three times the ampere/hour rating (the maximum test load on any battery is 500 amperes). Let the test load remove the charge (discharge) of the battery for 15 seconds and immediately test the battery voltage. A 6 V battery in good condition will show 4.5 V; an 8 V battery will show 6 V; a 12 V battery will show 9 V. Each cell of a battery in good condition must show 1.6 V on either a 6, 8 or 12 V battery.

Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS6891 when checking the battery with the 9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger-Testers.

Charging System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7006, and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with a 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system operates correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is constantly in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (more than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 50 service hours).

Make a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator on the engine, when possible, using wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off-engine (bench) testing will give a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. After repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that the units are repaired to their original condition of operation.

Before the start of on-engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked as shown in the Steps that follow:

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.240 Sp. Gr.) fully charged and held tightly in place. The battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give correct circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and have the ability to operate the charging unit.

Alternator Regulator Adjustment

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to the charging rate of the alternator.

Earlier Delco-Remy 24V 50A (5S9088 Alternator)

Remove the plug from the cover of the alternator regulator and turn the inside adjustment with a screwdriver. Turn the adjustment one or two notches to change the alternator charging rate.

Later Delco-Remy 24V 50A (5S9088 Alternator)

The later 5S9088 Alternator has a different location for the voltage adjustment screw than the early 5S9088 Alternator. The voltage adjustment screw for the later 5S9088 Alternator is located under the end plate.

To adjust the voltage setting use the procedure that follows:

1. Remove end plate (2) and cover (3) from the alternator.


5S9088 ALTERNATOR
1. Adjustment screw under plug (earlier regulator). 2. End plate.

2. Remove the rubber sealant from the adjustment screw (4).

3. Use a voltmeter to measure alternator voltage output.

4. Turn adjustment screw (4) counterclockwise to lower the voltage setting. Turn adjustment screw (4) clockwise to raise the voltage setting.

5. Put 3S6252 Rubber Sealant on adjustment screw (4) and install cover (3) and end plate (2).


LOCATION OF COVER
3. Cover.


NOTICE

Make certain that field wire (5) is not located over transistor pins (6). The pins can make a hole in the insulation of the wire.



ALTERNATOR REGULATOR
4. Voltage adjustment screw. 5. Field wire. 6. Transistor pins.

Delco-Remy 24V 60A (4N3986 Alternator) Delco-Remy 32V 60A (4N3987 Alternator)


ALTERNATOR REGULATOR ADJUSTMENT
1. Voltage adjustment cap.

To make an adjustment to the voltage output on these alternators, remove the voltage adjustment cap (1) from the alternator, turn the cap 90°, and install it again into the alternator. The voltage adjustment cap has four positions: HI, LO, and two positions between the high and the low setting.

Alternator Regulator

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to the charging rate of the alternator. Remove the hollow head screw (1) from the cover of the alternator regulator and use a screwdriver to turn the adjustment screw. Turn the adjustment screw one or two notches to increase or decrease the charging rate of the alternator.


LOCATION OF ADJUSTMENT SCREW FOR THE 6L5397 and 6L3432 ALTERNATOR REGULATORS
1. Hollow head screw. 2. Connector.

Delco-Remy Alternator; Pulley Nut Tightening

Tighten nut holding the pulley to a torque of 75 ± 5 lb. ft. (100 ± 7 N·m) with the tools shown.


ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION
1. 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). 2. 8S1590 Socket (5/16"-3/8" drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group. 8H8555 Socket (15/16"-1/2" drive) not shown.

Starting System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7006 and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

Move the starting control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.

If the solenoid for the starter motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery is not getting to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a broken circuit from the battery. Further testing is necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter.

The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance. Pinion clearance is .36 in. (9.1 mm).

Further test by fastening one voltmeter lead to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the magnetic switch, heat-start switch, or wiring.

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the magnetic switch for the starter. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a broken circuit from the battery.

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the connection (terminal) for the line from the heat-start switch. Fasten the other lead to a good ground.

Activate the magnetic switch. A voltmeter reading indicates the malfunction is in the magnetic switch. No voltmeter reading indicates a need for further testing.

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the heat-start switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading indicates a broken circuit from the battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and wiring. If there is voltmeter reading, the malfunction is in the Heat-Start switch or in the wiring.

Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the battery wire connection of the starter switch and put the other lead to a good ground. A voltmeter reading indicates a failure in the switch.

A starter motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starter motor can also be caused by shorts, loose connections, and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

Whenever the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starter motor removed.


CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.

1. Install the solenoid without connector (1) from the MOTOR connection (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.

3. Connect the other side of battery to ground terminal (3).

4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked MOTOR to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.

5. Push the pinion toward commutator end to remove free movement.


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be .36 in. (9.1 mm).

7. Pinion clearance adjustment is made by removing plug and turning nut (4).

Tachometer Adjustment

The 3N7288 Electric Tachometer can be adjusted as follows:

1. Install a 5L8164 Dual Drive Adapter on the engine, and connect the sending unit of the tachometer to one output of the dual drive adapter.

2. Connect the sending unit of another tachometer, that is known to read correctly, to the other output of the dual drive.

3. Start the engine and check accuracy of the original tachometer with the reading of the tachometer that is known to be correct.


TYPE 1
1. Adjustment screw. 2. Cover.

NOTE: There have been three different types of adjusting screws used on the 3N7288 Tachometer. The three different types are shown.

4. Turn the adjusting screw on the back of the original tachometer until the readings are the same. The tachometer can be adjusted 7.5% of full scale in either direction. Clockwise (CW) rotation will give a reduction in the rpm reading. Counterclockwise (CCW) rotation will give an increase in the rpm reading.


TYPE 2
1. Adjustment screw.


TYPE 3
2. Cover (over adjustment screw).

NOTE: If the 5L8164 Dual Drive Adapter can be installed on the engine, it is possible to use the 1P5500 Phototach Group to check rpm.

Air Starting System

Pressure Regulating Valve


PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE (TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION)
1. Adjustment screw. 2. Regulator inlet. 3. Regulator outlet.

Use the following procedure to check and adjust the pressure regulating valve.

1. Drain the line to the pressure regulating valve or drain the air storage tank.

2. Disconnect the regulator from the starter control valve.

3. Connect an 8M2885 Pressure Gauge to the regulator outlet.

4. Put air pressure in the line or tank.

5. Check the pressure.

6. Adjust the pressure regulating valve according to Chart For Air Pressure Setting.

7. Remove the air pressure from the line or tank.

8. Remove the 8M2885 Pressure Gauge and connect the air pressure regulator to the line to the air starting motor.

Each engine application will have to be inspected to get the most acceptable starting results. Some of the factors that affect regulating valve pressure setting are: attachment loads pulled by engine during starting, ambient temperature conditions, oil viscosity, capacity of air reservoir, and condition of engine (new or worn).

The advantage of setting the valve at the higher pressures is increased torque for starting motor and faster rotation of engine. The advantage of setting the valve at the lower pressures is longer time of engine rotation for a given reservoir capacity of supply air.

Lubrication

Always use an air line lubricator with these Starters.

For temperatures above 32°F (0°C), use a good quality SAE 10 motor oil.

For temperatures below 32°F (0°C), use diesel fuel.

To maintain the efficiency of the starting motor, flush it at regular intervals. Pour approximately 1 pt. (0.5 liter) of diesel fuel into the air inlet of the starting motor and operate the motor. This will remove the dirt, water and oil mixture (gummy coating) from the vanes of the motor.

Air Starting Motor (Ingersoll-Rand)

Disassembly

Before disassembling an SM450 Starter, always mark adjacent parts on the motor housing cover (1), motor housing (7), gear case (52), gear case cover (30) and drive housing (48) so that these members can be located in the same relative position when the starter is reassembled.

Do not disassemble the starter any further than necessary to replace a worn or damaged part. Do not remove any part which is a press fit in or on a subassembly unless the removal of that part is necessary for replacement or repairs. Do not press any needle bearing or bushing from a bearing recess unless a new bearing or bushing is to be installed. These members are always damaged during the removal process.

Always have a complete set of gaskets, vanes, seals and O-rings on hand before starting any overhaul of an SM450 Starter. Never reuse old gaskets, seals or O-rings.

Never wash a bendix drive in kerosene or other solvent. Doing so will remove or dilute the factory applied lubricant within the drive clutch.


AIR STARTER
1. Motor Housing Cover Assembly. 2. Housing Cover Plug. 3. 1/8" Pipe Plug. 4. Housing Cover Gasket. 5. Housing Cover Cap Screws (eight). 6. 3/8" Lock Washers (sixteen). 7. Motor Housing. 8. Cylinder Assembly. 9. Air Port Gaskets (four). 10. Spring (one for each Gasket). 11. Cylinder End Plates (two). 12. Cylinder Dowel. 13. Rotor Assembly. 14. Rotor Bearing Spacers (two). 15. Rotor Bearing Locknut. 16. Locknut Retaining Washer. 17. Pinion Retainer. 18. Pinion Retainer Screws (two). 19. Retaining Screw Lockwashers (two). 20. Lock Wire. 21. Rotor Bearings (two) Special; purchase from Ingersoll-Rand). 22. Vane Packet (Set of five). 23. Rear Rotor Bearing Spring Washer. 24. Rotor Pinion. 25. Drive Shaft Thrust Washer. 26. Drive Gear. 27. Drive Gear Key. 28. Drive Shaft. 29. Drive Shaft Front Bearing. 30. Gear Case Cover Assembly. 31. Gear Case Cover Seal. 32. Piston Seal. 33. Gear Case Cover Screws (eighteen). 34. Gear Case Screw Lockwashers (eighteen). 35. Drive Shaft Grease Seal. 36. Gear Case Bolts (six). 37. Gear Case Bolt Nuts (six). 38. Gear Case Cap Screws (two). 39. Drive Housing Cap Screws (fourteen). 40. Cap Screw Lockwashers (fourteen). 41. Piston Assembly. 42. Piston Ring. 43. Shift Ring (consists of two halves). 44. Shift Ring Retainer. 45. Shift Ring Spacer. 46. Piston Return Spring. 47. Return Spring Seat. 48. Drive Housing Assembly. 49. Drive Housing Bushing. 50. Bushing Oiler. 51. Bendix Starter Drive (pinion). 52. Gear Case Assembly. 53. Drive Shaft Rear Bearing. 54. 1/8" Pipe Plugs (two). 55. Drive Shaft Grease Seal Retainer. 56. Nameplate. 57. Nameplate Screws (three).

Motor Assembly

Assemble the Multi-Vane motor as follows:

1. Clean the tapered hub on the rotor (13) and the tapered socket in the rotor pinion (24). Apply a small quantity of fine grain lapping compound to both tapered surfaces and lap them together. Wash both parts in clean kerosene or other solvent to remove all trace of compound.

2. Slide rotor bearing spacer (14), chamfered end first, onto each rotor hub.

3. Press rotor bearing (21), shielded side first, into the bearing recess in each cylinder end plate (11). Use an arbor that will contact only the outer ring of the bearing.

4. Using a sleeve that will contact only the inner ring of the bearing, press one end plate and bearing assembly onto the long hub of the rotor until it contacts the rotor spacer.

5. Make certain the tapered hub on the rotor and the tapered socket in the rotor pinion are clean and dry. Align the lugs on the pinion with the tang on the rotor hub and slide the pinion onto the hub.

6. Install the pinion retainer (17), engaging the cross slot in the retainer with the tang and lugs on the rotor and pinion. Strike the retainer a sharp blow with a light hammer to seat the pinion on the hub.

7. Install the two pinion retainer screws (18). Tighten the screws evenly in small increases of torque until all the screws are tightened to 100 lb. in. (11.3 N·m). Strike the retainer another blow and retighten the screws to 100 lb. in. (11.3 N·m). Pass the lock wire through the head of each screw and twist the ends together.

8. Grasp the pinion in copper-covered vise jaws so that the rotor is in a vertical position.

9. Insert a vane (22) into each of the vane slots.

10. Check the model number stamped on the nameplate. If the letter "R" appears in the model number, place the cylinder over the rotor so that when facing the four large air ports in the side of the cylinder, the cylinder dowel hole is to the right of the large air ports. If the letter "L" appears in the model number, place the cylinder over the rotor so that the cylinder dowel hole is to the left of the large air ports in the side of the cylinder.

11. Press the other end plate and bearing assembly onto the short hub of the rotor. Install the rotor bearing locknut (15) and locknut retaining washer (16).

12. Before installing the Multi-Vane motor in motor housing (7), make certain the four air port gaskets (9) and gasket retaining springs (10) are in good condition and are in position in the air ports in the side of the cylinder.

13. Install the Multi-Vane motor in motor housing (7). Be sure that the air ports in the cylinder and in the motor housing are in alignment. Also be sure that the dowel hole in the cylinder is in alignment with the dowel hole in the bottom of the housing bore.

14. Tighten the bolts (5) that hold motor housing cover assembly (1) to 20 to 25 lb. ft. (25 to 35 N·m).

Check the motor for correct operation. Connect an air hose to the motor inlet and make the motor turn slowly. Look at the drive pinion (51) from the front of the drive housing. Make sure that the direction of rotation is correct for the engine.

Connect an air hose to the small hole with threads in the drive housing (48) nearer the gear case (52). When a little air pressure goes to the drive housing, the drive pinion (51) must move forward to the engaged position. Also, the air must get out through the other hole with threads nearer the mounting flange.

Air Starting Motor (Switzer)

Place shims (3) between the ball bearing (1) and spacer or shoulder so there will be clearance between the rotor (4) and the end plate (2). Tighten the nut and check the adjustment. Measure clearance between rotor and end plate assembly by using a thickness gauge. Rotor clearance should be .003 in. (0.08 mm) on 3H3171 and 3H3170 motors at end opposite the gear.

If end plate to rotor clearance is not correct, the thickness gauge reading is used to determine how many shims (3) should be removed or added to obtain correct clearance.


ROTOR ASSEMBLY END CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
1. Bearing. 2. End plate. 3. Shims. 4. Rotor.

Hydraulic Starting System

Hydraulic Starting System

------ WARNING! ------

Do not disconnect lines or remove plugs from the system until the oil pressure has been released. The system can have 3000 psi (20 700 kPa) pressure. After all the system pressure is released, the accumulator still can have 1625 psi (11 200 kPa) pressure.

--------WARNING!------

Do not work on the accumulator, unless you have the correct service tools and service information. Service or service information is available from the manufacturer.

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