3208 TRUCK ENGINE Caterpillar


Testing And Adjusting

Usage:



Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by one or more of the reasons that follow:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.

b. An overload at high altitude.

c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber.

d. Not enough compression.

Fuel System Inspection

A problem with the components that send fuel to the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease engine performance.

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad bend.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the fuel screen located in the inlet valve of the fuel transfer pump.

4. Remove any air that may be in the fuel system. Open the drain valve on the fuel injection pump housing. Operate the fuel priming pump until fuel without air comes from the drain lines. Close the drain valve.

To remove air from the fuel injection lines, loosen the fuel line nuts 1/2 turn. Move the governor lever to the low idle position. Crank engine with the starter motor until fuel without air comes from the fuel line connections. Tighten the fuel line nuts.

Check Engine Cylinders Separately

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that runs rough (misfires) and causes black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine performance, test the injection pump and fuel injection nozzle for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an indication of the condition of a fuel injection nozzle. Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication of a nozzle with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by a nozzle with a defect.

The most common defects found with the fuel injection valves are:

1. Carbon on tip of the nozzle or in the nozzle orifice.
2. Orifice wear.


NOTICE

Do not test or disassemble nozzles unless you have the correct service tools.


Testing 7000 Series Fuel Injection Nozzles

*5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group.5P4244 Adapter.8S2270 Fuel Collector.FT1384 Extension.8S2245 Cleaning Tool Group.
8S2258 Brass Wire Brush.6V4979 Carbon Seal Installation Tool.
1F1153 Needle Nose Pliers.5P4721 Tube Assembly.7/64" Hex Wrench.


*Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7292.


5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP
1. Nozzle Assembly. A. 5P4244 Adapter. B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). C. 5P4271 Tube Assembly. D. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa). E. Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge. F. FT1384 Extension. G. Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge. H. On-off valve. J. 8S2270 Fuel Collector. K. Pump isolator valve.


EXTRA VALVE
L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all times).


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration Fluid when tests are made. Dirty test fluid will damage components of fuel injection nozzles. The temperature of the test fluid must be 65 to 75°F (18 to 24°C) for good test results.


Order calibration fluid by part number, in the quantities needed, according to the information that follows:

6V6068 Calibration Fluid, 5 U.S. gal. (18.9 liter).6V6067 Calibration Fluid, 55 U.S. gal. (208.2 liter).

The Fuel Injection Nozzle can not be disassembled for cleaning or adjustment. Do the tests that follow to determine if the nozzle performance is acceptable.

I. Valve Opening Pressure Test.
II. Flush the Nozzle.
III. Tip Leakage Test.
IV. Orifice Restriction Test.
V. Bleedscrew Leakage Test.

Nozzle Preparation for Test

Before fuel injection nozzle (1) can be tested, all loose carbon around the tip of the nozzle must be removed with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M).


REMOVING CARBON DAM
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 2. Carbon dam. 3. Seal. Remove carbon dam (2) with needle nose pliers and remove seal (3) from the nozzle.


NOTICE

Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the nozzle body or the nozzle tip. Use of these tools can cause a small reduction of orifice size, and this will cause a large reduction in engine horsepower. Too much use of the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush will also remove the coating that is on the nozzle for protection.



8S2245 CLEANING KIT
M. 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush. N. 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool. P. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.

Clean the groove for carbon seal dam (2) and the body of the nozzle below the groove with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M). Remove the carbon, but be sure not to use the brush enough to cause damage to the body of the nozzle.

NOTE: A change in color in the area below the groove is normal and does not effect the body of the nozzle.


FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
4. Bleed screw and seal.

Remove bleed screw and seal (4) from the nozzle.

NOTE: The bleed screw and seal must be removed for all tests except test V; Bleed Screw Leakage Test.

I. Valve Opening Pressure Test (VOP)

1. Install 5P4721 Tube Assembly (C) to the tester.

2. Install the fuel injection nozzle with 5P4244 Adapter (A) on tube assembly (C). Be sure the nozzle tip is down and extends into FT1384 Extension (F) and 8S2270 Fuel Collector (J).

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Fuel comes from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The fuel can pierce (go thru) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

--------WARNING!------


NOTICE

Put a shop towel around the upper part of the nozzle to take in any fuel leakage.


3. Close on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (K).


NOZZLE READY FOR TEST
E. Gauge protector valve. H. On-off valve. K. Pump isolator valve.

4. Open gauge protector valve (E). Operate the pump to make a slow increase in pressure until the valve in the fuel injection nozzle just starts to open. Read the maximum gauge pressure at the instant fluid flows from the tip.

NOTE: It is possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to go down fast if the valve makes a noise (chatters) when it opens. It is also possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to be almost constant when the valve in the fuel injection nozzle opens.

NOTE: The valve in the fuel injection nozzle can be good and still not make a noise (chatter), or not have a very fine vapor (spray) from the orifices in the tip of the fuel injection nozzle during Step 4. If the opening pressure is not within specifications, do not use the fuel injection nozzle again.

II. Flush The Nozzle

1. Close gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (K).

NOTE: Make sure nozzle extends inside and below the top of FT1384 Extension (F).

2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes.

III. Tip Leakage Test

1. Remove all fuel from the nozzle tip and body with a clean cloth.

2. Put a clean cloth around the body of the nozzle to take in any leakage from the bleed screw hole and prevent any fuel leakage to drain down to the tip of the nozzle.


NOZZLE READY FOR TEST
E. Gauge protector valve. H. On-off valve. K. Pump isolator valve.

3. Open gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (K).

4. Make and hold for 15 seconds a pressure of 200 psi (1380 kPa) less than the opening pressure measured in VOP Test I and make a note of the number of drops that fall.

5. If the nozzle is not within specifications, DO NOT USE THE NOZZLE.

IV. Orifice Restriction Test

1. Close gauge protector valve (E) and on-off valve (H). Open pump isolator valve (K).

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

3. Make a slow increase in pressure and look at the orifice discharge when fluid begins to flow through the fuel injection nozzle. The discharge must be the same through all four orifices. Any change either vertically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad nozzle.


GOOD NOZZLE (USE AGAIN)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE FOR ORIFICE WITH A RESTRICTION (REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE WITH HORIZONTAL DISTORTION (REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE WITH VERTICAL DISTORTION (REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)

V. Bleed Screw Leakage Test

1. Install bleed screw and seal (4) in fuel injection nozzle. Tighten the bleed screw to a torque of 19 ± 7 lb. in. (2.2 ± 0.8 N·m).


NOTICE

Do not tighten the bleed screw more than the torque shown. The bleed screw or seal can be damaged.


2. Put the tip of the fuel injection nozzle down inside the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

3. Close on-off valve (H). Open gauge protector valve (E) and pump isolator valve (K).

4. Pump the tester until fuel injection nozzle is full of fluid and the pressure on the gauge is 2000 psi (13 800 kPa).

5. If there is leakage, replace the 8T659 Seal. Inspect the washer face of the bolt for damage, replace if needed. Test the nozzle again. If there is still leakage, the fuel injection nozzle must be replaced.

6. If no fuel leakage is found, the fuel injection nozzle is acceptable. Put a new seal (3) on the nozzle. Install a new carbon dam (2) in nozzle groove with 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool (N).


INSTALLING CARBON DAM
2. Carbon dam. 3. Seal. N. 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool.

Testing 9N3979 And 1W5829 Fuel Injection Nozzles

*5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group.5P4244 Adapter.8S2270 Fuel Collector.FT1384 Extension.8S2245 Cleaning Tool Group.
8S2258 Brass Wire Brush.8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.6V4979 Carbon Seal Installation Tool.
1F1153 Needle Nose Pliers.8H8505 Combination Wrench.8H8502 Combination Wrench.8S2274 Socket.8S1589 Socket.9S5031 Socket.5P4813 Socket.5/64" Hex Wrench.


*Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7292.


5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP
A. 5P4721 Tube. B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa) used to test PC capsule valves. C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa) used to test DI capsule valves and pencil-type nozzles. D. Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge (B). E. Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge (C). F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve. H. 5P4720 Fitting. J. 5P8744 Adapter for capsule nozzles. K. 5P4244 Adapter for pencil-type nozzles.


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration fluid when tests are made. Dirty test fluid will damage components of fuel injection nozzles. The temperature of the test fluid must be 65 to 75° (18 to 24°C) for good test results.



EXTRA VALVE
L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all times).

Order calibration fluid by part number, in the quantities needed, according to the information that follows:

6V6068 Calibration Fluid, 5 U.S. gal. (18.9 liter).6V6067 Calibration Fluid, 55 U.S. gal. (208.2 liter).

Do the tests that follow to determine if the nozzle performance is acceptable.

I. Return Leakage Test. (This test is not needed with the 9N3979 and 1W5829 Nozzles.)
II. Valve Opening Pressure Test.
III. Flush the Nozzle.
IV. Tip Leakage Test.
V. Orifice Restriction Test.
VI. Cap Leakage Test.

NOTE: Do all tests before the nozzle is disassembled for cleaning, or before any adjustments are made to a nozzle. A test can show that the nozzle must not be used again.

Nozzle Preparation for Test

Before fuel injection nozzle (1) can be tested, all loose carbon around the tip of the nozzle must be removed with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M).


NOTICE

Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the nozzle body or the nozzle tip. Use of these tools can cause a small reduction of orifice size, and this will cause a large reduction in engine horsepower. Too much use of the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush will also remove the coating that is on the nozzle for protection.



REMOVING CARBON DAM
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 2. Carbon dam. 3. Seal. Remove carbon dam (2) with needle nose pliers and remove seal (3) from the nozzle.

Clean the groove for carbon seal dam (2) and the body of the nozzle below the groove with the 8S2258 Brass Wire brush (M). Remove the carbon, but be sure not to use the brush enough to cause damage to the body of the nozzle.

NOTE: A change in color in the area below the groove is normal and does not effect the body of the nozzle.


8S2245 CLEANING KIT
(M) 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush. (N) 8S2252 Carbon Seal Tool. (P) 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.

I. Return Leakage Test

1. Put nozzle (1) and 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool (P) in a vise and remove cap (4).

2. Use 5P4244 Adapter (Q) to connect fuel injection nozzle (1) to the tester. Nut (5) can be tightened by hand if 1H1023 O-ring Seal (6) is not damaged.

3. Install FT1384 Extension (R) in 8S2270 Fuel Collector (S) and put parts into position under nozzle.


FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
4. Cap. 5. Nut.


FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE CONNECTOR
5. Nut. 6. 1H1023 O-ring Seal for fuel line.

4. Put the tip of the fuel injection nozzle a little above the horizontal position. Tighten the nut by hand that connects the fuel injection nozzle to the tester.


NOZZLE POSITION FOR RETURN LEAKAGE TEST
1. Fuel injection nozzle. Q. 5P4244 Adapter. R. FT1384 Extension. S. 8S2270 Fuel Collector.

5. Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

6. Open gauge protector valve (E) and operate the tester slowly until the pressure is at 1400 to 1600 psi (9630 to 11 045 kPa).

7. Look at the leakage from the return at the top (pressure screw end) of the fuel injection nozzle.

II. Valve Opening Pressure Test (VOP)

1. Loosen nut (5) and turn nozzle tip down so that it extends into FT1384 Extension (R) as shown.

2. Tighten nut (5) to 5P4244 Adapter (Q). Nut (5) can be tightened by hand if 1H1023 O-ring Seal (6) is not damaged.


NOZZLE CONNECTED TO 5P4150 NOZZLE TESTER


NOZZLE READY FOR TEST
E. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Test fluid come from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The fluid can pierce (go thru) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

--------WARNING!------


NOTICE

Put a shop towel around the top of the nozzle (pressure screw end) to take in any fuel leakage.


3. Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

4. Open gauge protector valve (E). Operate the pump to make a slow increase in pressure until the valve in the fuel injection nozzle just starts to open. Read the maximum gauge pressure at the instant fluid flows from the tip.

NOTE: It is possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to go down fast if the valve makes a noise (chatters) when it opens. It is also possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to be almost constant when the valve in the fuel injection nozzle opens.

NOTE: The valve in the fuel injection nozzle can be good and still not make a noise (chatter), or not have a very fine vapor (spray) from the orifices in the tip of the fuel injection nozzle during Step 4.

If the opening pressure is less than 1500 psi (10 300 kPa), do not use the fuel injection nozzle again.

III. Flush the Nozzle

1. Close gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

NOTE: Make sure nozzle extends inside and below the top of FT1384 Extension (R).

2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes.

IV. Tip Leakage Test

1. Remove all fuel from the nozzle tip and body with a cloth.

2. Put a clean cloth around the top of the body of the fuel injection nozzle (pressure screw end) to take in the leakage and prevent any fuel leakage to drain down to the tip of the nozzle.


CLOTH ON TOP OF NOZZLE
E. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

3. Open gauge protector valve (E). Be sure the nozzle tip is completely dry.

4. Make and hold for 15 seconds a pressure of 200 psi (1380 kPa) less than the opening pressure measured in VOP Test II.

5. If nozzle is not within specification, DO NOT USE THE NOZZLE.

V. Orifice Restriction Test

1. Close gauge protector valve (E) and on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

3. Make a slow increase in pressure and look at the orifice discharge when fluid begins to flow through the fuel injection nozzle. The discharge must be the same through all four orifices. Any change, either vertically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad nozzle.


GOOD NOZZLE (USE AGAIN)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE FOR ORIFICE WITH A RESTRICTION (RECONDITIONING OR REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE WITH HORIZONTAL DISTORTION (RECONDITIONING OR REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE WITH VERTICAL DISTORTION (RECONDITIONING OR REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)

VI. Cap Leakage Test

1. Remove fuel injection nozzle (1) from the 5P4150 Nozzle Tester and put it in 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool (P).


NOZZLE CAP INSTALLATION
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 4. Cap. 7. 1H1023 O-ring seal.

2. Install new 1H1023 O-Ring Seal (7).

3. Install cap (4) and tighten to 110 to 120 lb. in. (12.4 to 13.6 N·m).


TIGHTENING CAP
8. 9S5031 Socket. 9. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.


NOTICE

Do not tighten the cap more than torque shown or the new O-ring seal will be damaged.


4. Put fuel injection nozzle (1) on the 5P4150 Nozzle Tester with the nozzle tip in the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

5. With gauge protector valve (E) open, pump the tester until cap (4) is completely full of fuel and the pressure on the gauge is 4000 psi (27 500 kPa).

NOTE: 15 to 20 strokes of the pump can be necessary for the pressure to reach 4000 psi (27 500 kPa).

There must be no leakage between the cap and the body of fuel injection nozzle.

6. If there is leakage, make a replacement of 1H1023 Seal (7) and inspect cap (4) for cracks. Test the nozzle again. If there is still leakage, replacement of fuel injection nozzle is necessary.


INSTALLING CARBON DAM
2. Carbon dam. 3. Seal. N. 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool.

7. If no fuel leakage is found, fuel injection nozzle is acceptable. Slide new seal (3) into position over the nozzle. Install new carbon dam (2) in nozzle groove with 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool (N).

Troubleshooting Of 9N3979 And 1W5829 Fuel Injection Nozzles

Use the guide that follows to troubleshoot for problems with the fuel injection nozzles.

Adjustment And Cleaning Of 9N3979 And 1W5829 Fuel Injection Nozzles

For the procedure to clean the nozzles, see Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7292.

NOTE: Do not clean or adjust a nozzle with a valve opening pressure (VOP) less than 1500 psi (10 300kPa).

Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Adjustment


FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 2. Locknut (for pressure adjustment screw). 3. Pressure adjustment screw. 4. 1H1023 O-ring Seal for cap. 5. Locknut (for life adjustment screw). 6. Lift adjustment screw.

1. Remove fuel injection nozzle (1) from the 5P4150 Nozzle Tester and put it in the 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool (P).


LOOSENING LOCKNUT
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 7. 8H8502 Combination Wrench. P. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.

2. Loosen locknut (5) that holds lift adjustment screw (6). Turn lift adjustment screw (6) counterclockwise two turns.


NOTICE

If the lift adjustment screw is not turned counterclockwise two turns, the valve can be bent or the seat for the valve can be damaged when the pressure adjustment screw is turned.


3. Hold lift adjustment screw (6) with a 5/64" hex wrench (8) and remove locknut (5).


REMOVING LOCKNUT
5. Locknut (for lift adjustment screw). 8. 5/64" hex wrench.


LOOSENING LOCKNUT
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 9. 8H8505 Combination Wrench.

4. Loosen locknut (2) that holds pressure adjustment screw (3).

5. Put fuel injection nozzle (1) on the nozzle tester. Turn pressure adjustment screw (3) clockwise with 5P4813 Socket (10). Each one-fourth of a turn will increase the opening pressure approximately 250 psi (1720 kPa).


OPENING PRESSURE ADJUSTMENT
10. 5P4813 Socket

6. Turn pressure adjustment screw (3) clockwise until the valve opening pressure is within specifications.

NOTE: If nozzle can not be adjusted to specifications, make a replacement of the nozzle.


TIGHTENING LOCKNUT
1. Fuel Injection nozzle. 9. 8H8505 Combination Wrench. 10. 5P4813 Socket.

7. Hold pressure adjustment screw (3) and tighten locknut (2) just enough so that pressure adjustment screw (3) will not turn.

8. After the opening pressure adjustment is made, install locknut (5) that holds lift adjustment screw (6). Make the valve lift adjustment. See VALVE LIFT ADJUSTMENT.

Valve Lift Adjustment

1. With the valve opening pressure correct, pump test fluid through the fuel injection nozzle. At the same time, hold locknut (5) and slowly turn lift adjustment screw (6) clockwise until the pressure starts to increase above the opening pressure.

2. To be sure the valve is on the seat, increase the pressure 200 to 500 psi (1380 to 3450 kPa) more than the opening pressure.


NOTICE

Do not bend the valve or damage the seat by turning lift adjustment screw (6) with too much force.


NOTE: Some test fluid can be at the tip of the fuel injection nozzle, but a constant flow of drops (dribble) must not be seen.


TIGHTENING LOCKNUT
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 7. 8H8502 Combination Wrench. 8. 5/64" Hex Wrench.

3. Turn lift adjustment screw (6) counterclockwise 3/4 ± 1/8 of a turn.

4. Hold lift adjustment screw (6) with 5/64" hex wrench (8) and tighten locknut (5) just enough so that lift adjustment screw (6) will not turn.

Tightening Locknuts and Cap

1. Remove fuel injection nozzle (1) from the 5P4150 Nozzle Tester and put it in 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool (P).


FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
1. Fuel injection nozzle. 2. Locknut (for pressure adjustment screw). 3. Pressure adjustment screw. 4. 1H1023 O-ring Seal for cap. 5. Locknut (for lift adjustment screw). 6. Lift adjustment screw.

2. Tighten locknut (2) that holds pressure adjustment screw (3) to 70 to 80 lb. in. (8.0 to 9.1 N·m).


TIGHTENING PRESSURE SCREW LOCKNUT (Typical Example)
11. 8S2274 Socket. P. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.

3. Tighten locknut (5) that holds lift adjustment screw (6) to 35 to 45 lb. in. (4.0 to 5.1 N·m).


TIGHTENING VALVE LIFT SCREW LOCKNUT (Typical Example)
12. 8S1589 Socket.

4. Install new 1H1023 O-ring seal (4).

5. Install the cap and tighten to 110 to 120 lb. in. (12.4 to 13.6 N·m).


NOTICE

Do not tighten the cap more than torque shown or the new O-ring seal will be damaged.



TIGHTENING CAP
13. 9S5031 Socket.

With the adjustments and tests complete, check for leakage between the cap and the body of the fuel injection nozzle. See Cap Leakage Test in section TESTING 9N3979 AND 1W5829 FUEL INJECTION NOZZLES.

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps goes to the fuel injection nozzles through the fuel injection lines.

When fuel injection lines are disconnected or removed, always put caps or plugs on the ends to keep dirt out of the lines. When fuel injection lines are installed, be sure all clamps and dampers are installed in their original location.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection nozzle and injection pump must be tightened to the correct torque. If the nut is loose, fuel will leak from the connection. If the nut is tightened too tight, the inside diameter of the line will become smaller and cause a restriction to the flow of fuel in the line. Use a torque wrench and a 5P144 Fuel Line Socket to tighten the fuel injection line nuts to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m).

------ WARNING! ------

Fuel injection lines which are bent, damaged or rubbing can leak and cause a fire. Replace any lines which have damage or leaks that can not be corrected when tightened to the correct torque.

--------WARNING!------

Fuel Injection Pumps

When injection pumps, sleeves and lifters are removed from the injection pump housing, keep the parts of each pump together so they can be installed back in their original location.

Be careful when disassembling injection pumps. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger, sleeve and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel or sleeve of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when putting the plunger in the bore of the barrel or sleeve.

When an injection pump is installed correctly, the plunger is through the sleeve and the adjustment lever is engaged with the groove on the sleeve. The bushing that holds the injection pump in the pump housing must be kept tight. Tighten the bushing to 60 ± 5 lb. ft. (80 ± 7 N·m). Damage to the housing will result if the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will leak.


AIR INLET PIPE (Typical Example)


NOTICE

If the sleeves on one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, damage to the engine is possible if cautions are not taken at first starting. When the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed with the fuel injection pump housing on engine, take the cautions that follow to stop the engine, if it starts to overspeed (run out of control).


a. Remove the air cleaner leaving the air inlet pipe open as shown.

b. Set the governor control at low idle.

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when plate is put against air inlet opening. Due to excessive suction, the plate can be pulled quickly against air inlet pipe. To avoid crushed fingers, do not put fingers between plate and air inlet pipe.

--------WARNING!------

c. Start the engine, and if engine starts to overspeed (run out of control), put a steel plate over the air inlet as shown to stop the engine.


STOPPING THE ENGINE (Typical Example)

Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

No. 1 piston at top center (TDC) on the compression stroke is the starting point for all timing procedures.

1. Remove the plug from the timing hole (2) in the front cover. Put bolt (1) in timing hole (2). The bolt from hole (3) can be used.


INSTALLING BOLT
1. 1D4539 Bolt, 5/16 in.-18NC, 2.5 in. (63.5 mm) long. 2. Timing hole. 3. Hole.

2. Turn the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine) until bolt (1) will go into the hole in the drive gear for the camshaft.

3. Remove the valve cover on the right side of the engine (as seen from rear of engine). The two valves at the right front of the engine are the intake and exhaust valves for No. 1 cylinder.

4. The intake and exhaust valves for No. 1 cylinder must now be closed and the timing pointer will be in alignment with the TDC-1 on the damper assembly. The No. 1 piston is now at top center on the compression stroke.

Fuel System Adjustments

Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing; On Engine

The timing of the fuel injection pump can be checked and changed if necessary, to make compensation for movement in the taper sleeve drive or worn timing gears. The timing can be checked and if necessary, changed using the following method.

Checking Timing By Timing Pin Method

5P2371 Puller.3P1544 Timing Pin.

1. Remove bolt (1) from the timing pin hole.

2. Turn the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine) until timing pin (2) goes into the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps.

3. Remove the plug from timing hole (4) in the front cover. Put bolt (3) through the front cover and into the hole with threads in the timing gear. The bolt from hole (5) can be used.


TIMING HOLE BOLT
1. Bolt.

4. If the timing pin is in the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps, and bolt (3) goes into the hole in the timing gear through timing hole (4), the timing of the fuel injection pump is correct.

NOTE: If bolt (3) does not go in the hole in the timing gear with timing pin (2) in the notch in the camshaft, use the following procedure.


TIMING PIN INSTALLED (Typical Example)
2. 3P1544 Timing Pin.


INSTALLING BOLT
3. 1D4539 Bolt, 5/16 in.-18NC, 2.5 in. (63.5 mm) long. 4. Timing hole. 5. Hole.


LOCATION OF COVER
6. Cover for the tachometer drive assembly. 7. Nuts.

a. Remove nuts (7) and the cover for the tachometer drive assembly (6).

b. Remove the tachometer drive shaft (9) and washer (8) from the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps.

NOTE: Tachometer drive shaft (9) and washer (8) are removed as an assembly.


LOCATION OF BOLT
8. Washer. 9. Tachometer drive shaft.

c. Put 5P2371 Puller (10) on the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps. Tighten bolts (11) until the drive gear on the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps comes loose.


LOOSENING DRIVE GEAR
10. 5P2371 Puller. 11. Bolts.

d. Remove the 5P2371 Puller

e. Turn the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine) until bolt (3) goes into the hole in the timing gear. With timing pin (2) in the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps, and bolt (3) in the hole in the timing gear, the timing for the engine is correct.

f. Install washer (8) and tachometer drive shaft (9). Tighten tachometer drive shaft to 110 ± 10 lb. ft. (149 ± 14 N·m). Remove timing pin (2).

g. Turn the crankshaft two complete revolutions COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine) and put timing pin (2) and bolt (3) in again. If timing pin (2) and bolt (3) can not be installed do Steps a through f again.

h. Remove bolt (3) from the timing gear and install in hole (5). Install the plug in timing hole (4). Remove timing pin (2) and install bolt (1). Install cover for the tachometer drive assembly (6).

Checking Engine Timing And Automatic Timing Advance Unit With 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group And 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group

8T5300 Timing Indicator Group.8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group.


8T5300 TIMING INDICATOR GROUP
1. 8T5250 Engine Timing Indicator. 2. 5P7366 Cable Assembly. 3. 6V2197 Magnetic Transducer. 4. 5P7362 Cable. 5. 6V2199 & 6V3093 Transducer Adapters. 6. 8K4644 Fuse.

The 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group must be used with an 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group.


8T5301 DIESEL TIMING ADAPTER GROUP
7. 5P7437 Adapter. 8. 6V2198 Cable. 9. 5P7436 Adapter. 10. 6V7910 Transducer. 11. 5P7435 Adapter. 12. 6V3016 Washer.

------ WARNING! ------

A high pressure fuel line must be disconnected. To avoid personal injury or fire from fuel spray, the engine must be stopped before the fuel line is disconnected.

--------WARNING!------

1. Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8580 for complete service information and use of 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group.

2. Loosen all fuel line clamps that hold No. 1 fuel injection line and disconnect fuel injection line (13) for No. 1 cylinder at the fuel injection pump. Slide the nut up and out of the way. Put 5P7436 Adapter (9) in its place and turn adapter (9) onto the fuel pump bonnet until the top of the bonnet threads are approximately even with the bottom of the "window" in the adapter.

3. Put the 5P7435 Adapter (11) on 6V7910 Transducer (10) and put the end of the 5P7435 Adapter (11) in the "window" of the 5P7436 Adapter (9).


TRANSDUCER IN POSITION
10. Injection transducer. 13. Fuel injection line for No. 1 cylinder.

4. Put fuel injection line (13) on top of 5P7435 Adapter (11). Install 5P7437 Adapter (7) and tighten to 30 lb. ft. (40 N·m).

5. Remove fitting (14) from the front housing. Install transducer adapter (5) into hole fitting (14) was removed from. Tighten only a small amount.

6. Push the TDC magnetic transducer (3) into the transducer adapter (5) until it makes contact with the camshaft gear. Pull it back out .06 in. (1.6 mm) and lightly tighten the knurled locknut.


LOCATION OF FITTING
14. Fitting.

7. Connect the cables from the transducers to the Engine Timing Indicator. Make a calibration check of the indicator. For calibration procedure, make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8580.


NOTICE

Be sure all test equipment cables are routed so they will not come into contact with the V-belts or other rotating components.



TRANSDUCER IN POSITION
3. TDC magnetic transducer.

------ WARNING! ------

Work carefully around an engine that is running. Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.

--------WARNING!------

8a. Standard Engines:

Start the engine. Get the engine to operating temperature. With the engine at low idle, check engine timing. Increase engine speed and check timing at 1400, 2300 and 2800 rpm. Also slowly increase engine speed from 1400 to 2300 rpm to check for smooth operation of the automatic timing advance. See the TIMING CHART for the correct timing as shown by the Timing Indicator Group.

8b. Low Emission Engine:

Start the engine. Get the engine to operating temperature. With the engine at low idle, check engine timing. Increase engine speed and check timing at 1800, 2650 and 2800 rpm. Also slowly increase engine speed from 1800 to 2650 rpm to check for smooth operation of the automatic timing advance. See the TIMING CHART for the correct timing as shown by the Timing Indicator Group.

The TIMING CHARTS give the acceptable dynamic (engine in motion) timing range as read on the Timing Indicator Group. The TIMING CHARTS are for the 3208 Engine with 16 ± 1° static (engine stopped) timing and automatic timing advance units that give 5 + 1 - 0° timing advance for Standard Engines and 3 + 1 - 0° timing advance for Low Emission Engines.

If the automatic timing advance unit does not advance smoothly or does not have the correct amount of advance, the unit must be replaced.

If the engine timing is not correct, make reference to FUEL SYSTEM ADJUSTMENTS (Timing Pin Method) for the procedure to change engine timing.

Fuel Setting

5P4203 Field Service Tool Group

The procedure that follows for fuel setting can be done with the housing for the fuel injection pumps either on or off the engine.


REMOVAL OF COVER
1. Shut-off solenoid. 2. Cover.


NOTICE

Before any service work is done on this fuel system, the outside of the housing for the fuel injection pumps and all parts connected to it must be especially clean.


1. Remove shut-off solenoid (1) and cover (2).

2. Put the 5P298 Zero Set Pin (5), with 17.8507 on it, in the pump housing.


INSTALLATION OF COVER
3. 5P4226 Adapter. 4. 3J6956 Spring. 5. 5P298 Zero Set Pin, with 17.8507 on it.

3. Put adapter (3) and spring (4) over zero set pin (5). Use a 1D4533 Bolt and a 1D4538 Bolt to fasten adapter (3) to the housing for the fuel injection pumps.

4. Put screw (6) in the hole over pin (5) and spring (4).


INSTALLATION OF SCREW
6. 8S7271 Screw.

5. Turn screw (6) clockwise until pin (5) is held against the housing for the fuel injection pump. DO NOT tighten screw (6) too tight.

6. Put clamp (7) in adapter (3).


INSTALLATION OF CLAMP
3. Adapter. 7. 3P1565 Collet clamp.

7. Move the governor control lever to FULL LOAD position.

8. Put 5P6531 Point (9) on dial indicator (8). Put the indicator assembly in clamp (7).


INSTALLATION OF DIAL INDICATOR
7. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 8. 3P1567 Dial Indicator. 9. 5P6531 Contact Point, 2.25 in. (57.2 mm) long.

9. Adjust dial indicator (8) so both pointers (10) are on "0" (zero).


INDICATOR SET ON ZERO
8. 3P1567 Dial Indicator. 10. Pointers.

10. Use wrench (11) to turn the 8S7271 Screw (6) counterclockwise. Turn screw (6) six or more turns.


LOOSENING SCREW (6)
11. 5P4205 Wrench.

11. Put the clip end of the 8T500 Circuit Tester to a good ground. Put the other end of the 8T500 Circuit Tester on the load stop contact.


8T500 CIRCUIT TESTER

12. Move the governor control lever to the LOW IDLE position.

13. Move the governor control lever slowly toward the HIGH IDLE position until the continuity light just comes on. Make a note of the reading on dial indicator (8). Do this step several times to make sure the reading is correct.

14. Make a comparison of this reading and the fuel setting in the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE.

15. If the reading on dial indicator (8) is not correct, do the following.

Load Stop Adjustment

a. Use wrench (18) and loosen locknut (19).


ADJUSTMENT OF FUEL SETTING
16. Screwdriver. 17. Adjustment screw. 18. Wrench.

b. Use screwdriver (16) to turn adjustment screw (17) until the reading on dial indicator (8) is the same as the dimension given in the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE.

c. When the adjustment is correct, tighten locknut (19). Check the adjustment again by doing Steps 11 through 15 again.


ADJUSTMENT SCREW FOR FUEL SETTING
17. Adjustment screw. 19. Locknut. 20. Load stop pin.

d. Remove the test tools. Install cover (2) and shut-off solenoid (1).

Crossover Levers

3P1546 Calibration Pin, 5P4206 Wrench, 5P4209 Gauge, 5P7253 Socket Assembly.

Checking Crossover Levers

NOTE: The crossover levers normally do not need checking unless one or more of the following conditions exist (after the timing is checked and the other corrections shown in TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE have been made):

A. The engine produces too much black smoke.
B. The engine runs rough because fuel delivery is not even.
C. Some cylinders continue to fire at fuel shutoff position.
D. The complete injection group is being reconditioned.


NOTICE

Before any service work is done on this fuel system, the outside of the injection pump housing and all parts connected to it must be clean.


1. Remove the fuel shutoff solenoid (1), top cover (2) of the fuel pump housing and the cover over the torque control group.

2. Remove the fuel that is in the injection pump housing and the governor housing.


REMOVAL OF COVERS
1. Shut-off solenoid. 2. Top cover.

3. Put the 3P1546 Calibration Pin (3) in calibration hole as shown.

4. Install the 5P4226 Adapter (7) as shown. Fasten it in position with a 1D4533 bolt (5) and a 1D4538 bolt (6).


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PIN
3. 3P1546 Calibration Pin with 15.9410 on it.


INSTALLING 5P4226 ADAPTER AND 8S7271 SCREW
4. Screw. 5. 1D4533 Bolt. 6. 1D4538 Bolt. 7. 5P4226 Adapter.

5. Put the 8S7271 Screw (4) (setscrew) in the hole over the calibration pin (3). Tighten the setscrew (4) to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2.3 to 2.8 N·m) with the 2P8264 Socket.


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE SCREW
8. Low idle screw. 9. Lever.

6. Adjust low idle screw (8) to position lever (9) to .35 ± .04 in. (8.0 ± 1.0 mm) from governor housing boss.

7. Loosen the bolts that hold sleeve levers (A) and slide levers (A) out of the way.


CROSSOVER LEVERS
10. Crossover lever. 11. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. A. Sleeve levers.


INSTALLING 5P4209 GAUGE
13. 5P4209 Gauge. 14. Shaft. 15. Shaft.

8. Put gauge (13) on shafts (14) and (15). Slide gauge (13) toward crossover levers (10) and (11) until dowel pin (12) goes into hole in gauge (13).


CHECKING CLEARANCE OF CROSSOVER LEVER
13. 5P4209 Gauge. 16. Feeler gauge.

9. If dowel pin (12) must be lifted to go into the hole in gauge (13), the levers must be adjusted. See ADJUSTMENT OF CROSSOVER LEVERS.

10. If gauge (13) must be lifted more than .008 in. (0.20 mm) to let dowel pin (12) go into the hole in gauge (13), see ADJUSTMENT OF CROSSOVER LEVERS.

11. To check the maximum clearance of .008 in. (0.20 mm) that is acceptable under one side of gauge (13), hold the center and one side of gauge (13) against sleeve lever shaft (15). Use a feeler gauge to check clearance. Torque for bolts that hold sleeve levers (A) is 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m)

NOTE: After the checking of the crossover levers is complete, the two fuel injection pumps must be calibrated where sleeve levers have been moved to install 5P4209 Gauge. See FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

Adjustment of Crossover Levers

1. Remove the fuel shutoff solenoid (1) top cover (2) of the fuel pump housing and the cover over the torque control group.

2. Remove the fuel that is in the injection pump housing and the governor housing.

3. Put the 3P1546 Calibration Pin (3) in calibration hole.

4. Install the 5P4226 Adapter (7). Fasten it in position with a 1D4533 Bolt (5) and a 1D4538 Bolt (6).

5. Put the 8S7271 Screw (4) (setscrew) in the hole over the calibration pin (3). Tighten the setscrew (4) to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2.3 to 2.8 N·m) with the 2P8264 Socket.

6. Adjust low idle screw (8) to position lever (9) to .35 ± .04 in. (8.0 ± 1.0 mm) from governor housing boss.

7. Loosen the bolts that hold sleeve levers (A) and slide levers (A) out of the way.

8. Loosen the bolts that hold crossover lever (10) and (11) and move lever (10) off dowel pin (12).

9. Put gauge (13) on shafts (14) and (15), put crossover lever (11) in a position so dowel pin (12) will fit in gauge hole. Hold gauge (13) down and torque the bolt that holds crossover lever (11) to 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m).


CROSSOVER LEVERS
10. Crossover lever. 11. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. A. Sleeve levers.


5P4209 GAUGE INSTALLED
11. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. 13. 5P4209 Gauge.


ADJUSTMENT OF CROSSOVER LEVERS
13. Gauge. 14. Shaft. 15. Shaft. 16. 5P4206 Wrench.

10. Check adjustment again with the 5P4209 Gauge (13). Put gauge (13) on shafts (14) and (15), slide gauge toward crossover lever (11) to engage dowel pin (12) into hole in gauge (13).

11. If dowel pin (12) must be lifted to go into gauge, the lever must be adjusted again. If gauge (13) is lifted, a maximum of .008 in. (0.20 mm) clearance is acceptable under one side of gauge (13). Use a feeler gauge to check clearance.

12. Slide crossover lever (10) on to dowel pin (12). Torque the bolt that holds crossover lever (10) to 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m).

13. Check the adjustment again with the 5P4209 Gauge.


TIGHTENING BOLT
10. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. 16. Wrench.

NOTE: After the adjustment of the crossover levers is completed, all of the fuel injection pumps must be calibrated. See FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

Fuel Pump Calibration

5P4203 Tool Group.8S2243 Wrench*5P4226 Adapter*5P4205 Wrench*5P4206 Wrench**1P4533 Bolt*1D4538 Bolt*8S7271 Screw*5P7253 Socket Assembly*6V190 Clamp**


*Part of 5P4203 Tool Group


**Not part of a Tool Group


3P2200 TOOL GROUP
1. 3P1540 Calibration Pump. 2. 4N218 Bushing. 3. 1P7379 Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Dial indicator with 3P2226 Collet. 5. 5P6510 Box. 6. 3P1545 Calibration Pin with 17.3734 on it, (in-line engines). 7. 3P1546 Calibration Pin with 15.9410 on it. (Vee engines). 8. 1S9836 Wrench.

NOTE: 3P1540 Calibration pump must have the 5P6557 Spring installed instead of the 1P7377 Spring.

Checking Fuel Pump Calibration

The following procedure for fuel pump calibration can be done with the housing for the fuel injection pumps either on or off the engine.


NOTICE

Before any service work is done on this fuel system, the outside of the injection pump housing and all parts connected to it must be clean.


1. Remove fuel shut-off solenoid (9), top cover (10) of the fuel pump housing and the cover over the torque control group.

2. Remove the fuel that is in the injection pump housing and the governor housing.

3. Install 3P1546 Calibration Pin (7) in the calibration hole.

4. Install 5P4226 Adapter (13) as shown. Fasten it in position on the injection pump housing with a 1D4533 bolt (12) and a 1D4538 bolt (14).


REMOVAL OF COVERS
9. Shut-off solenoid. 10. Top cover.


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PIN
7. 3P1546 Calibration Pin with 15.9410 on it.

5. Put 8S7271 Screw (11) in the hole over calibration pin (7). Tighten screw (11) to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2.3 to 2.8 N·m).


INSTALLING 5P4226 ADAPTER AND 8S7271 SCREW
11. Screw. 12. 1D4533 Bolt. 13. 5P4226 Adapter. 14. 1D4538 Bolt.


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE SCREW
15. Low idle screw. 16. Lever.

6. Adjust low idle screw (15) to position lever (16) to .35 ± .04 in. (8.0 ± 1.0 mm) from governor housing boss.

7. Use the 8S2243 Wrench and remove the fuel injection pumps to be checked.

NOTE: If pump is removed carefully, the sleeve will remain on the plunger. If the sleeve falls off the pump plunger during removal, find it immediately and replace it on the pump plunger before removal of another pump. The original sleeve must remain with the same pump plunger.

NOTE: When sleeve is installed on pump plunger, the narrower of the two lands on the sleeve must be toward top of pump (nearest the pump spring).

8. Clean the barrel and plunger on calibration pump (1). Put clean diesel fuel on the calibration pump for lubrication.

NOTE: Be sure that the spring on calibration pump (1) is the 5P6557 Spring instead of the 1P7377 Spring which was installed on earlier calibration pumps.


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PUMP
1. 3P1540 Calibration Pump.

9. Put calibration pump (1) in the place of the pump to be checked with the flat place (20) on the plunger toward tang (17) on lever (18). When the calibration pump (1) is all the way in the bore, turn it 180° in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Tang (17) on lever (18) is now in groove (19) of calibration pump (1). Then install 4N218 Bushing (2) use the 8S2243 Wrench and a torque wrench to tighten the bushing to 60 ± 5 lb. ft. (80 ± 7 N·m).

NOTE: Turning calibration pump (1) 180° gives the same reference point for all measurements.


CALIBRATION PUMP INSTALLED
1.3P1540 Calibration Pump. 17.Tang on lever. 18. Lever. 19. Groove of calibration pump. 20. Flat on plunger.

NOTE: Use 4N218 Bushing (2) and calibration pump (1) together. The contact surfaces of the standard bushing, fuel injection pump and the housing for the fuel injection pumps are sealing surfaces. Keep them clean and free of scratches, to prevent leaks.


PUTTING DIAL INDICATOR ON ZERO
3. Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Dial Indicator with 3P2226 Collet. 21. Lockscrew. 22. Locknut. 23. 3P2226 Collet.

10. Put dial indicator (4) on microgage (3) and hold them together tightly. Loosen lockscrew (21) and turn the face of dial indicator (4) to put the pointer at "0". Tighten lockscrew (21).

Remove dial indicator (4) from microgage (3). Look at the face of dial indicator (4) and put dial indicator (4) on microgage (3) again. The pointer must move through one to one and one half revolutions before stopping at exactly "0". If the number of revolutions is not correct, loosen the locknut on 3P2226 Collet (23), and adjust the position of the dial indicator until the adjustment is correct.

NOTE: If locknut (22) on the 3P2226 Collet is too tight, it can cause interference in the operation of the dial indicator.


6V190 CLAMP INSTALLED
24. Shaft. 25. 6V190 Clamp.

11. Put 6V190 Clamp (25) in the position shown, next to the transfer pump end. Clamp (25) pushes shaft (24) down against the bottom of its bearing. The other end of shaft (24) is held down against its bearing by 3P1546 Calibration Pin (7) which is held by 8S7271 Screw (11). The combination of forces from clamp (25) and calibration pin (7) is necessary to hold shaft (24) in its normal operating position against the lifting force from the spring in calibration pump (1).


DIAL INDICATOR POSITION
4. 3P1568 Dial Indicator with 3P2226 Collet. 25. Clamp.

NOTE: When checking pumps on the "slave" side [side opposite from governor control lever (16)], put clamp (25) on both ends of sleeve shaft as shown.

12. Put dial indicator (4) on the calibration pump (1) as shown. Hold it tightly in place. Move shaft (24) toward the governor end to remove end play. To remove any clearance in the linkage, lift the crossover lever dowel and rapidly let it go. Do this several times. Then look at the reading on the dial indicator (4).


INSTALLING CLAMP ON "SLAVE" SIDE
25. 6V190 Clamps.

13. If the dial indicator (4) reading is more than ± 0.050 mm from "0.000" (outside the TOTAL TOLERANCE), do Steps 17 through 20, ADJUSTMENT OF FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.


DIAL INDICATOR READING Desired reading for all pumps is "0.000".
Maximum permissible tolerance for pump readings in any FUEL INJECTION PUMP GROUP is 0.100 mm (-0.050 to 0.050 mm on dial indicator).
Maximum permissible differences between any two pumps in the same FUEL INJECTION PUMP GROUP is 0.050 mm.
TOTAL TOLERANCE shows the maximum permissible range of pointer positions which are acceptable. If any reading is outside the range of TOTAL TOLERANCE, do ADJUSTMENT OF FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps.
BAND is an example only. It shows a 0.050 mm range. This range shows the maximum permissible difference between any two readings for all the pumps. If any two readings are farther apart than the 0.050 mm range, do ADJUSTMENT OF FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps.

IF THE DIAL INDICATOR (4) reading is near either end of the TOTAL TOLERANCE, check another pump. If the next reading is outside the TOTAL TOLERANCE or if the two readings have a difference of 0.050 mm or more, do the Steps 15 through 19, ADJUSTMENT OF FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

NOTE: The mechanic doing the checking must make the decisions of which and how many pumps to check according to the symptoms of the fuel injection pump being tested.

14. If dial indicator (4) readings for all the pumps are within the limits in Step 13, the calibration is acceptable. Remove the tooling, and install the parts which were removed.

NOTE: For troubleshooting purposes, if the dial indicator (4) reading is "0" or near "0", the calibration of the other pumps is probably in the tolerance.

Adjustment Of Fuel Pump Calibration

15. Remove all pumps with 8S2243 Wrench.

16. Clean the barrel and plunger of calibration pump (1). Put clean diesel fuel on the calibration pump (1) for lubrication.

17. Install calibration pump (1) in the place of one of the pumps according to the procedure in Step 9.

18. Loosen bolt (26) with 1S9836 Wrench (8) or 5P4206 Wrench. Turn the lever (18) on shaft (24) enough to move the top of plunger (28) of calibration pump (1) below top surface (27) of calibration pump (1). Tighten bolt (26) just enough for lever (18) to hold plunger (28) stationary.


5P4206 WRENCH
18. Lever. 26. Bolt. A. 5P4206 Wrench.

NOTE: When bolt (26) has the correct torque, pushing with a small amount of force on lever (18) through the wrench moves plunger (28) up in calibration pump (1).

19. Move shaft (24) toward the governor to remove end play. Then push down on lever (18) through the wrench until top of plunger (28) is almost even with top surface (27) of calibration pump (1) as shown.


PLUNGER POSITION
1. Calibration pump. 27. Top surface of calibration pump. 28. Plunger.

20. Check dial indicator (4) according to Step 10. Then put dial indicator (4) in place over the center of calibration pump (1) and hold it there tightly. Now move plunger (28) of calibration pump (1) by pushing on lever (18) through the wrench. Stop moving the plunger when the dial indicator is at approximately 0.009 mm past "0.000". Tighten bolt (26) to 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m).

NOTE: When moving plunger (28), make sure that the last direction of plunger (28) movement is in the up direction. If plunger (28) goes up too far, move plunger (28) down to a position below that desired. Then move plunger (28) up to the desired position.

NOTE: The action of tightening bolt (26) usually changes the reading on dial indicator (4) by approximately 0.010 mm in the minus direction.


±0.010 mm CALIBRATION TOLERANCE

Move shaft (24) toward shutoff several times to remove clearance in the linkage. Dial indicator (4) reading must be 0.000 ± 0.010 mm as shown.

When the pump calibration is correct make a record and then do the same procedure for all the other pumps.

NOTE: When calibrating pumps on the "slave" side [side opposite from governor control lever (16)], put clamp (25) on both ends of the sleeve shaft as shown in picture number A92947X1.


INSTALLING CLAMP ON "SLAVE" SIDE
25. 6V190 Clamps

Measuring Engine Speed

6V3121 Multitach Group


6V3121 MULTITACH GROUP

The 6V3121 Multitach Group can measure engine speed by the use of either the photo pickup and reflective tape, or a magnetic pickup or tachometer generator. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7807 has instructions for its use.

Governor Adjustments


NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make the adjustment to the set point rpm.


Engine rpm must be checked with an accurate tachometer.

Low Idle Adjustment

NOTE: The correct LOW IDLE rpm is given in the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

Start the engine and run until the temperature of normal operation is reached. Check low idle rpm with no load on the engine. If an adjustment is necessary, use the procedure that follows:


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE RPM
1. Adjustment bolt for low idle. 2. Locknut.


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE RPM
1. Adjustment bolt for low idle. 2. Locknut. 3. Cover.

1. To adjust the LOW IDLE rpm, start the engine and run with the governor in the low idle position. Loosen locknut (2) for low idle screw (1). Turn the low idle screw to get the correct low idle rpm. Increase engine speed and return to low idle and check low idle speed again. Tighten the locknut.

Checking Set Point (Balance Point)

The engine set point is an adjusted specification and is important to the correct operation of the engine. High idle rpm is NOT an adjusted specification. Set point (formerly balance point) is full load rpm plus an additional 20 rpm. Set point is the rpm at which the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring just start to make contact. At this rpm the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring still have movement between them. When additional load is put on the engine, the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring will become stable against each other. Set point is controlled by the fuel setting and the high idle adjustment screw.

There is a new and more accurate method for checking the "set point," formerly called the balance point, of the engine. If the tools for the new method are not available, there is an alternate method for checking the "set point."

6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group.


6V4060 ENGINE SET POINT INDICATOR GROUP

The 6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group with the 6V2100 Multitach can be used to check the set point. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7931 gives instructions for installation and use of this tool group.

Alternate Method

8T500 Circuit Tester.6V3121 Multitach Group.

If the set point is correct and the high idle speed is within specifications, the fuel system operation of the engine is correct. The set point for the engine is:

A. At 20 rpm greater than full load speed.
B. The rpm where the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring just make contact.

Use the procedure that follows to check the set point. Make reference to TECHNIQUES FOR LOADING ENGINES in Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7050.

1. Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy to the tachometer drive.

2. Connect the clip end of the 8T500 Circuit Tester to the brass terminal screw (4) on the governor housing. Connect the other end of the tester to a place on the fuel system which is a good ground connection.


TERMINAL LOCATION
4. Brass terminal screw.

------ WARNING! ------

Work carefully around an engine that is running. Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.

--------WARNING!------

3. Start the engine.

4. With the engine at normal conditions for operation, run the engine at high idle.

5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high idle.

6. Add load on the engine slowly until the circuit tester light just comes on (minimum light output). This is the set point.

7. Make a record of the speed (rpm) at the set point.

8. Repeat Step 6 several times to make sure that the reading is correct.

9. Stop the engine. Make a comparison of the records from Steps 5 and 7 with the information from the ENGINE INFORMATION PLATE. If the ENGINE INFORMATION PLATE is not available see the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE. The tolerance for the set point is ± 10 rpm. The tolerance for the high idle rpm is ± 50 rpm. If the readings from Steps 5 and 7 are within the tolerance, no adjustment is needed.

NOTE: It is possible in some applications that the high idle rpm will be less than the lower limit. This can be caused by high parasitic loads such as hydraulic pumps, compressors, etc.

Adjusting Set Point (Balance Point)

1. If the set point and the high idle rpm are within tolerance, no adjustment is to be made.


ADJUSTMENT OF SET POINT
5. Adjustment screw. 6. Locknut.

2. If the set point rpm is not correct, remove cover (3) and loosen locknut (6). Turn adjustment screw (5) to adjust the set point to the mid point of the tolerance.

3. When the set point is correct, check the high idle rpm. The high idle rpm must not be more than the high limit of the tolerance.

If the high idle rpm is more than the high limit of the tolerance, check the governor spring and flyweights. If the high idle rpm is less than the low limit of the tolerance, check for excess parasitic loads and then the governor spring and flyweights.

Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction of more than 25 in. (635 mm) of water difference in pressure.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust outlet elbow and atmosphere) must not be more than 34 in. (864 mm) of water.

Measurement Of Exhaust Temperatures


6V5000 INFRARED THERMOMETER GROUP

Use the 6V5000 Infrared Thermometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8149 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

Cylinder Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or valves that need adjustment. Run the engine at the speed that gives rough running. To find a cylinder that has low compression or does not have good fuel ignition, loosen a fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine rough running. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so more checking of the cylinder will be needed.

An analysis of the engine cylinder condition can be done with controlled pressure air through the cylinder head. Special Instruction GMG00694 explains the procedure.

1. Remove the fuel injection nozzle.

2. Adapt an air hose to 1P5564 Adapter. Install the 1P5564 Adapter in the fuel injection nozzle opening in the cylinder head.

3. Start crankshaft rotation until the piston in the cylinder being inspected is at TC on the compression stroke. In this position the valves of this cylinder will be against their seats.

4. Force the air into the cylinder and then check for air leakage. An air leak from the exhaust opening is an indication of exhaust valve leakage and an air leak from the air cleaner inlet is an indication of intake valve leakage. If the air leakage is into the crankcase during this test, the piston or piston rings can be the cause.

Valve Clearance Setting

Check and adjust valve clearance with engine stopped.

Valve clearance is measured with a thickness gauge between the top of the valve stem and the rocker arm.

NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) is checked, adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the measurement is in the range given in the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED. If the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is necessary. See the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED, and make the setting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this chart.

To check and make adjustment to the valve lash, use the procedure that follows:

1. Remove the valve covers.


CYLINDER, VALVE, AND PUMP LOCATION

2. Turn the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine) until No. 1 piston is at top center on the compression stroke. The TDC-1 mark on the damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer.

3. Make adjustment to the valves for No. 1 and No. 2 cylinders. To make the adjustment, loosen locknut (2). Turn the adjustment screw (1) until the feeler gauge (3) will go between the end of the valve stem and the rocker arm.


VALVE LASH ADJUSTMENT
1. Adjustment screw. 2. Locknut. 3. Feeler gauge.

4. After the adjustment is complete, hold adjustment screw (1) and tighten locknut (2) to 24 ± 5 lb. ft. (32 ± 7 N·m). After the locknut is tightened, check the adjustment again.

5. Turn the crankshaft 180° COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine). The VS mark on the damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer. Make adjustment to the valves for No. 3 and No. 7 cylinders.

6. Turn the crankshaft 180° COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine). The TDC-1 mark on the damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer. Make adjustment to the valves for No. 4 and No. 5 cylinders.


TIGHTENING LOCKNUT

7. Turn the crankshaft 180° COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from rear of engine). The VS mark on damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer. Make adjustment to the valves for No. 6 and No. 8 cylinders.

When the adjustment of the valve lash needs to be done several times in a short period of time, it can be an indication of wear in a different part of the engine. Find the problem and make any necessary repairs to prevent more damage to the engine.

Not enough valve lash, if not corrected, can be the cause of rapid wear of the camshaft and cam followers. Not enough valve lash can also be an indication of the seats for the valves being bad. Some reasons for the seats for the valves becoming bad are fuel injection nozzles with defects, restriction to the inlet air or dirty air filters, wrong fuel setting, or using the engine on loads that are too large for the engine.

Too much valve lash, if not corrected, can be the cause for broken valve stems, push rods, or spring retainers. A fast increase in valve lash can be an indication of any of the following:

a. Camshaft and cam follower with wear.
b. Rocker arms with wear.
c. Push rods that are bent.
d. Loose adjustment screw for the valve lash.
e. Broken socket on the upper end of a push rod.

If the camshaft and cam followers show signs of rapid wear, look for fuel in the lubrication oil or dirty lubrication oil as a possible cause when making the necessary repairs.

Procedure For Measuring Camshaft Lobes

To find lobe lift (A) of camshaft, use the following procedure:

1. Measure lobe height (B) of one exhaust and one intake lobe.

2. Measure base circle (C) of one exhaust and one intake lobe.

3. Subtract base circle (C) dimension (STEP 2) from lobe height (B) dimension (STEP 1). The difference is actual lobe lift (A).

4. The specified (new) lobe lift (A) is:

(a) Exhaust lobe ... .3071 in. ... (7.800 mm)
(b) Intake lobe ... .3077 in. ... (7.816 mm)

5. The maximum permissible difference between actual lobe lift (STEP 3) and specified lobe lift (STEP 4) is .010 in. (0.25 mm).


CAMSHAFT LOBE
A. Lobe lift. B. Lobe height. C. Base circle.

LUBRICATION SYSTEM

One of the problems in the following list will generally be an indication of a problem in the lubrication system for the engine.

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTIONOIL PRESSURE IS LOWOIL PRESSURE IS HIGHTOO MUCH COMPONENT WEARINCREASED OIL TEMPERATURE

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Leakage On Outside Of Engine

Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil is coming out of the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket and seal leakage.

Oil Leakage Into Combustion Area Of Cylinders

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are three possible ways for oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders:

1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve stems.
2. Worn or damaged piston rings or dirty oil return holes.
3. Compression ring not installed correctly.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result of using oil with the wrong viscosity. Oil with a thin (low) viscosity can be caused from dirt or fuel getting in the crankcase, or by the engine getting too hot.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

6V9450 Engine Pressure Group.8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect can give an indication of low oil pressure.

The 6V9450 Engine Pressure Group can be used to check engine oil pressure.


6V9450 ENGINE PRESSURE GROUP

This tool group has a gauge to read oil pressure in the engine. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8524 is with the tool group.

This procedure must be followed exactly for the pressure readings to have any value for comparison with Engine Oil Chart.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with 10W30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the information in the Engine Oil Pressure Chart does not apply.


OIL PRESSURE TEST LOCATION
A. Oil pressure test location at oil cooler.


OIL PRESSURE TEST LOCATION
B. Oil pressure test location at rear of right cylinder head.

2. Install a tee at either test location (A or B). Install a probe from the 8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group in one side of the tee. Connect the 6V9450 Engine Pressure Group to the other side of the tee.

3. Run the engine to get the oil temperature at 200 ± 10°F (93 ± 6°C).

4. Keep the oil temperature constant with the engine at the rated rpm from the chart, and read the pressure gauge.

If the results do not fall within the pressure range given in the chart, find the cause and correct it. Engine failure or a reduction in engine life can be the result if engine operation is continued with oil pressure outside this range.

A minimum low pressure reading of 15 psi (105 kPa) is normal at low idle rpm. If there is no oil pressure, stop the engine immediately.

Oil Pressure Is Low

Crankcase Oil Level

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far below the oil pump supply tube. This will result in the oil pump not having the ability to supply enough lubrication to the engine components.

Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil pump can have a restriction. This will result in cavitation and a loss of oil pressure. Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If the pressure regulating valve for the system is held in the open (unseated) position, the lubrication system can not get to maximum pressure. Oil pump gears that have too much wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure.

Oil Filter And Oil Cooler

A dirty oil filter will cause a reduction in oil pressure. When the oil filter is filled with dirt, a restriction of oil flow thru the filter and a reduction of filtered oil pressure is the result.

The bypass valve will cause the flow of oil to go around the filter elements when there is a reduction to the flow through the elements. When the bypass valve is open, oil that is not filtered is permitted to flow thru the engine. To correct this problem, install a new Caterpillar filter.

Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the oil cooler. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil cooler bypass valve in the oil filter base will open. This will cause the flow of oil to go around the oil cooler. The oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is running. The oil pressure of the engine will become low if the oil cooler has a restriction.

Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings or Open, Broken or Disconnected Oil Line or Passage in Lubrication System

Components that are worn and have too much bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected.

Oil Pressure Is High

Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the oil pump can not move from the closed position.

Too Much Component Wear

When some components of the engine show bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in the oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the cause.

If the gauge for oil pressure shows the correct oil pressure, but a component is worn because it is not getting enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil supply to that component. A restriction in a supply passage will not let enough lubrication get to a component and this will cause early wear.

Increased Oil Temperature

Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the oil cooler. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is operated. The oil pressure of the engine will not get low just because the oil cooler has a restriction.

Also check the oil cooler bypass valve to see if it is held in the open position (unseated). This condition will let the oil through the valve instead of the oil cooler, and oil temperature will increase.

Cooling System

The cooling system is a pressure type with regulators at the outlet, the cooling system is equipped with a shunt line.

A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can have safe operation at a temperature that is higher than the normal boiling (steam) point of water. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (the sudden making of low pressure bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces) in the water pump. With this type system, it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to be made in the cooling system.

The cause for an engine getting too hot is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not made. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before testing with testing equipment.

Visual Inspection Of The Cooling System

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler cap or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

1. After the engine is cool, loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the pressure cap.

2. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

3. Look for leaks in the system.

4. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

5. Inspect the drive for the fan.

6. Check for damage to the fan blades.

7. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

8. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing surface for the cap. The sealing surface must be clean.

9. Look for large amounts of dirt in the radiator core and on the engine.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and height above sea level on the boiling (steam) point of water.

Test Tools For Cooling System

8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group.9S7373 Air Meter Group.1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.6V3121 Multitach Group.9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

The 8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine hotter than normal) or overcooling (engine cooler than normal) problems. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of the cooling system. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8446.



8T470 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. The test procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7063.



9S7373 AIR METER GROUP

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group is used to check the fan speed. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015.



1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP



6V3121 MULTITACH GROUP

The 6V3121 Multitach Group can also be used to check the fan speed. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7807.

Pressure Cap Test

9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a bad seal on the pressure cap of the system. Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or to the surface that seals. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, valve, seal, or surface that seals must be removed.

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.


TYPICAL SCHEMATIC OF PRESSURE CAP
A. Sealing Surface of cap and radiator.

To check the pressure cap for the pressure that makes the pressure cap open, use the procedure that follows:

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

1. After the engine is cool, loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the pressure cap.

2. Put the pressure cap on the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP

3. Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that makes the pressure cap open.

4. Make a comparison of the reading on the gauge with the correct pressure at which the pressure cap must open.

NOTE: The correct pressure that makes the pressure cap open is on the pressure cap and is also in the SPECIFICATIONS.

5. If the pressure cap is bad, install a new pressure cap.

Radiator And Cooling System Leak Tests (Systems That Use Pressure Cap)

To test the radiator and cooling system for leaks, use the procedure that follows:

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

1. After the engine is cool, loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the pressure cap.

2. Make sure the coolant is over the top of the radiator core.

3. Put the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group on the radiator.

4. Get the pressure reading on the gauge to 3 psi (20 kPa) more than the pressure on the pressure cap.

5. Check the radiator for outside leakage.

6. Check all connections and hoses for the cooling system for outside leakage.

7. If you do not see any outside leakage and the pressure reading on the gauge is still the same after 5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system does not have leakage. If the reading on the gauge goes down and you do not see any outside leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the cooling system. Make repairs as necessary.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP
A. Release valve. B. Adapter. C. Hose.

------ WARNING! ------

If a pressure indication is shown on the gauge, to avoid personal injury push release valve (A) to release all pressure in the system before removal of hose (C) from radiator.

--------WARNING!------

Gauge for Water Temperature

8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system can be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage.

If a place can not be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the gauge for water temperature. Use the 8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

------ WARNING! ------

Work carefully around an engine that is running. Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.

--------WARNING!------


8T470 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP INSTALLED (Typical Example)

Start the engine. Put a cover over part of the radiator. The reading on the gauge for water temperature must be the same as the reading on the thermistor thermometer.

Temperature Regulator

Test procedure for water temperature regulators:

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Put heat to a pan of water. Get the temperature of the water to 197°F (92°C).

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of hot water. Put the regulator completely under the water. Do not let the regulator make contact with the pan.

4. Keep the temperature of the water at 197°F (92°C) for ten minutes. Make the water move around. This keeps all of the water at the same temperature.

5. After ten minutes, remove the regulator and immediately measure the distance the regulator is opened. The distance must not be less than 1.490 in. (37.85 mm).

Water Pump Pressure Check

9S8138 Pressure Gauge.3B7722 Bushing.

The pressure at the outlet for the water pump tells if the shunt system and water pump are operating correctly. To check the pump pressure, install pressure gauge (2) in the front cover. The pressure must be a minimum of 15 psi (105 kPa) at 2800 rpm.

If the pump pressure is less than the minimum pressure: First, check the vent tube between the radiator top tank and the surge tank; it must have an inside diameter of approximately .19 in. (4.8 mm).

Second check to see that the shunt line has a minimum inside diameter of .75 in. (19.1 mm).


GAUGE INSTALLED (Typical Example)
1. 3B7722 Bushing. 2. 9S8138 Pressure Gauge.

Heater Connections


LOCATIONS OF HEATER CONNECTIONS

The front housing has several plugs that give access to water passages inside the housing. For the correct access points to install heater hoses, see the LOCATIONS OF HEATER CONNECTIONS picture.

V-Belt Tension Chart

Dynamometer Test Caution

To prevent possible damage to an engine while testing on a dynamometer, the water temperature regulators must be installed and shunt line (2) connected as shown.


SHUNT LINE CONNECTED TO ENGINE (Typical Example)
1. FT790 Cooling Tower Group. 2. Shunt line.

Procedure For Assembling Fan Mounting Pulley Assemblies

1. Install bearing cups (3 and 5) in pulley (1)

2. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant in bearing cone (4).

3. Install bearing cone (4) in bearing cup (5).

4. Install seal (2) in pulley (1). Be sure the sealing lip of seal (2) is toward bearing cone (4). Put a small amount of 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant on the lip of seal (2).


TYPICAL PULLEY
1. Pulley. 2. Seal. 3. Bearing cup. 4. Bearing cone. 5. Bearing cup.


TYPICAL PULLEY ASSEMBLY WITH HEXAGON NUT AND PINNED SHAFT
1. Pulley. 2. Seal. 3. Bearing cup. 4. Bearing cone. 5. Bearing cup. 6. Sleeve. 7. Bearing cone. 8. Shaft. 9. Hexagon nut. 11. Washer. 12. Spacer. 15. Pin. A. Area to put lubricant.

5. Install sleeve (6) and pulley (1) on shaft (8).


NOTICE

Do not damage the sealing lip of seal (2) when putting the pulley on the shaft.


6. Install the 4N7950 Spacer (12) on shaft (8). The 4N7950 Spacer is .440 ± .001 in. (11.18 ± 0.03 mm) long.

7. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant around spacer (12) until area (A) is one-third to one-half full of lubricant.

8. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant in bearing cone (7) and install the bearing in bearing cup (3).

9. Install washer (11) and nut (9).

10. Tighten nut to 110 ± 15 lb. ft. (149 ± 20 N·m).

11. After the nut is tightened, check the end clearance of pulley (1). The pulley must have .001 to .010 in. (0.03 to 0.25 mm) end clearance.

12. If the end clearance is less than .001 in. (0.03 mm), remove the 4N7950 Spacer (12) and install a 4N7951 Spacer. The 4N7951 Spacer is .450 ± .001 in. (11.43 ± 0.03 mm) long. Assemble the pulley and again check end clearance. If the original end clearance is more than .010 in. (0.25 mm), remove the 4N7950 Spacer and install a 4N7949 Spacer. The 4N7949 Spacer is .430 ± .001 in. (10.92 ± 0.03 mm) long.

NOTE: Be sure to put 3S3230 Bearing Lubricant around the new spacer so area (A) is one-third to one-half full of lubricant. Always put more lubricant in bearing cone (7) before installing in bearing cup (3).

13. Install the remainder of the parts and again tighten nut (9) to 110 ± 15 lb. ft. (149 ± 20 N·m). Check the end clearance again to be sure it is correct.

14. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant in area (B). Area (B) must be a minimum of one-third to one-half full of lubricant.

15. Install gasket (18), cover (16), and screws (17). Tighten screws (17) to 40 ± 7 lb. in. (4.5 ± 0.8 N·m).


PULLEY ASSEMBLY WITH HUB INSTALLED
9. Nut. 16. Hub. 17. Bolts. 18. Gasket. B. Area to put lubricant.

Basic Block

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use the 5F9059 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use the 5P3524 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder block.

Tighten the connecting rod nuts in the following step sequence:

1. Put 2P2506 Thread Lubricant on bolt threads and seating faces of cap and nut.

2. Tighten both nuts to 30 ± 3 lb. ft. (40 ± 4 N·m).

3. Put a mark on each nut and cap.

4. Tighten each nut 60° from the mark.

The connecting rod bearings should fit tightly in the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are worn (fretted), check for bore size as this is an indication of wear because of looseness.

5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge

A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available for checking ring grooves with straight sides. For instructions on the use of the gauge, see the GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.

NOTE: The 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is used to check the top ring groove only.


PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Bearings are available with a smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than the original size). Main bearings are available with a larger outside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger than the original size).

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

8T5096 Dial Indicator Group.

Heat the ring gear to install it. Do not heat to more than 400°F (204°C). Install the ring gear so the chamfer on the gear teeth is next to the starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearances must be removed to get correct measurements.

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of the flywheel housing.

2. Force the crankshaft to the rear before reading the indicator at each point.


8T5096 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP

3. With the dial indicator set at .000 in. at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the indicator at locations (B), (C), and (D).

4. The difference between lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .010 in. (0.25 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel housing.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

Bore Runout (Radial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel Housing

1. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to .000 in. Push the crankshaft up against the top bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

2. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING


8T5096 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

3. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to .000 in.

4. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write down the measurement in the chart.

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Add lines I & II by columns.

8. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

10. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable," the flywheel housing must be changed.

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Force the crankshaft the same way before the indicator is read so the crankshaft end clearance (movement) is always removed.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (Radial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH PILOT BEARING BORE

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in.

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed .005 in. (0.13 mm).

Allison Transmission Mounting Group Alignment

8T5096 Dial Indicator Group.

To help prevent a failure to the flex plate, the flywheel housing spacer and the transmission adapter must be in correct alignment with the crankshaft.

NOTE: The flywheel housing and flywheel runout must be acceptable before the transmission mounting group is installed.

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel Housing Spacer

1. Install the transmission adapter and flex plate on the flywheel. Tighten the bolts to 55 ± 5 lb. ft. (75 ± 7 N·m). Install the flywheel housing spacer on the flywheel housing.

2. Fasten a dial indicator to the transmission adapter and position the indicator so the anvil touches the face of the flywheel housing spacer.


8T5096 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

3. Move the crankshaft to the rear to remove all end clearance before a reading is taken at each point.

4. Set the dial indicator to .000 in. at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the indicator at locations (B), (C), and (D).


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING SPACER
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

5. The difference between positive (+) and negative (-) measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .008 in. (0.20 mm) for AT540 Transmission and .020 in. (0.51 mm) for MT643 and MT653 Transmissions.

Bore Runout (Radial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel Housing Spacer


8T5096 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the transmission adapter and position the indicator so the anvil touches the large bore of the flywheel housing spacer.

2. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to .000 in. Push the crankshaft up against the top bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

3. Divide the measurement from step 1 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING

4. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to .000 in.

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

8. Add lines I & II by columns.

9. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

10. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY FOR AT540 TRANSMISSION


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY FOR MT643 AND MT653 TRANSMISSION

11. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable", remove the spacer and check the bore in the flywheel housing for dirt or damage.

Bore Runout (Radial Eccentricity) Of The Transmission Adapter

1. Fasten the dial indicator to the flywheel housing and position the dial indicator so the anvil touches the bore of the transmission adapter.

2. Adjust the dial indicator to read .000 in. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

3. The difference between positive (+) and negative (-) measurements taken at all four locations must not be more than .010 in. (0.25 mm) for AT540 Transmissions and .005 in. (0.13 mm) for MT643 and MT653 Transmissions.


8T5096 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) Of The Transmission Adapter

1. Fasten the dial indicator to the flywheel housing and position the indicator so the anvil touches the face of the flex plate 3.00 in. (76.2 mm) from the center of the transmission adapter bore.


8T5096 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

2. Move the crankshaft to the rear to remove all end clearance before a reading is taken at each location.

3. Adjust the dial indicator to read .000 in. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the positive (+) and negative (-) measurements taken at all four locations must be .003 in. (0.08 mm) for AT540, MT643 and MT653 Transmissions.

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) Of The Flex Plate

1. Fasten the dial indicator to the flywheel housing and position the indicator so the anvil touches the face of the flex plate at the large diameter bolt circle.


8T5096 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

2. Turn the crankshaft to the position the indicator anvil next to one of the bolts on the large diameter of the flex plate. Move the crankshaft to the rear to remove all end clearance before a reading is taken at each location.

3. Adjust the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.00 mm). Turn the flywheel and read the indicator at a location next to each bolt on the large diameter of the flex plate.

4. The difference between the positive (+) and negative (-) measurements taken at all locations must not be more than .030 in. (0.76 mm) for AT540, MT643 and MT653 Transmissions.

Electrical System

Test Tools For Electrical System

6V4930 Battery Load Tester.8T900 AC/DC Clamp-On Ammeter.6V7070 Heavy-Duty Digital Multimeter or6V7800 Regular-Duty Digital Multimeter.

Most of the tests of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections must be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully charged. If the on-engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

The service manual TESTING AND ADJUSTING ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS, Form No. REG00636 has complete specifications and procedures for the components of the starting circuit and the charging unit.


6V4930 BATTERY LOAD TESTER

The 6V4930 Battery Load Tester is a portable unit in a metal case for use under field conditions and high temperatures. It can be used to load test all 6, 8 and 12V batteries. This tester has two heavy-duty load cables that can easily be fastened to the battery terminals, and a load adjustment knob on the front panel permits a current range up to a maximum of 700 amperes. The tester also has a thermometer to show when the safe operating temperature limit of the unit has been reached.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8268 for more complete information for use of the 6V4930 Battery Load Tester.


8T900 AC/DC CLAMP-ON AMMETER

The 8T900 AC/DC Clamp-On Ammeter is a completely portable, self-contained instrument that allows electrical current measurements to be made without breaking the circuit or disturbing the insulation on conductors. A digital display is located on the ammeter for reading current directly in a range from 1 to 1200 amperes. If an optional 6V6014 Cable is connected between this ammeter and one of the digital multimeters, current readings of less than 1 ammeter can then be read directly from the display of the multimeter.

A lever is used to open the jaws over the conductor [up to a diameter of .75 in (19 mm)], and the spring loaded jaws are then closed around the conductor for current measurement. A trigger switch that can be locked in the ON or OFF position is used to turn on the ammeter. When the turn-on trigger is released, the last current reading is held on the display for 5 seconds. This allows accurate measurements to be taken in limited access areas where the digital display is not visible to the operator. A zero control is provided for DC operation, and power for the ammeter is supplied by batteries located inside the handle.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8420 for more complete information for use of the 8T900 Clamp-On Ammeter.


6V7070 HEAVY-DUTY DIGITAL MULTIMETER

The 6V7070 Heavy-Duty Digital Multimeter is a completely portable, hand held instrument with a digital display. This multimeter is built with extra protection against damage in field applications, and is equipped with seven functions and 29 ranges. The 6V7070 Multimeter has an instant ohms indicator that permits continuity checks for fast circuit inspection. It also can be used for troubleshooting small value capacitors.

The 6V7800 Regular-Duty Digital Multimeter (a low cost option to the Heavy-Duty Multimeter) is also available; however, the 6V7800 Multimeter does not have the 10A range or the instant ohms feature of the 6V7070 Multimeter.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7734 for more complete information for use of the 6V7070 and 6V7800 Multimeters.

Battery

------ WARNING! ------

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to personnel can be the result.

--------WARNING!------

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit can result if the connections (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is in operation. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage can damage, not only the charging unit, but also the regulator and other electrical components.

Use the 6V4930 Battery Load Tester, the 8T900 Clamp-On Ammeter and the 6V7070 Multimeter to load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. See Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8268 for the correct procedure and specifications to use.

Charging System

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system operates correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is constantly in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (more than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 100 service hours).

When it is possible, make a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator on the engine, and use wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off-engine (bench) testing will give a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. After repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that the units are repaired to their original condition of operation.

Before the start of on-engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked as shown in the Steps that follow:

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.225 Sp. Gr.) fully charged and held tightly in place. The Battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches, and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give correct circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and have the ability to operate the charging unit.

Alternator Regulator Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can made to the charging rate of the alternator. Make reference to the SPECIFICATIONS section to find all testing specifications for the alternators and regulators.


5N5692 ALTERNATOR
1. Ground terminal. 2. Pulley nut.

No adjustment can be made to change the rate of charge on the alternator regulators. If rate of charge is not correct, a replacement of the regulator is necessary.

Alternator Pulley Nut Tightening (Delco-Remy)

Tighten nut that holds the pulley to a torque of 75 ± 5 lb. ft. (100 ± 10 N·m) with the tools shown.


TOOLS TO TIGHTEN ALTERNATOR PULLEY NUT
1. 5P7425 Torque Wrench. 2. 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). 3. FT1697 Socket. 4. 8H8517 Combination-Wrench (1 1/8". 5. FT1696 Wrench.

Starting System

Use the multimeter in the DCV range to find starting system components which do not function.

Move the start control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.

If the solenoid for the starter motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery did not get to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the multimeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. A zero reading is an indication that there is a broken circuit from the battery. More testing is necessary when there is a voltage reading on the multimeter.

The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the multimeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the multimeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. A zero reading on the multimeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance.

Make a test with one multimeter lead fastened to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the multimeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltage reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. A zero reading is an indication that the problem is in the start switch or the wires for the start switch.

Fasten one multimeter lead to the start switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. A zero reading indicates a broken circuit from the battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and wiring. If there is a voltage reading, the problem is in the start switch or in the wires for the start switch.

A starter motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starter motor can also be caused by a short circuit, loose connections and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

When the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starter motor removed.


CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.

1. Install the solenoid without connector (1) from the MOTOR connections (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.

3. Connect the other side of the battery to ground terminal (3).

4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked MOTOR to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

5. Push the pinion toward the commutator end to remove free movement.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be .33 to .39 in. (8.3 to 9.9 mm).

7. To adjust pinion clearance, remove plug and turn nut (4).

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