D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Caterpillar


Testing And Adjusting

Usage:



Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting can be difficult. On the following pages there is a list of possible problems. To make a repair to a problem, make reference to the cause and correction.

This list of problems, causes, and corrections, will only give an indication of where a possible problem can be, and what repairs are needed. Normally, more or other repair work is needed beyond the recommendations in the list.

Remember that a problem is not normally caused only by one part, but by the relation of one part with other parts. This list can not give all possible problems and corrections. The serviceman must find the problem and its source, then make the necessary repairs.

Troubleshooting Index

1. Engine Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On.
2. Engine Will Not Start.
3. Misfiring or Running Rough.
4. Stall at Low rpm.
5. Sudden Changes In Engine rpm.
6. Not Enough Power.
7. Too Much Vibration.
8. Loud Combustion Noise.
9. Valve Train Noise (Clicking).
10. Oil In Cooling System.
11. Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine.
12. Fuel Consumption Too High.
13. Loud Valve Train Noise.
14. Too Much Valve Lash.
15. Valve Rotocoil or Spring Lock is Free.
16. Oil at the Exhaust.
17. Little or No Valve Clearance.
18. Engine Has Early Wear.
19. Coolant In Lubrication Oil.
20. Too Much Black or Gray Smoke.
21. Too Much White or Blue Smoke.
22. Engine Has Low Oil Pressure.
23. Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil.
24. Engine Coolant Is Too Hot.
25. Starting Motor Does Not Turn.
26. Alternator Gives No Charge.
27. Alternator Charge Rate Is Low or Not Regular.
28. Alternator Charge Too High.
29. Alternator Has Noise.
30. Exhaust Temperature Too High.

Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On

Engine Will Not Start

Misfiring Or Running Rough

Stall At Low RPM

Sudden Changes In Engine Speed (rpm)

Not Enough Power

Too Much Vibration

Loud Combustion Noise (Sound)

Valve Train Noise (Clicking)

Oil In Cooling System

Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine

Fuel Consumption Too High

Loud Valve Train Noise

Too Much Valve Lash

Valve Rotocoil Or Spring Lock Is Free

Oil At The Exhaust

Little Or No Valve Clearance

Engine Has Early Wear

Coolant In Lubrication Oil

Too Much Black Or Gray Smoke

Too Much White Or Blue Smoke

Engine Has Low Oil Pressure

Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil

Engine Coolant Is Too Hot

Starting Motor Does Not Turn

Alternator Gives No Charge

Alternator Charge Rate Is Low Or Not Regular

Alternator Charge Too High

Alternator Has Noise

Exhaust Temperature Is Too High

Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by one or more of the reasons that follow:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.
b. An overload at high altitude.
c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber.
d. Not enough compression.

Fuel System Inspection

A problem with the components that send fuel to the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease engine performance.

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad bend.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter if so equipped.

4. Remove any air that may be in the fuel system. If there is air in the fuel system, use the priming pump and loosen the nuts holding the fuel lines to the outside of the cylinder head, one at a time. Do this until fuel, without air, comes from the fuel line connection.

5. Inspect the fuel control valve to see that there is no restriction to good operation.

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that runs rough (misfires) and causes black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine performance, test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an indication of the condition of a fuel injection nozzle. Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication of a nozzle with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by a nozzle with a defect.

The most common defects found with the fuel injection valves are:

1. Carbon on tip of the nozzle or in the nozzle orifice.
2. Orifice wear.
3. Dirty nozzle screen.

Testing Capsule-Type Fuel Injection Nozzles For PC Engines

5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group
5P4720 Fitting5P8744 Adapter or5P4717 Adapter
8S2270 Fuel CollectorFT1384 Extension


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration Oil when testing. Dirty test oil will damage components of the fuel injection nozzle. The temperature of the test oil must be 65° to 75° F (18° to 24° C) for good test results.


Order calibration oil by part number, in the quantities needed, according to the information that follows:

Kent-Moore Corp.
1501 South Jackson St.
Jackson, MI 49203
J-26400-5 [5 gal. (18.9 litre)]J-26400-15 [15 gal. (56.7 litre)]J-26400-30 [30 gal. (113.5 litre)]J-26400-55 [55 gal. (208.2 litre)]

Viscosity Oil Company
3200 South Western Ave.
Chicago, IL 60608
Viscor Calibration Fluid1487C-SAE J-967CAvailable in 30 gal. (113.5 litre) or55 gal. (208.2 litre) drums.


5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP
A. 5P4721 Tube. B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa) used to test PC capsule valves. C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa) used to test DI capsule valves and pencil-type nozzles. D. Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge (B). E. Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge (C). F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve. H. 5P4720 Fitting. J. 5P8744 Adapter for capsule nozzles. K. 5P4244 Adapter for pencil-type nozzles.


EXTRA VALVE
L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all times).

The test procedures that follow will give an indication of nozzle condition. A nozzle that has a defect is not always the only cause for a specific engine problem.

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Fuel comes from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The fuel can pierce (go thru) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

--------WARNING!------

Nozzle Tester Preparation


ILLUSTRATION I
1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P8744 Adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter. M. FT1384 Extension. N. 8S2270 Fuel Collector.

Find an old capsule type fuel nozzle and weld the orifice closed. Keep this fuel nozzle with the tester group for use in the future.

NOTE: Do not weld the fuel nozzles that are to be tested.

Illustration I shows the latest 5P8744 Adapter. Illustration II shows the former 5P4717 Adapter. Unless some indication is made, the procedure is the same for use of either adapter.

1. Install the top part of adapter (J) that holds the capsule valve.

2. Put test nozzle (1) (with welded orifice) in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J) that holds the capsule valve. Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).


ILLUSTRATION II
1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P4717 Adapter (J). J. 5P4717 Adapter.

3. Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G). Open gauge protector valve (E).

4. Operate the tester pump until a pressure of 3500 psi (24 000 kPa) is read on 2P2324 Gauge (C). Now, close pump isolator valve (G).

5. Check all connections for leaks. Tighten connections to stop any leaks that are found.

6. Open on-off valve (F) and remove test (welded) fuel nozzle.

------ WARNING! ------

Do not loosen the bottom half of the adapter to remove fuel nozzle until on-off valve is opened and no pressure is read on the gauge. Unless the high pressure is released in the pump, the fuel discharge from the adapter can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------

NOTE: To prevent fuel leakage, the top surface of the test (welded) nozzle, and all other nozzles that are to be tested, must be free of scratches or burrs (sharp edges).

The procedure for NOZZLE TESTER PREPARATION must be done each time any of the conditions that follow exist:

a. The complete 5P8744 or 5P4717 Adapter is removed and installed again.
b. Before and after a series of tests.
c. There is an indication of a problem with the nozzle tester.

Fuel Nozzle Test Sequence

To test PC capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the sequence that follows:

I. Nozzle Installation
II. Pressure Loss Test
III. Valve Opening Pressure Test (VOP)


NOTICE

DO NOT use a drill or a reamer on the orifice of a nozzle. DO NOT use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the valve can be damaged easily.


I. Nozzle Installation

1. Put one of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J). Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).

2. Close on-off valve (F). Open gauge protector valve (D) one-half turn. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.


AIR REMOVAL FROM TESTER
2. Bottom part of adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter.

3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows:

a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (J) one-half turn.

b. Operate the pump until clear oil (free of air bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of adapter (J).

NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may start to increase before there is an indication of clear test oil. To correct this condition, do Step C.

c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adapter (J).

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and normally needs very little force when turned on bottom part (2) of the adapter.

II. Pressure Loss Test

1. Open gauge protector valve (D) an extra amount of one-half turn (the total amount is now one turn open).


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to 300 psi (2050 kPa), and close pump isolator valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (D) to adjust pressure again to 300 psi (2050 kPa).

3. After 30 seconds, take a pressure reading from the gauge. The pressure at this time must not be below 100 psi (690 kPa) reading on the dial face.

4. The valve must not lose more than 200 psi (1380 kPa).

5. If the pressure loss is not in the 200 psi (1380 kPa) range as shown, stop the test sequence. Do not use the fuel nozzle again.

6. If nozzle is in specification range, see VALVE OPENING PRESSURE TEST (VOP).


PRESSURE LOSS RANGE FOR GOOD NOZZLE

III. Valve Opening Pressure Test (VOP)

1. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.

2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slowly until test oil comes from the nozzle tip.


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.


VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) RANGE FOR GOOD NOZZLE

3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time must be in the pressure range of 400 to 750 psi (2750 to 5200 kPa) as shown.

4. If the valve opening pressure (VOP) is not in the 400 to 750 psi (2750 to 5200 kPa) range as shown, do not use the fuel nozzle again.

Fuel Injection Service

Injection Valve (Capsule-Type Nozzle)

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from the precombustion chamber, test the nozzle before it is again installed in the precombustion chamber. See TESTING CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJECTION NOZZLES FOR PC ENGINES.

Before installation of a fuel injection valve, inspect the valve and precombustion chamber for dirt or damage on the surfaces that go together.

It is important to keep the correct torque on the nut that holds the fuel nozzle in the precombustion chamber. Tighten the fuel injection valve on the body finger tight. Tighten the nut to 105 ± 5 lb.ft. (142 ± 7 N·m). There will be damage to the nozzle if the nut is too tight. If the nut is not tight enough, the nozzle can leak.

Removal of Injection Pump

When injection pump barrels and plungers are removed from the injection pump housing, keep the parts of each pump together so they can be installed back in their original location.

Be careful when removing injection pumps. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when putting the plunger in the bore of the barrel.

1. Remove the fuel injection line from the pump and install cover (1) and plug (3).

2. Lift the pump straight up to clear the dowel pins and the pump plunger. Install seals (4) and plug (2) for protection from dirt.


REMOVING FUEL INJECTION PUMP
1. Cover. 2. Plug. 3. Plug. 4. Seal.

3. Slide the end of the plunger out of the yoke in the lifter and lift out the plunger. Be sure the plunger is installed in the barrel from which it was removed.

Be careful when injection pumps are disassembled. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when the plunger is put in the bore of the barrel.

An injection pump can have a good fuel flow output but not be a good pump becuase of slow timing that is caused by wear on the bottom end of the plunger. When a test is made on a pump that has been used for a long time, use a micrometer and measure the length of the plunger. If the length of the plunger is shorter than the minimum length (worn) dimension given in the chart, install a new pump.

Look for wear at the top part of the plunger. Check the operation of the plunger according to the instructions for the Fuel Injection Test Bench.

When there is too much wear on the pump plunger, the lifter yoke may also be worn and there will not be good contact between the two parts. To stop fast wear on the end of a new plunger, install new lifter yokes in the place of those with wear.


WEAR BETWEEN LIFTER YOKE AND PLUNGER
Fig. A illustrates the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger and a new lifter yoke. In Fig. B the pump plunger and lifter yoke have worn considerably. Fig. C shows how the flat end of a new plunger does not make a good contact with a worn lifter yoke. The result is rapid wear to both parts.

Installation of Injection Pump

The seal under the machined surface, around the large diameter of the pump must be in correct position when the pump is installed. Also, there must be a seal around the fuel outlet ferrule on the fuel pump housing. If either seal is damaged install a new one.

1. Remove the pump plunger from the barrel.

2. Wash the pump plunger and barrel with clean diesel fuel before installing.

3. Turn the pump plunger, until tooth (6) with a mark is in alignment with rack mark (5).

4. Slide the end of the plunger into the yoke in the lifter.

5. Lower the pump barrel onto the plunger, taking care that the pump plunger is straight in the barrel.


INSTALLING FUEL INJECTION PUMP
5. Mark on rack. 6. Tooth mark.

6. Lower the pump onto the dowel pins and fasten in place. Tighten bolts (8) first and then tighten bolts (7). Torque for bolts is 32 ± 5 lb.ft. (43 ± 7 N·m). Torque for the fuel line nuts is 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m).


SEQUENCE TO TIGHTEN BOLTS
7. Bolts, tighten second. 8. Bolts, tighten first.

Start Up Procedure

Use this procedure when an engine is started for the first time after work is done on the fuel injection pumps or governor.

1. Remove the air cleaner covers and air cleaner elements from the air inlets of both turbochargers.

2. Have a person in position near each turbocharger air inlet with a piece of steel plate large enough to completely cover the turbocharger air inlet.

3. If the engine starts to run too fast or runs out of control, immediately put the steel plates against the turbocharger air inlet. This will stop the air supply to the engine and the engine will stop.


STOPPING THE ENGINE

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and a 5P144 Socket to tighten the fuel line nuts to 30±5 lb.ft. (40±7 N·m).

Locating Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group or2P8300 Engine Turning Tool Group


5P7307 ENGINE TURNING TOOL
2. 5P7306 Housing. 3. 5P7305 Gear.

No. 1 piston at top center on the compression stroke is the starting point for all timing procedures.

NOTE: The engine is seen from the flywheel end when the direction of crankshaft rotation is given. Normal direction of crankshaft rotation for standard engines is counterclockwise, and for opposite rotation engines is clockwise.

1. Remove the valve cover for No. 1 cylinder. The two valves at the front of the right bank are the intake and exhaust valves for No. 1 cylinder.

2. Remove the timing mark cover from the right side of the flywheel housing.


TIMING MARKS ON FLYWHEEL (16 Cylinder Engine Illustrated)
1. Pointer.

3. Remove the starter from the right side of the engine. Install 5P7307 or 2P8300 Engine Turning Tool.

NOTE: Put 5P906 Grease in bore of 5P7306 or 2P8294 housing before the pinion is installed.


TIMING MARKS ON FLYWHEEL (8 and 12 Cylinder Engines Illustrated)
1. Pointer.

4. Turn the crankshaft in a direction opposite of normal rotation approximately 30 degrees. The reason for making this step is to be sure the play is removed from the timing gears when the engine is put on top center.

5. Turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation until the timing marks on the flywheel are in alignment with the pointer in the flywheel housing.

NOTE: If the crankshaft is turned beyond the timing mark, turn the crankshaft in the direction opposite of normal rotation a minimum of 30 degrees before the crankshaft is turned to the timing mark again.

6. The intake and exhaust valves for No. 1 cylinder will be closed if No. 1 piston is on the compression stroke. You can move the rocker arms up and down with your hand. If the No. 1 piston is not on the compression stroke, turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation 360 degrees and make alignment of the timing mark and the pointer.

Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing With Timing Pin

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove timing pin (2) from fuel inlet flange (1) and remove fuel inlet flange.


TIMING PIN
1. Fuel inlet flange. 2. Timing pin.


TIMING PIN LOCATED IN TIMING SLOT (Pump housing removed for better illustration)
2. Timing pin. 3. Timing slot.

3. Turn the timing pin into the timing hole in the fuel injection pump housing. If the timing pin goes into the timing slot (3) of the fuel pump camshaft, the threads on the timing pin can not be seen.

4. If the timing pin goes into the timing slot of the fuel pump camshaft, the fuel pump camshaft is correctly in time with the crankshaft. If the timing pin does not go into the timing slot of the fuel pump camshaft, make reference to TIMING THE CAMSHAFT FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMPS.

Checking Timing By Measuring Timing Dimension (Depth Micrometer)

6F6922 Micrometer Depth Gauge

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump and plunger from the housing. Clean all dirt and paint from the surface of the fuel injection housing.


MEASURING LIFTER DIMENSION (Typical Illustration)
A. Distance to be measured.

3. Install the 2 to 3 in. shaft in the depth micrometer. Put the depth micrometer on the fuel injection housing as shown and measure dimension (A). See the chart for the correct ON ENGINE lifter setting dimensions.

NOTE: If the timing dimension is not correct, check to see if the timing pin will go in the slot of the fuel pump camshaft. If the timing pin will not fit, make reference to TIMING THE CAMSHAFT FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMPS. If the timing pin does fit, make reference to SETTING FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION: OFF ENGINE.

Checking Timing By Measuring Timing Dimension (Dial Indicator)

5P4165 Dial Indicator Group8S3158 Indicator3P1565 Collet Clamp5P4156 Base5P4161 Contact Point, 2.75 in. (69.9 mm) long.5P4158 Gauge 2.00 in. (50.8 mm)5P4159 Gauge stand

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump and plunger from the housing. Clean all dirt and paint from the surface of the fuel injection housing.

3. Install 3P1565 Collet Clamp in 5P4156 Base. Put 8S3158 Indicator in collet. Be sure the indicator is against the shoulder in the collet and tighten the nut to prevent the indicator from moving in the collet. Put 5P4161 Contact Point 2.75 in. (69.9 mm) long on the indicator.

4. The indicator must be adjusted to zero before any measurements are taken. Put 5P4158 Gauge 2.00 in. (50.8 mm) on the 5P4159 Gauge Stand and put indicator with contact point on the gauge until the indicator base is even with the gauge. Loosen the screw on the dial clamp and turn dial face until the zero is in alignment with the larger pointer. Tighten the clamp for the dial. Make a note of the position of the revolution counter (small pointer). The indicator now reads zero for a measurement of 2.00 in. (50.8 mm).


MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
A. Timing dimension.

5. Put the indicator assembly on the fuel injection housing as shown and measure dimension (A). See the chart for the correct ON ENGINE lifter setting dimensions.

NOTE: If the timing dimension is not correct, check to see if timing pin will go in the slot of the fuel pump camshaft. If the timing pin will not fit, make reference to TIMING THE CAMSHAFT FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMPS. If the timing pin does fit, make reference to SETTING FUEL INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION: OFF ENGINE.

Checking Timing By The Fuel Flow Method

1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group3S2954 Engine Timing Indicator Group or5P6524 Engine Timing Indicator Group9S215 Dial Indicator3P1565 Collet3S3270 Contact Point 1.75 in. (44.5 mm) long3S3264 Rod 7.12 in. (180.9 mm) long5P7265 Adapter7M1999 Tube Assembly

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.


MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL
1. 3P1565 Collet. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator with 3S3270 Contact Point. 3. 5P7265 Adapter. 4. Precombustion chamber. 5. 3S3264 Rod. 6. Inlet port. 7. Piston.

2. Disconnect the fuel line from No. 1 cylinder fuel injection valve body. Remove the valve body and the fuel valve from the precombustion chamber.

3. Install 5P7265 Adapter (3) in precombustion chamber (4). Tighten the adapter finger tight only to prevent damage to the fuel injection valve seat. Put a small amount of oil on 3S3264 Rod (5) and put the rod in the adapter with the small end down.

4. Install 3P1565 Collet (1) on the adapter. Put the 3S3270 Contact Point on 9S215 Indicator (2) and put the indicator in the collet.


5P6524 ENGINE TIMING INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

5. Turn the crankshaft a minimum of 45 degrees in a direction opposite of normal rotation. Slowly turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation until a maximum reading is seen on the dial indicator. Adjust the indicator up or down in the collet until the revolution counter is at +.300 in. (Black Numbers). Tighten the collet to hold the indicator in this position. Loosen the bezel lock and turn the bezel until the zero on the face of the dial is in alignment with the hand. Tighten the bezel lock.

6. Slowly turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation until the dial indicator moves beyond .020 in. Now turn the crankshaft in the opposite direction until the dial indicator is at .020 in.

7. Make a temporary mark on a rotating component (flywheel, vibration damper, or crankshaft pulley) in relation to a stationary pointer or mark.


NOTICE

Do not use a hammer and punch to mark a vibration damper.


8. Turn the crankshaft in the direction opposite of normal rotation beyond the maximum indicator reading and beyond .020 in. Now turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation until the dial indicator is at .020 in.

9. Make a second temporary mark on the rotating component in relation to the stationary pointer or mark. Now make a mark on the rotating component that is one-half the distance between the two temporary marks. This mark is the point of most accuracy for top center No. 1 piston.

10. Turn the crankshaft in the direction opposite of normal rotation approximately 45 degrees and then turn the crankshaft in the opposite direction to the top center mark that was made in Step 9. If needed adjust the dial indicator as in Step 5.

11. Turn the crankshaft in the direction opposite of normal rotation approximately 45 degrees. Move the fuel rack to the full load position. If the engine has a hydra mechanical governor install a 9S8519 plug and 9S8521 Rod, and push in the speed limiter plunger. Tighten the plug to hold the rod in this position. Now the governor can be moved to the full load position.

12. Connect hose (8) from the fuel pressure tank (10) to the fuel pressure gauge connection on the left side of the fuel filter housing. Disconnect fuel return line (11) at the fuel control valve and install a plug. Disconnect the fuel line from No. 1 fuel injection pump and install 7M1999 tube Assembly (9). The open end of the tube assembly must be at an upward slope.


1P540 FLOW CHECKING TOOL GROUP
8. 5J4634 Hose assembly. 9. 7M1999 Tube Assembly. 10. Tank assembly.


5J4634 HOSE ASSEMBLY INSTALLED
8. 5J4634 Hose assembly. 11. Fuel return line.

13. Fill the fuel tank with 1 gallon (3.8 litres) of clean diesel fuel. Keep the pressure in the tank at 15 psi (105 kPa) by the use of the hand pump or shop air pressure.


NOTICE

If shop air is used, make an adjustment to the regulator so the air pressure in the tank is a maximum of 15 psi (105 kPa).


14. With fuel pressure to the fuel injection housing, slowly turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation. When the fuel flow from the tube is 6 to 12 drops per minute, stop turning the crankshaft. This is the point of inlet port (6) closing.

15. Use the chart to change the indicator reading to timing angle. The timing must be within ±1 degree of the specified timing angle.

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different that the correct timing dimension given in the chart, make reference to TIMING THE CAMSHAFT FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMP.

Timing The Camshaft For The Fuel Injection Pumps

9S6054 Socket

NOTE: The fuel pump camshaft timing gear (1) has a puller attached. The puller is used to loosen or tighten the gear on the drive shaft. The puller has puller bolt (3), collar (6), and plate (2). The puller bolt is held in the plate by the collar which is welded to the bolt. The plate is fastened to the gear with bolts. When the puller bolt is turned counterclockwise, the collar pushes against the plate and pulls the gear from shaft (4). When the puller bolt is turned clockwise, the bolt head pushes on the plate and pushes the gear on the shaft.


CAMSHAFT GEAR ASSEMBLY
1. Camshaft gear. 2. Plate. 3. Puller bolt. 4. Shaft. 5. Lock. 6. Collar.

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) in the compression position. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove the pipe plug between the aftercooler supports on the flywheel housing. Bend lock (5) from puller bolt (3) and turn puller bolt to loosen gear (1) from shaft (4).

3. Remove timing pin (7) and the fuel inlet flange.


TIMING PIN IN TIMING SLOT OF CAMSHAFT
7. Timing pin. 10. Timing slot.

4. Install the timing pin finger tight.

5. Remove the breather from the front of the fuel injection housing.

6. Use a 9S6054 Socket and ratchet wrench (8) to turn the fuel pump camshaft. Put the socket and wrench on the end of the fuel pump camshaft and turn the camshaft until timing slot (10) is at the top. Tighten the timing pin into the timing slot.


TIMING THE FUEL INJECTION PUMP CAMSHAFT
7. Timing pin. 8. Ratchet wrench handle (3/4 in. drive). 9. Breather opening.

7. Tighten the camshaft puller bolt (3) to push the gear on the shaft. Tighten bolt (3) to a torque of 265 ± 35 lb.ft. (360 ± 45 N·m). Bend the lock to the bolt.

8. Remove the timing pin and turn the crankshaft two revolutions in the direction of normal rotation until the engine is again at top center (TC) compression position for No. 1 piston.

9. Install the timing pin. If the timing pin engages with the timing slot in the camshaft, the timing is correct. If the timing pin does not engage with the timing slot, the timing is not correct and Steps 1 thru 8 must be done again.

10. Remove the timing pin. Install the breather, pipe plug in flywheel housing, fuel inlet flange, and the timing pin.

Setting Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension: Off Engine

5P6600 or1P5600 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group5P4165 Dial Indicator Group or6F6922 Depth Micrometer


5P6600 OFF ENGINE LIFTER SETTING TOOL GROUP SHOWN
1. 1P7410 Plate. 2. 5P6564 Shaft. 3. 1P7415 Pointer. 4. S1594 Bolt. 5. 2S6160 Washer. 6. S509 Bolt. 7. 9M4568 Wrench. 8. 9M4567 Wrench.

The fuel injection pump housing must be removed from the engine for the procedure that follows:

1. Remove the fuel injection pumps from fuel injection pump housing. Make reference to FUEL INJECTION SERVICE; Removal of Injection Pump. Clean the top surface of the housing of all paint and dirt.

2. Check the direction of rotation of the fuel pump camshaft. For an engine with standard rotation, the "F" mark and arrow on the end of the fuel pump camshaft will be at the front end of the pump housing. For an engine with opposite rotation the "F" mark and arrow on the end of the fuel pump camshaft will be at the rear end of the pump housing.

3. Install timing plate (1) on shaft (2) with bolt (6) and washer (5). Put the timing plate and shaft on the fuel pump camshaft at the rear of the pump housing. The key in shaft (2) must be in alignment and engage in the slot in the camshaft.

4. Install pointer (3) over the dowel in the top of the pump housing at the rear. Install the bolt (4).

5. In the chart, find the timing plate setting for the lifter that is to be set. Turn the timing plate to this setting in the direction of camshaft rotation. The direction of camshaft rotation as seen from the rear of the pump housing is counterclockwise for standard rotation engines and is clockwise for opposite rotation engines. The degree marking on the timing plate must be in alignment with the inside edge (9) of pointer (3).


TOOLS INSTALLED
1. 1P7410 Plate. 3. 1P7415 Pointer. 9. Edge of pointer. A. Timing dimension to be measured.

6. Use the 6F6922 Depth Micrometer or the 5P4165 Dial Indicator Group and measure timing dimension (A). Timing dimension (A) is the distance from the top surface of the fuel pump housing to the fuel pump plunger contact surface in the yoke of the lifter. The measurement for timing dimension (A) is 2.1565 ± .0005 in. (54.775 ± 0.013 mm) for all engines. Use wrenches (7) and (8) to adjust the yoke of the lifter to the correct timing dimension.

The fuel injection pumps are numbered in order from front to rear on all engines

7. Set each lifter in the firing order (injection sequence) of the engine. Make reference to the CHART FOR FIRING ORDER. Check the timing dimension for each lifter again after an adjustment has been made and the locknut tightened.


5P4165 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED
A. Timing Dimension.

Fuel Rack Adjustment

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group


9S240 RACK POSITION TOOL GROUP
1. 8S4627 Circuit Tester. 2. 9S227 Bracket Group. 3. 8S2283 Dial Indicator. 4. 8S3675 Contact Point, .125 in. (3.18 mm) long. 5. 9S8519 Plug. 6. 9S8521 Rod.

1. Remove the air-fuel ratio control. Disconnect the governor control linkage from the governor lever.

2. Remove the speed limiter access plug. Install plug (5). Through the opening in the plug, install rod (6) and push in the speed limiter plunger. Tighten the plug to cause a clamp action on the rod. This will let the governor control lever move through its complete length of travel.

3. Remove timing pin (7), clamp (8), and the plug and seal behind the clamp.


COMPONENT LOCATION
7. Timing pin. 8. Clamp.

4. Fasten bracket (2) to the fuel pump housing. Move the governor lever to the fuel on position and install dial indicator (3) with contact point (4) on bracket (2).

5. Put spacer (9) between the flange on the rod and the bracket. Push the flange toward the fuel pump housing to hold the spacer tight and adjust the dial indicator so that the revolution counter is at zero. Tighten the clamp for the indicator. Turn the dial of the indicator until the zero is in alignment with the hand. Remove the spacer.


BRACKET GROUP AND INDICATOR INSTALLED
9. Spacer. 10. Dust cover.

6. Put the clip end of tester (1) on the brass terminal on the side of the governor. Put the other end of the tester to a good electrical ground.

7. Remove dust cover (10) from the dial indicator. Move the governor control lever in the fuel on direction until the tester light becomes bright and fasten lever in this position.

8. Push on the stem of the dial indicator that was under the dust cover to keep a small amount of pressure on the fuel rack. Use a 1 1/4 in. open end wrench on rack shutoff lever (11) and move the lever in the fuel off direction until the tester light becomes a dim light.

NOTE: The hydraulic servo-valve that moves the rack when the engine is running, does not have a direct connection with the rack when the engine is not running. The rack can go beyond the set position approximately .100 in. (2.54 mm). Because of this, the rack setting must be checked with an application of force against the rack in the FUEL-OFF direction to remove the free movement between the rack and the stop collar in the governor.


RACK SHUTOFF LEVER
11. Rack shutoff lever.

9. Read the rack setting measurement on the dial indicator. Make reference to the RACK SETTING INFORMATION for the correct rack setting dimension.

10. To adjust the fuel rack setting, loosen the locknut on adjustment screw (12) and turn as needed. Tighten the locknut and check the rack setting again.


FUEL RACK ADJUSTMENT
12. Adjustment screw.

11. After the adjustment procedure is done, tighten the adjustment screw locknut to a torque of 9 ± 3 lb.ft. (12 ± 4 N·m).

NOTE: The same tools that are used in this procedure are also used for the air-fuel ratio control adjustment.

Air-Fuel Ratio Control Adjustment

NOTE: The same tools are needed for the air-fuel ratio control adjustment that were used for the fuel rack setting. Make reference to the FUEL RACK ADJUSTMENT for the tools needed and instructions to install the tools.

Air-Fuel Ratio Control Setting

The fuel rack setting must be correct before the air-fuel ratio control can be adjusted. Make reference to FUEL RACK SETTING. The air-fuel ratio control setting is done with the control on the engine.

1. Remove the override control and cover (1).

2. Turn bolt (2) with cover (1) clockwise until the circuit tester light comes on.


SETTING AIR FUEL RATIO CONTROL
1. Cover. 2. Bolt.

3. Use the 1 1/4 in. wrench and turn shutoff lever until light just goes off. Check the dial indicator reading to be sure the fuel rack setting is at the specified setting.

4. Move the fuel rack until the tester light just comes on (dim light). Turn cover (1) counterclockwise until the tester light goes out. Mark the cover and the air-fuel ratio control for reference.

NOTE: When cover (1) is used to turn bolt (2), one revolution of the cover counterclockwise will cause .090 in. (2.29 mm) restriction of the rack. Rotation of the cover the distance of one hole will give .015 in. (0.38 mm) adjustment.

5. Make reference to the RACK SETTING INFORMATION for the correct air-fuel ratio control setting, and turn the cover counterclockwise the number of turns plus any part of a turn for better hole alignment to get the correct dimension.

6. Install the cover, override control, and lock wire and seal. Remove the rack setting tools.

Override Control Lever Adjustment

The override control lever adjustment is made with the air-fuel ratio control off the engine.


OVERRIDE CONTROL LEVER ADJUSTMENT
3. Override control lever. 4. Screw. 5. Nut.

1. Put the override control lever (3) in the start position.

2. Put bolt (2) in a vise and pull on the control. At first movement of the bolt, the control lever must move fast to the run position.

3. If the control lever does not move correctly put a screwdriver in the slot of adjustment screw (4) and loosen locknut (5). Turn the adjustment screw 1/4 of a turn counterclockwise and tighten the locknut. Do this procedure until the control lever moves correctly.

Diaphragm Test

The diaphragm test is made with the air-fuel ratio control off the engine. An air supply and a pressure regulator are needed to do this test.

1. Connect a line from the air pressure regulator to port (6) of the air-fuel ratio control.


DIAPHRAGM TEST
2. Bolt. 6. Port. 7. Diaphragm.

2. Adjust the pressure regulator to 5 psi (35 kPa). Bolt (2) must start to move.

3. Adjust the pressure regulator to 16.5 to 20.5 psi (114 to 142 kPa). The bolt must now be fully extended.

4. Adjust the pressure regulator to 35 psi (240 kPa) and turn off the air pressure to the air-fuel ratio control. The air pressure must not drop more than 2 psi (14 kPa) in 10 seconds.

Governor Adjustments

4S6553 Instrument Group.
1P7448 Mechanical Tachometer Cable.


NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make the adjustment to the low idle and high idle rpm. The correct low idle and high idle rpm, and the measurement for the adjustment of the fuel rack are in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION and on the ENGINE INFORMATION PLATE installed on the engine.


Engine rpm must be checked with an accurate tachometer. The 1P7443 Tachometer and the 1P7448 Mechanical Tachometer Cable (from the 4S6553 Instrument Group) can be used.

1. Connect one end of the 1P7448 Mechanical Tachometer Cable to the tachometer drive on the front of the engine.

NOTE: On engines that have opposite rotation, connect the end of the tachometer cable to the side of the tachometer drive that has the adapter.

2. Connect the other end of the tachometer cable to the instrument used to measure engine speed.

NOTE: The 1P7448 Mechanical Tachometer Cable can be connected to any of the instruments shown in article MEASURING ENGINE SPEED.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

3. Start the engine and check the low idle and high idle rpm. See the RACK SETTING INFORMATION, or look at the ENGINE INFORMATION PLATE installed on the engine, for the correct low idle and high idle rpm.


GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS
1. High idle screw. 2. Retainer holes. 3. Low idle screw. 4. Cover.

4. If an adjustment is necessary, remove cover (4) and use the procedure that follows:

a. Move the governor control to HIGH IDLE position and turn screw (1) to adjust HIGH IDLE rpm. When the specific rpm setting is made, move the governor control to reduce engine speed, then move the linkage to HIGH IDLE and check the setting again. Repeat this procedure until rpm setting is correct.

b. To adjust the LOW IDLE rpm, move the governor linkage to LOW IDLE position and turn screw (3). Increase the engine speed and then return linkage back to LOW IDLE position to check the setting again.

c. When governor adjustment is correct, install the cover on the rear of the governor. When the cover is installed on the governor, the idle adjustment screws fit into retainer holes (2) in the cover. The shape of the holes will not let the idle adjustment screw turn after the idle adjustment is done and the cover is installed.

d. Now install a new wire and seal to the cover bolt.

Measuring Engine Speed

5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter or4S6553 Instrument Group or1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.


5P2150 ENGINE HORSEPOWER METER

The 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter can measure engine speed from the tachometer drive on the engine. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7050 has instructions for its use.

Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7341 is with the 4S6553 Engine Test Group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. Differential pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. Pressure gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. Tachometer. 7. Manifold pressure gauge.


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group can measure engine speed from the tachometer drive on the engine. It also has the ability to measure engine speed from visual engine parts in rotation. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015 has instructions for its use.

Camshaft Cluster Gear Installation

1. Install the small cluster gear (2), the thrust washer and the retainer and tighten to torque of 60 to 70 lb.ft. (80 to 95 N·m).

NOTE: Make sure the No. 1 piston is at top center on the compression stroke.

2. Mark the cluster gear C-mark and the crankshaft gear punch marked tooth with chalk. The back of the gears can be marked for checking with a mirror after installation.


INSTALLING CLUSTER GEAR
1. Large cluster gear. 2. Small cluster gear. 3. Retainer. 4. A-marks. 5. Dowel. 6. Alignment mark for flywheel installation. 7. Hole in crankshaft flange.

3. Install a large cluster gear (1) so the C-mark on the cluster gear is in alignment with the punch marks on the tooth of the crankshaft gear. Do this by looking through the hole (7) in the crankshaft flange.

4. On 8 cylinder engines, tilt the large cluster gear and turn the balancer gear until the A-marks (4) are in alignment.

5. With the timing marks in alignment, slide the large cluster gear over the dowel (5) in the small cluster gear and install the mounting bolts.


CHECKING ALIGNMENT WITH MIRROR AND CHALK ON BACK OF GEARS

Timing Balancer Gear In Accessory Drive (D379 Only)

NOTE: The gears of the accessory drive for 12 and 16 cylinder engines do not need to be timed.

V-8 Engines With Standard Rotation

Install the main idler gear with the "C" mark in alignment with the tooth of the crankshaft gear that has four, five or six punch marks. Also, the "B" mark on the main idler gear must be in alignment with the "B" mark on the balancer gear.


SAE STANDARD ROTATION 8 CYLINDER ENGINE

V-8 Engines With Opposite Rotation

Install the idler gear with one of the "R" marks in alignment between two teeth on the crankshaft gear that have two punch marks on each tooth.

The other "R" mark on the idler gear must be in alignment with the "R" mark on the balancer gear.


SAE OPPOSITE ROTATION 8 CYLINDER ENGINE

Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction (negative pressure difference measurement between atmospheric air and air that has gone through air cleaner) of more than 30 in. (762 mm) of water.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust at outlet elbow and atmospheric air) must not be more than 27 in. (685 mm) of water.

Measurement Of Pressure In Inlet Manifold

The efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a comparison of the pressure in the inlet manifold with the information given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. This test is used when there is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Development of this information is done with these conditions.

a. 29.4 in. (747 mm) of mercury barometric pressure.
b. 85° F (29° C) outside air temperature.
c. 35 API rated fuel.

Any change from these conditions can change the pressure in the inlet manifold. Outside air that has higher temperature and lower barometric pressure than given above will cause a lower horsepower and a lower inlet manifold pressure measurement than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Outside air that has a lower temperature and a higher barometric pressure will cause higher horsepower and a higher inlet manifold pressure measurement.

A difference in fuel rating will also change horsepower and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet manifold can be less than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be more than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. BE SURE THAT THE AIR INLET AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RESTRICTION WHEN MAKING A CHECK OF PRESSURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD.

Use the 4S6553 Instrument Group to check engine rpm and the pressure in the inlet manifold.


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. Differential pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. Pressure gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. Tachometer. 7. Manifold pressure gauge.

This instrument group has a tachometer to read engine rpm. It also has a gauge to read pressure in the inlet manifold. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7341 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP

Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7179 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

Water Directors

There are eight water directors (1) pressed into each cylinder head to direct the flow of coolant. On the exhaust side, coolant is directed toward the precombustion chambers and the exhaust valve ports; and on the inlet side, toward the other side of the valve ports, as indicated by the V-marks.


WATER DIRECTORS
1. Water director. 2. Ferrule. 3. Seal.

Water directors are pressed into place in the heads after aligning the notch on the director with the V-mark on the head.

Replacement type seals (3) and ferrule (2) go between the head and top of the block. Put soap on the inner surface of the seal and place the groove in the seal over the ridge on the ferrule before installing. Use the FT117 Seal and Ferrule Assembly Tool to install the seal on the ferrule.


FT117 SEAL AND FERRULE ASSEMBLY TOOL

4. 5H3182 Pin.

5. 2A3672 Spring.

6. Flat Washer.

7. Chain.

8. Upper Rod

9. Connecting Pin.

10. Bracket.

11. Connecting Joint.

12. Lower Rod.

13. Base.

A. Rubber Seals.

B. Ferrule.

Precombustion Chamber

Use the 5F9217 Tool Group to remove and install chamber. Coat threads with 5P3931 Anti-Seize Compound and use either 1P8005 or 1P8004 gasket to position precombustion chamber.


PRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER POSITIONING DIAGRAM
A. Parallel to centerline of crankshaft. B. No go range. C. Go (grey) range.

Install 1P8005 gasket marked "3J". Install precombustion chamber and tighten to torque of 225 ± 15 lb.ft. (305 ± 20 N·m). If the glow plug opening is not positioned in the grey range (C) remove the chamber and replace gasket with the 1P8004 Gasket marked "3D".

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure

Pistons or rings that have damage can be the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase. This condition will cause the engine to run rough. There will also be more than the normal amount of fumes coming from the crankcase breather. This crankcase pressure can also cause the element for the crankcase breather to have a restriction in a very short time. It can also be the cause of oil leakage at gaskets and seals that would not normally have leakage.

Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or have valves that need adjustment. Use the test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a cylinder that has low compression, or does not have good fuel combustion. Find the speed that the engine runs the roughest, and keep the engine at this rpm until the test is finished. Loosen a fuel line nut at fuel injection pump to stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so the cylinder will have to be checked thoroughly.

A cylinder leakage test that uses air pressure in the cylinder can be used to indicate the condition of the piston rings, valves, and valve seats. Make reference to SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FORM NO. GMG00694 for a list of tools needed and the test procedure. Removal of the head and inspection of the valves and valve seats is necessary to find those small defects that do not normally cause a problem. Repair of these problems is normally done when reconditioning the engine.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head has valves, valve seat inserts, and valve guides that can be removed when they are worn or have damage. Replacement of these components can be made with the tools that follow.

Valves

The illustration shows the 5S1330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly with the 5S1329 Jaw (1) to put the valve spring under compression. When installing the valve keepers, use the 5S1322 Valve Keeper Installer (2) with the compressor assembly.


COMPRESSING VALVE SPRINGS
1. 5S1329 Jaw. 2. 5S1322 Valve Keeper Installer.

Valve Seat Inserts

Tools needed to remove and install seat inserts are in the 9S3080 Valve Insert Puller Group. Special Instruction Form No. GMG02114 gives an explanation for this procedure. For easier installation, lower the temperature of the insert before it is installed in the head.

Valve Guides

The intake and exhaust valves operate in replacement type valve guides. After the valves have been removed, clean the valve stems and valve guides. Use the 5P3536 Valve Guide Measuring Group to check the valve guides for wear. Instructions are in Special Instruction (GMG 02562).

The 4H446 Driver and 5P1726 Bushing is used for installation of new valve guides.

Valve Lash Adjustment And Check

Valve lash is checked and adjusted with the engine stopped.

NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) is checked, adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the measurement is in the range given in the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED. If the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is necessary. See the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED, and make the setting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this chart.

To make an adjustment to the valve clearance, loosen the locknut on the adjustment screw. Turn the adjustment screw to get the correct clearance shown in the chart VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED. Hold the adjustment screw and tighten the locknut to 40 ± 5 lb.ft. (55 ± 7 N·m). Recheck the valve clearance. Valve clearance adjustment can be made by using the procedure that follows:

1. Determine the normal direction of crankshaft rotation. See the decal on the flywheel housing.


FLYWHEEL ROTATION DECAL

2. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.


ADJUSTING VALVE LASH

3. With No. 1 piston at top center of the compression stroke, adjust the clearance for the valves shown in the chart NO. 1 PISTON ON COMPRESSION STROKE.

4. Turn the crankshaft one revolution in the direction of normal rotation and align the pointer and the TC1 mark on the flywheel. The engine now is at top center exhaust stroke No. 1 piston.

5. With No. 1 piston at top center on the exhaust stroke, adjust the clearance for the valves shown in the chart NO. 1 PISTON ON EXHAUST STROKE.


CYLINDER AND VALVE LOCATION

Lubrication System

One of the problems in the list that follows will generally be an indication of a problem in the lubrication system for the engine.

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION

OIL PRESSURE IS LOW

OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH

TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine

Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil comes out of the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket and seal leakage.

Oil Leakage Into Combustion Area of Cylinders

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are four possible ways for oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders:

1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve stems.
2. Worn or damaged piston rings, or dirty oil return holes.
3. Compression ring not installed correctly.
4. Oil leakage past the seal rings in the impeller end of the turbocharger shaft.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result if oil with the wrong viscosity is used. Oil with a thin viscosity can be caused by fuel leakage into the crankcase, or by increased engine temperature.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box.9S9102 Thermister Thermometer Group.

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect can give an indication of low oil pressure.

An 8M2744 Oil Pressure Gauge which is part of the 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box can be used to check oil pressure in the system.

This procedure must be followed exactly for the pressure readings to have any value for comparison with Engine Oil Pressure Chart.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with SAE 30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the information in the Engine Oil Pressure Chart does not apply.


5P6225 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX

2. Connect the 8M2744 Gauge from the 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box to one of the ports in the back side of the governor or governor drive housing. Remove the pipe plug on the oil outlet elbow on the oil cooler and install a probe from the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

3. Start the engine and run to get the oil temperature to 200 ± 10° F (93 ± 6° C).

4. Keep the oil temperature constant with the engine speed at 1200 rpm. Make a comparison of the gauge reading and the chart.

If the results do not fall within the pressure range given in the chart, find the cause and correct it. Engine failure or a reduction in engine life can be the result if engine operation is continued with oil manifold pressure outside this range.

Oil Pressure Is Low

Crankcase Oil Level

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far below the oil pump supply tube. This will cause the oil pump to not have the ability to supply enough lubrication to the engine components.

Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil pump can have a restriction. This will cause cavitation (low pressure bubbles suddenly made in liquids by mechanical forces) and a loss of oil pressure. Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If the bypass valve for the oil pump is held in the open (unseated) position, the lubrication system can not get to maximum pressure. Oil pump gears that have too much wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure.

Oil Filter and Bypass Valve

As the oil filters become filled with dirt, a reduction of engine oil pressure will be seen until oil filter bypass valve (1) opens. When the bypass valve opens, unfiltered oil will go through the engine.

When the oil pressure on the clean side (inside) of the elements becomes 12 to 15 psi (85 to 105 kPa) less than the oil pressure to the unfiltered side (outside) of the elements, filter condition indicator (2) or (3) will move up approximately half way. This shows that the oil filter elements must be changed.


OIL FILTER BYPASS VALVE
1. Valve.


FILTER CONDITION INDICATOR
2. Later Indicator. 3. Earlier Indicator.

Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings or Open, Broken or Disconnected Oil Line or Passage in Lubrication System

Components that are worn and have too much bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected.

Oil Cooler

Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the oil cooler.

If the oil cooler has a restriction the oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is running. The oil pressure of the engine will become low if the oil cooler has a restriction.

Oil Pressure Is High

Oil pressure will be high if the pressure regulating valve for the oil pump can not move from the closed position.

Too Much Bearing Wear

When some components of the engine show bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in an oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the cause.

If the gauge for oil pressure shows the correct oil pressure, but a component is worn because it is not getting enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil supply to that component. A restriction in a supply passage will not let enough lubrication get to a component and this will cause early wear.

Turbocharger Lubrication Valve

(D379 and D398 Engines)

When the gauge for oil pressure shows the correct oil pressure and bearing failure or wear is present in both turbochargers, check the operation of the turbocharger lubrication valve. The valve can be open and allow unfiltered oil to constantly lubricate the turbocharger.


TURBOCHARGER LUBRICATION VALVE AT RIGHT REAR OF ENGINE

Cooling System

The engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can operate at a temperature that is higher than the normal point where water changes to steam. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (air in inlet of pump) in the water pump. With this type system it is more difficult to have an air or steam pocket in the cooling system.

The cause for an engine getting too hot is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not done. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before a test is made with test equipment.

Visual Inspection Of The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the pressure relief valve and the sealing surface of the filler cap. The sealing surface must be clean.

8. Look for large amounts of dirt in the radiator core and on the engine.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and the height above sea level on the boiling point (steam) of water.

Test Tools for Cooling System

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.9S7373 Air Meter Group.1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

The 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of heating problems. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7140.

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7063.


9S7373 AIR METER GROUP


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group is used to check the fan speed. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and pressure relief valves, and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.

Water Temperature Regulators

Use the procedure that follows to check the operation of the water temperature regulator:

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is correct for opening the regulator according to the chart. Move the water around in the pan to make it all be the same temperature.

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for 10 minutes.

5. Remove the regulator from the water. Immediately make a measurement of the distance the regulator is open.

6. If the regulator is open to a distance less than given in the chart, install a new regulator.

Gauge for Water Temperature

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group

To check the accuracy of the water temperature gauge, use the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7140 has instructions for the use of the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

Remove the plug next to the sensor unit for the water temperature gauge in the water outlet manifold. Install reducing bushing and probe in this hole.

Start the engine and get the coolant warm. Make a comparison of the temperature at positions 1 and 2 on the water temperature gauge and the temperature on the thermistor thermometer. Use the chart to find the temperature at positions 1 and 2.

Coolant Level Switch

Testing

Lower the coolant level in the system to cause the float (1) to lower and cause the switch points to make contact. This can be done by removing some of the coolant or with application of 10 to 20 psi (70 to 140 kPa) of air pressure to the vent line connection (2) on top of the switch. Look at the float and switch as the coolant level lowers. The float position on the later type switch is shown by the switch operating arm (4). The device connected will be activated as the points make contact.

Adjustment

The terminal screw (3) on the bottom of the earlier switch can be turned in to raise and out to lower the level at which the points will make contact.


COOLANT LEVEL SWITCH (Earlier Type)
1. Float. 2. Vent line connection. 3. Terminal screw.


COOLANT LEVEL SWITCH (Later Type)
2. Vent line connection. 4. Switch operating arm. 5. Switch.

Basic Block

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use the 5H9621 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use the 5P3528 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder block.

Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the step sequence that follows:

1. Put crankcase oil on threads.

2. Tighten all nuts to 40 ± 4 lb.ft. (55 ± 5 N·m).

3. Put a mark on each nut and cap.

4. Tighten each nut 120° from the mark.

The connecting rod bearings should fit tightly in the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are worn (fretted), check for bore size as this is an indication of wear because of looseness.

Piston Ring Groove Gauge

A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available for checking ring grooves with straight sides. For instructions on the use of the gauge, see the GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.


5P3519 PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Main bearings are available with .050 in. (1.27 mm) smaller inside diameter than original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than original size).

Connecting rod bearings are available with .025 in. (0.64 mm) and .050 in. (1.27 mm) smaller inside diameter than original size bearings. These bearings are also available with .010 in. (0.25 mm) larger outside diameter than original size bearings. These bearings are for connecting rods that have been "bored" (made larger than original size).

Cylinder Block

Bore in block for main bearings can be checked with main bearing caps installed without bearings. Tighten the stud nuts to torque shown in the SPECIFICATIONS. Alignment error in the bores must not be more than .003 in. (0.08 mm).


1P3537 DIAL BORE GAUGE GROUP

Special Instruction Form No. GMG00503 gives the use of 1P4000 Line Boring Tool Group to machine main bearing bores. 1P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group can be used to check bores. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00981 is with the group.

Cylinder Liner Projection

1P2398 Puller Plate8B7548 Push Puller Crossbar and three 3H465 Plates.8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement.1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group.

The correct cylinder liner projection is important to prevent a leak between the liner, cylinder head and block. Use the procedure that follows to check cylinder liner projection.

1. Make sure that the bore and counterbore in the block and the liner flange are clean. Install the cylinder liner without seals in the cylinder block.


MEASURING LINER PROJECTION
1. 3H465 Plate. 2. Dial indicator. 3. 1P2402 Block. 4. Crossbar. 5. 1P2398 Puller Plate.

2. Put puller plate (5) on the cylinder liner and put plate (1) in the center of the adapter plate as shown. Install crossbar (4) with nuts, washers, and 3H465 Plates as shown. Tighten the nuts evenly in four steps: 5 lb. ft. (7 N·m), 15 lb. ft. (20 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m), and 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m). The measurement from the bottom of crossbar (4) to the top of cylinder block, must be the same on both sides of the cylinder liners.

3. Install the 1P5512 Contact Point on dial indicator (2). Put the dial indicator in the 1P2402 Gauge Body. To adjust the dial indicator to zero, put dial indicator and gauge body on the back of the 1P5507 Gauge. Move the dial indicator until the hand moves 1/4 turn. Tighten bolt on body to hold the dial indicator in this position. Turn the dial face until the zero is in alignment with the hand.

4. Measure the cylinder liner projection as close as possible to the four corners of the adapter plate on the liner. The liner projection must be .004 to .008 in. (0.10 to 0.20 mm). The difference between the four measurements must not be more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The maximum difference in height of liners next to each other under the same cylinder head is .002 in. (0.05 mm).

NOTE: If the liner projection changes from point to point around the liner, turn the liner to a new position in the bore. If the liner projection is still not to specifications, move the liner to a different bore.

5. When the cylinder liner projection is correct, put a temporary mark on the liner and the cylinder block so at final installation the liner can be installed in the correct position.

Cylinder liner projection can be adjusted by the removal of material from (machining) the contact face of the cylinder block with the use of the 8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement. The instructions for the use of the tool group are in Special Instruction Form No. FM055228.

Shims are available for adjustment of the liner projection.

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

9S2328 Dial Indicator Group

Flywheel Ring Gear

Heat the ring gear to a maximum of 600° F (316° C) to install. Install the ring gear so the chamfer on the gear teeth is next to the starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearances must be removed to get correct measurements.

Make tool setup from parts of the 8S2328 Dial Test Indicator Group.

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the indicator anvil will touch the flywheel housing face.

2. Push the crankshaft to the rear to remove all end play before reading the indicator at each point.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL HOUSING FACE RUNOUT
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

3. With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at point (A), rotate crankshaft and take readings at points (B), (C) and (D).

4. The difference between the lowest and highest readings taken at all four points should not exceed .012 in. (0.30 mm), which is the maximum permissible flywheel housing face runout.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FYWHEEL HOUSING


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This notation is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

1. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft up against the top bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

2. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).

3. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

4. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Add lines I & II by columns.

8. Subtract the small number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

10. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable", the flywheel housing must be changed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Move the flywheel to the front or rear to remove all end play.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°. Be sure to remove end play the same way each time.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment


CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH PILOT BEARING BORE

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed .005 in. (0.13 mm).

Checking Crankshaft Deflection (Bend)

The crankshaft can be deflected (bent) because the installation of the engine was not correct. If the engine mounting rails are not fastened correctly to the foundation mounting rails, the cylinder block can twist or bend and cause the crankshaft to deflect. This deflection can cause crankshaft and bearing failure.

The crankshaft deflection must be checked after the final installation of the engine. The check must be made with the engine cold and also with the engine at the temperature of normal operation. The procedure that follows can be used to check crankshaft deflection with the engine either cold or warm.

1. Remove an inspection cover from the cylinder block that will give access to the connecting rod journal of the crankshaft nearest to the center of the engine.


NOTICE

Read the notice on the cylinder block covers before removal of the covers on a warm engine.


2. Turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation until the center of the counterweights just go beyond the connecting rod.


MEASURING DEFLECTION OF THE CRANKSHAFT
1. Dial gauge. 2. Mounting face.

3. Install a Starrett Crankshaft Distortion Dial-Gauge No. 696 with Starrett No. 696B Balancer Attachment between the counterweights as shown. Put Dial Gauge (1) within .25 in. (6.4 mm) of counterweight mounting surface (2). Turn the dial of the indicator to get alignment of the zero and the pointer. Turn the indicator on its end points until the pointer of the indicator will not move from zero.

4. Turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation until the indicator almost makes contact with the connecting rod on the other side of the crankshaft.

NOTE: Do not let the indicator make contact with the connecting rod.

5. The dial indicator reading must not change more than .001 in. (0.03 mm) for the approximately 300 degrees of crankshaft rotation. Now turn the crankshaft in the opposite direction to the starting position. The dial indicator must now read zero. If the dial indicator does not read zero, do the procedure again.

If the dial indicator reads more than .001 in.(0.03 mm), the cylinder block is bent. Loosen the bolts that hold the engine mounting rails to the foundation mounting rails and adjust the shims to make the engine straight again. Also check to see if the engine mounting bolts have enough clearance to let the engine have expansion as it gets hot. The only bolts that can have a tight fit are bolts at the right hand rear of the engine and the right hand rear bolt that holds the engine to the oil pan base.

Vibration Damper

Damage to or failure of the damper will increase vibrations and result in damage to the crankshaft.

If the damper is bent or damaged, or if the bolt holes in the damper are loose fitting, replace the damper. Replacement of the damper is also needed at the time of crankshaft failure (if a torsional type).

Electrical System

Most of the testing of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections clean and tight and the battery fully charged. If on the engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing. The wire size, color and recommendations of length are given in the WIRING DIAGRAMS in SYSTEMS OPERATION.

Battery

9S1990 Battery Charger Tester.

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit will result, if the connections, (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is charging. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage will damage, not only the charging unit but also the regulator and other electrical components.


9S1990 BATTERY CHARGER TESTER


NOTICE

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is charging.


Load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. To do this, put a resistance, across the battery main connections (terminals). For a 6 volt battery, put a resistance of two times the ampere/hour rating of the battery. For a 12 volt battery, put a resistance of three times the ampere/hour rating. Let the resistance remove the charge (discharge the battery) for 15 seconds. Immediately test the battery voltage. A 6 volt battery in good condition will test 4.5 volts; a 12 volt battery in good condition will test 9 volts.

The Special Instruction Form No. SEHS6891 with the 9S1990 Charger Tester gives the battery testing procedure.

Charging System

Battery

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system is operating correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is always in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (one ounce per cell per week or every 50 service hours).

Test the charging units and voltage regulators on the engine, when possible, using wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off the engine (bench) testing will give an operational test of the charging unit and voltage regulator. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. Final testing will give proof that the units are repaired to their original operating condition.

Before starting on the engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked. See the following Steps.

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.240 Sp.Gr.) full charged and held tightly in place. The battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give proper circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and are able to drive the load of the charging unit.

Alternator Regulator

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to the charging rate of the alternator. Remove the hollow head screw (1) from the cover of the alternator regulator and use a screwdriver to turn the adjustment screw. Turn the adjustment screw one or two notches to increase or decrease the charging rate of the alternator.


LOCATION OF ADJUSTMENT SCREW FOR THE 6L5397 and 6L3432 ALTERNATOR REGULATORS
1. Hollow head screw. 2. Connector.

Starting System

When the engine has a prelube system, check it first to be sure all components function correctly. See PRELUBE SYSTEM. After checking the prelube system, put a wire temporarily between the connections of the oil pressure switch. This will let the following checks be made which is the same as checking engines that do not have a prelube system.

Use a D. C. Voltmeter to find starting system components which do not function.

Move the starting control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel. The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Ground the other lead. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to starter pinion clearance. Pinion clearance is .36 in. (9.1 mm).

If the solenoid for the starting motor will not operate, current from the battery may not be getting to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Ground the other lead. No voltmeter reading shows there is a broken circuit from the battery. Further testing is necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter.

Further test by fastening one voltmeter lead to the connector (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the starter switch or wiring. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the battery wire connection of the starter switch and ground the other lead. A voltmeter reading indicates a failure in the switch.

A starting motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starting motor can also be caused by shorts, loose connections and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

Whenever the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starting motor removed.

1. Install the solenoid without connector (1) from the MOTOR connection (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.


CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.

3. Connect the other side of battery to ground terminal (3).

4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked MOTOR to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

5. Push the pinion toward commutator end to remove free movement.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be .36 in. (9.1 mm).

7. Pinion clearance adjustment is made by removing plug and turning nut (4).

Prelube System

The electrical components in this circuit are the pump motor, relay, oil pressure switch and starter switch. Install a wire around the oil pressure switch to test the components. This must be done with CAUTION.

Relay

Find the damaged component by first checking to see if there is AC current to the pump motor. Fasten a wire from the positive (+) side of the battery to the relay terminal (1) to complete the circuit through the relay coil. The relay must activate and complete the AC circuit and cause the pump motor to run. When this is done, run the pump long enough to make pressure show on the pressure gauge. During checks that will follow, engine parts will receive lubrication.

Remove the wire from around the oil pressure switch.


CHECKING PRELUBE SYSTEM RELAY
1. Relay terminal.

Oil Pressure Switch

With a wire installed between both terminals (1) of the oil pressure switch, engage the starter switch a moment. If the starter and solenoids engage, then the oil pressure switch has failed and must be replaced with a new switch. Leave the wire in place if the switch has not failed and check the starter switch.


PRELUBE SYSTEM OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
1. Terminals.

Starter Switch

Use a wire installed between the starter battery terminal (2) and starter relay terminal (1). If the starter and solenoids engage, the failure is in the starter switch. If the starter switch has not failed, remove all wires that were installed for testing. See, STARTING SYSTEM for further checks of the circuit components of the starting system.


CHECKING STARTER SWITCH
1. Starter relay terminal. 2. Starter battery terminal.

Engine Shutoff Control

Overspeed Control Adjustment

4S6553 Engine Test Group6L2211 Tachometer Drive GroupFT907 Drive AdapterReversible Variable Speed Drill

Adjustment of the overspeed control is made at the factory and must not be changed unless the carrier assembly has been disassembled or the adjustment changed in some way. The original setting of the overspeed control will stop the engine when the engine rpm is more than 18% above full load rpm. DO NOT check the adjustment of the overspeed control on the engine.

1. Remove the engine shutoff control and reset cable from the engine.

2. Connect the 1P7443 or 4S6991 Tachometer (part of the 4S6553 Engine Test Group) to 6L2211 Tachometer Drive (E) on control (A).

3. Use FT907 Adapter (C) and reversible variable speed drill (D) to drive the control as shown.

NOTE: When adjustment or check of the overspeed control is made and the oil pressure reset plunger is not pushed in, a low oil pressure shutoff action will be the result.


TEST OF OVERSPEED CONTROL
A. Shutoff control. B. 4S6553 Engine Test Group. C. FT907 Adapter. D. Reversible variable speed drill. E. 6L2211 Tachometer Drive Group.


NOTICE

All shutoff controls must be turned counterclockwise.


4. Read the rpm on the tachometer at the moment the control is activated. The reading will give the engine rpm (2 rpm on the scale for each rpm the input shaft is turned).

5. The control is to activate at a rpm 18% higher than the full load rpm.


Start, Stop Arrangement 8L5967 needs overspeed to activate at 1500 ± 25 rpm.


ADJUSTMENT
1. Carrier assembly. 2. Weight adjustment screw. 3. Plug.

6. If an adjustment is needed, remove plug (3). If necessary, turn the drive shaft of the shutoff until the screw (2) is in alignment with the hole for plug (3).

7. Use a screwdriver to make the adjustment to the overspeed carrier assembly (1). One full turn of screw (2) will change the maximum overspeed limit 45 to 50 rpm. Turn the screw counterclockwise to make the setting lower.

8. Check the setting of the overspeed control again after the adjustment is made.

Caterpillar Information System:

D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Systems Operation
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Pressure Accumulator For Hydraulic Starter
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Hand Pump For Hydraulic Starter
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Charging Pump For Hydraulic Starting
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Hydraulic Starting Motor
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Air Starting Motor
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Pressure Regulating Valve For Air Starting Motor
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Starter Solenoids
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Starter Motor
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Magnetic Switch
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Generator Regulator
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Alternator Regulators
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Cable Adjustment<BR> (Air Inlet Shut-off)
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Governor
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Governor Drive Upper Housing
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Governor Drive Upper Housing
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Governor Air Actuators
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES 3N9125 Air Actuator Group
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Magnetic Pickup
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Shut-Off Solenoids
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Shutoff Valve For Water Temperature
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Rack Shut Off Cylinder 1N5073 and 5N5762
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Air Inlet Shut Off
D379, D398, D399 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Hydramechanical Shut-Off 3N5760, 5N1978, 5N5993 &amp; 5N5994
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