3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Caterpillar


Testing And Adjusting

Usage:



Introduction

The specifications given in this book are on the basis of information available at the time the book was written. These specifications give the torques, operating pressure, measurements of new parts, adjustments and other items that will affect the service of the product.

When the words "use again" are in the description, the specification given can be used to determine if a part can be used again. If the part is equal to or within the specification given, use the part again.

When the word "permissible" is in the description, the specification given is the "maximum or minimum" tolerance permitted before adjustment, repair and/or new parts are needed.

A comparison can be made between the measurements of a worn part, and the specifications of a new part to find the amount of wear. A part that is worn can be safe to use if an estimate of the remainder of its service life is good. If a short service life is expected, replace the part.

NOTE: The specifications given for "use again" and "permissible" are intended for guidance only and Caterpillar Tractor Co. hereby expressly denies and excludes any representation, warranty or implied warranty of the reuse of any component.

NOTE: This engine uses bolts (3/8 inch size only) with washer heads in some locations. The washer head bolt does not need a plain washer, lockwasher or lockplate. Where these bolts are used on aluminum covers or housings, a plain washer is needed. If you are not sure a washer is used under a bolt head, use the Parts Book to see if a washer is needed.

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting can be difficult. The TROUBLESHOOTING INDEX gives a list of possible problems. To make a repair to a problem, make reference to the cause and correction on the pages that follow.

This list of problems, causes, and corrections will only give an indication of where a possible problem can be, and what repairs are needed. Normally, more or other repair work is needed beyond the recommendations in the list.

Remember that a problem is not normally caused only by one part, but by the relation of one part with other parts. This list is only a guide and can not give all possible problems and corrections. The serviceman must find the problem and its source, then make the necessary repairs.

Troubleshooting Index

1. Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On.
2. Engine Will Not Start.
3. Engine Misfires or Runs Rough.
4. Stall at Low rpm.
5. Engine Speed Will Not Increase More Than 1000 to 1200 rpm.
6. Sudden Changes In Engine rpm.
7. Not Enough Power.
8. Too Much Vibration.
9. Loud Combustion Noise.
10. Valve Train Noise (Clicking).
11. Oil In Cooling System.
12. Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine.
13. Fuel Consumption Too High.
14. Loud Valve Train Noise.
15. Too Much Valve Lash.
16. Valve Rotocoil or Spring Lock is Free.
17. Oil at the Exhaust.
18. Little or No Valve Clearance.
19. Engine Has Early Wear.
20. Coolant in Lubrication Oil.
21. Too Much Black or Gray Smoke.
22. Too Much White or Blue Smoke.
23. Engine Has Low Oil Pressure.
24. Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil.
25. Engine Coolant Is Too Hot.
26. Exhaust Temperature Is Too High.
27. Starter Motor Does Not Turn.
28. Alternator Gives No Charge.
29. Alternator Charge Rate Is Low or Not Regular.
30. Alternator Charge Is Too High.
31. Alternator Has Noise.
32. Rack Solenoid Does Not Stop Engine.

Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn When Start Switch Is On

Engine Will Not Start

Engine Misfires Or Runs Rough

Stall At Low RPM

Engine Speed Does Not Increase More Than 1000 to 1200 rpm

Sudden Changes In Engine Speed (rpm)

Not Enough Power

Too Much Vibration

Loud Combustion Noise (Sound)

Valve Train Noise (Clicking)

Oil In Cooling System

Mechanical Noise (Knock) In Engine

Fuel Consumption Too High

Loud Valve Train Noise

Too Much Valve Lash

Valve Rotocoil Or Spring Lock Is Free

Oil At The Exhaust

Little Or No Valve Clearance

Engine Has Early Wear

Coolant In Lubrication Oil

Too Much Black Or Gray Smoke

Too Much White Or Blue Smoke

Engine Has Low Oil Pressure

Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil

Engine Coolant Is Too Hot

Exhaust Temperature Is Too High

Starter Motor Does Not Turn

Alternator Gives No Charge

Alternator Charge Rate Is Low Or Not Regular

Alternator Charge Is Too High

Alternator Has Noise

Rack Solenoid Does Not Stop Engine

Fuel System Identification


(1) Identification plate on side of injection pump housing.

(2) Location of stamped part number for later Fuel Injection Pump and Governor Groups.

Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by one or more of the reasons that follow:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.
b. An overload at high altitude.
c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber.
d. Not enough compression.

Fuel System Inspection

A problem with the components that send fuel to the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease engine performance.

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad bend.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter if so equipped.

4. Remove any air that may be in the fuel system. If there is air in the fuel system, use the priming pump and loosen the nuts holding the fuel lines to the outside of the cylinder head, one at a time. Do this until fuel, without air, comes from the fuel line connection.

5. Inspect the fuel bypass valve to see that there is no restriction to good operation.

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that runs rough (misfires) and causes black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine performance, test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an indication of the condition of a fuel injection valve. Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication of an injection valve with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by an injection valve with a defect.

The most common defects found with the fuel injection valves are:

1. Carbon on tip of the nozzle or in the nozzle orifice.
2. Orifice wear.
3. Dirty nozzle screen.

Testing Capsule-Type Fuel Injection Nozzles

5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group
5P4720 Fitting5P8744 Adapter or5P4717 Adapter
8S2270 Fuel CollectorFT1384 Extension8S2245 Cleaning Kit


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration oil when tests are made. Dirty test oil will damage components of fuel injection nozzles. The temperature of the test oil must be 65 to 75°F (18 to 24°C) for good test results.


Order calibration oil by part number, in the quantities needed, according to the information that follows:

Kent-Moore Corp.
1501 South Jackson St.
Jackson, MI 49203
J-26400-5 [5 U.S. gal. (18.9 liter)]J-26400-15 [15 U.S. gal. (56.7 liter)]J-26400-30 [30 U.S. gal. (113.5 liter)]J-26400-55 [55 U.S. gal. (208.2 liter)]

Viscosity Oil Company
3200 South Western Ave.
Chicago, IL 60608
Viscor Calibration Fluid1487C-SAE J-967CAvailable in 30 U.S. gal. (113.5 liter) or 55 U.S. gal. (208.2 liter) drums.


5P4150 NOZZLE TESTING GROUP
A. 5P4721 Tube. B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa) used to test PC capsule-type nozzles. C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa) used to test DI capsule-type nozzles and pencil-type nozzles. D. Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge (B). E. Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge (C). F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve. H. 5P4720 Fitting. J. 5P8744 Adapter for capsule-type nozzles. K. 5P4244 Adapter for pencil-type nozzles.


EXTRA VALVE
L. Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all times).

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Fuel comes from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The fuel can pierce (go thru) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

--------WARNING!------

The test procedures that follow will give an indication of nozzle condition. A nozzle that has a defect is not always the only cause for a specific engine problem.

Nozzle Tester Preparation


ILLUSTRATION I
1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P8744 Adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter. M. FT1384 Extension. N. 8S2270 Fuel Collector.

Find an old capsule-type fuel nozzle and weld the orifice closed. Keep this fuel nozzle with the tester group for use in the future.

NOTE: Do not weld the fuel nozzles that are to be tested.

Illustration I shows the latest 5P8744 Adapter. Illustration II shows the former 5P4717 Adapter. Unless some indication is made, the procedure is the same for use of either adapter.


ILLUSTRATION II
1. Test nozzle (welded orifice). 2. Bottom part of 5P4717 Adapter (J). J. 5P4717 Adapter.

1. Install the top part of adapter (J) that holds the capsule nozzle.

2. Put test nozzle (1) (with welded orifice) in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J) that holds the capsule nozzle. Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).

3. Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G). Open gauge protector valve (E).

4. Operate the tester pump until a pressure of 3500 psi (24 000 kPa) is read on 2P2324 Gauge (C). Now, close pump isolator valve (G).

5. Check all connections for leaks. Tighten connections to stop any leaks that are found.

6. Open on-off valve (F) and remove test (welded) fuel nozzle (1).

------ WARNING! ------

Do not loosen the bottom half of the adapter to remove fuel nozzle until on-off valve is opened and no pressure is read on the gauge. Unless high pressure is released in the pump, the fuel discharge from the adapter can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------

NOTE: To prevent fuel leakage, the top surface of the test (welded) nozzle, and all other nozzles that are to be tested, must be free of scratches or burrs (sharp edges).

The procedure for NOZZLE TESTER PREPARATION must be done each time any of the conditions that follow exist:

a. The complete 5P8744 or 5P4717 Adapter is removed and installed again.
b. Before and after a series of tests.
c. There is an indication of a problem with the nozzle tester.

Test Sequence - Precombustion Chamber (PC) Fuel Nozzle

To test PC capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the sequence that follows:

I. Nozzle Installation
II. Pressure Loss Test
III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test


NOTICE

Do not use a drill or reamer on the orifice of a nozzle. Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the valve can be damaged easily.


I. Nozzle Installation

1. Put one of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J). Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).


AIR REMOVAL FROM TESTER
2. Bottom part of adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter.

2. Close on-off valve (F). Open gauge protector valve (D) one-half turn. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.

3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows:

a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (J) one-half turn.

b. Operate the pump until clear test oil (free of air bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of adapter (J).

NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may start to increase before there is an indication of clear test oil. To correct this condition, do Step C.

c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adapter (J).

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and normally needs very little force when turned on bottom part (2) of the adapter.

II. Pressure Loss Test

1. Open gauge protector valve (D) an extra amount of one-half turn (the total amount is now one turn open).


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to 300 psi (2050 kPa), and close pump isolator valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (D) to adjust pressure again to 300 psi (2050 kPa).

3. After 30 seconds, take a pressure reading from the gauge. The pressure at this time must not be below 100 psi (690 kPa) reading on the dial face.


PRESSURE LOSS RANGE FOR GOOD NOZZLE

4. If the pressure loss is not in the 200 psi (1380 kPa) range as shown, stop the test sequence. Do not use the fuel nozzle again.

5. If nozzle is in specification range, see VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) TEST.

III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test

1. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.

2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slowly until test oil comes from the nozzle tip.

------ WARNING! ------

When a fuel injection nozzle is to be tested, keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the FT1384 Extension and 8S2270 Fuel Collector. Fuel from the orifices in the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
B. 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 1000 psi (0 to 6900 kPa). D. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time must be in the pressure range as follows:


VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) RANGE FOR GOOD NOZZLE

4. If the valve opening pressure (VOP) is not in the 400 to 750 psi (2750 to 5200 kPa) range as shown, do not use the fuel nozzle again.

Test Sequence - Direct Injection (DI) Fuel Nozzle

To test DI capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the sequence that follows:

I. Nozzle Installation
II. Pressure Loss Test
III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test
IV. Flush the Nozzle
V. Tip Leakage Test
VI. Orifice Restriction Test


NOTICE

Do not use a drill or reamer on the orifice of a nozzle. Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the valve can be damaged easily.


I. Nozzle Installation

1. Put one the of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J). Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).

2. Close on-off valve (F). Open gauge protector valve (E) one-half turn. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa) E. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows:

a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (J) one-half turn.

b. Operate the pump until clear test oil (free of air bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of adapter (J).


AIR REMOVAL FROM TESTER
2. Bottom part of adapter (J). J. 5P8744 Adapter.

NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may start to increase before there is an indication of clear test oil. To correct this condition, do Step C.

c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adapter (J).

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and normally needs very little force when turned on bottom part (2) of the adapter. It is possible, however, that it will be necessary to use a 1P2853 Spanner Wrench and a 1 1/8" open end wrench to tighten the adapter to prevent excessive leakage from some DI fuel nozzles.

II. Pressure Loss Test

1. Open gauge protector valve (E) an extra amount of one-half turn (the total amount is now one turn open).


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa). E. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to 2200 psi (15 200 kPa), and close pump isolator valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (E) to adjust pressure again to 2200 psi (15 200 kPa).

3. After 30 seconds, take a pressure reading from the gauge. The pressure at this time must be within specifications that follow:

4. If the pressure loss is not within the 1600 psi (11 050 kPa) range shown as GOOD, stop the test sequence. Do not use the fuel nozzle again.


PRESSURE LOSS RANGE FOR A GOOD NOZZLE

5. If nozzle is in the specification range, see VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) TEST.

III. Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test

1. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa). E. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator valve.

------ WARNING! ------

When a fuel injection nozzle is to be tested, keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the FT1384 Extension and 8S2270 Fuel Collector. Fuel from the orifices in the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------

2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slowly until test oil comes from the nozzle tip.

3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time must be in the pressure range that follows:


VOP RANGE FOR A GOOD NOZZLE

4. If the valve opening pressure (VOP) is not in the 2400 to 3100 psi (16 550 to 21 390 kPa) range shown as GOOD, do not use the fuel nozzle again.

5. If the fuel nozzle is within specification range, see subject FLUSH THE NOZZLE.

IV. Flush the Nozzle

1. Close gauge protector valve (E). Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

NOTE: Make sure the nozzle tip extends inside and below the top of FT1384 Extension.

2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes.


TESTER NOMENCLATURE
C. 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 5000 psi (0 to 34 500 kPa). E. Gauge protector valve. F. On-off valve. G. Pump isolator Valve.

V. Tip Leakage Test

1. Remove all fuel from the nozzle tip and adapter with a cloth.

2. Open gauge protector valve (E). Be sure the nozzle tip is completely dry.

3. Make and hold for 30 seconds a pressure of 2200 psi (15 200 kPa).

4. If nozzle is not within specification, do not use the nozzle again.

5. If fuel injection nozzle is within specification, see subject ORIFICE RESTRICTION TEST.

VI. Orifice Restriction Test

1. Close gauge protector valve (E) and on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

3. Make a slow increase in pressure and look at the orifice discharge pattern (shape of discharge) when fluid begins to flow from the nozzle tip. The discharge must be the same through all six orifices. Any change, either vertically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad nozzle.

4. Use the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush from 8S2245 Cleaning Kit to remove any loose carbon from the nozzle tip.


TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN FOR ORIFICE WITH A RESTRICTION (REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN WITH HORIZONTAL DISTORTION (REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)


TYPICAL DISCHARGE PATTERN WITH VERTICAL DISTORTION (REPLACEMENT NECESSARY)


NOTICE

Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the nozzle body or the nozzle tip. Use of these tools can cause a small reduction of orifice size, and this will cause a large reduction in engine horsepower.


Fuel Injection Service

Injection Valve (Capsule-Type Nozzle)

5P144 Socket5P5195 Fuel Line Wrench5P6229 Extractor

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from the precombustion chamber or adapter, test the nozzle before it is again installed in the precombustion chamber or adapter. See TESTING CAPSULE-TYPE FUEL INJECTION NOZZLES.

Check and clean the seat in the precombustion chamber or adapter before the fuel injection valve is installed. It is important to keep the correct torque on the nut that holds the fuel nozzle in the precombustion chamber or adapter. Tighten the nut to 55 ± 5 lb. ft. (75 ± 7 N·m). There will be damage to the nozzle if the nut is too tight. If the nut is not tight enough, the nozzle can leak.

Install the inner fuel injection line to the adapter and to the nozzle. Tighten nuts of both ends to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m). Use the 5P144 Socket to tighten the fuel line nut at the nozzle. Use 5P5195 Fuel Line Wrench to tighten fuel line nut at the adapter.

Removal of Injection Pumps

5P144 Socket8S4613 Wrench8S2244 Extractor9S8521 Rod (Earlier Models)9S8519 Plug (Earlier Models)

Before the fuel injection pumps can be removed the fuel rack must be in the center position. To put fuel rack in the center position, the procedure that follows is necessary.

1. If the governor has a speed limiter (earlier models), put a 9S8518 Plug in place of original plug. Identification of later models without a speed limiter is made when no plug or hole is found on governor housing.

2. Put a 9S8521 Rod through the hole in the 9S8518 Plug.

3. Push in on the 9S8521 Rod to get compression of the speed limiter spring. Hold the rod in this position and tighten the 9S8518 Plug enough to hold the rod.

4. Remove stop (1), spacer (2), and both gaskets (3) from the end of fuel injection pump housing.


RACK STOP
1. Stop. 2. Spacer. 3. Gaskets

5. Move the governor control all the way in the fuel-on direction or until the end of the fuel rack can be felt with the finger to be past (toward outside of housing) the counterbore in the housing where stop (1) is installed. Fasten the governor control in this position.

NOTE: If a shut off solenoid is used, electricity must be sent to solenoid (energized) or removed from solenoid (de-energized) for fuel rack movement.


RACK STOP
1. Stop.

6. Install stop (1) as shown back on to the housing without spacer (2) or gaskets (3). Two bolts with shorter length must be used to hold stop (1) against housing.

The fuel rack is now in the center position against stop (1), and the fuel injection pumps can be removed.

7. Remove fuel injection line from the injection pump.

8. Put 8S4613 Wrench (5) into spline of bushing that holds the fuel injection pump in the housing. Remove the bushing.

9. Install 8S2244 Extractor (4) on the threads of the injection pump. Pull the pump straight up out of the bore.

When an injection pump has been removed, make reference to subject CHECKING FUEL INJECTION PUMP LIFTER WASHER AND PUMP PLUNGER.

Be careful when injection pumps are disassembled. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when putting the plunger in the bore of the barrel.

Installation of Injection Pumps

To install a fuel injection pump back into the housing bore, use the procedure that follows:


NOTICE

The fuel rack MUST BE IN THE CENTER POSITION before the correct installation of an injection pump is possible.


1. Put 8S2244 Extractor (4) on threads of injection pump.

2. Put groove of barrel (7) in alignment with slot of gear segment (8) (slot is on opposite side of gear segment teeth).


FUEL PUMP INSTALLATION
4. 8S2244 Extractor. 5. 8S4613 Wrench. 6. Bushing. 7. Barrel. 8. Gear segment.

3. Look inside the bore of the injection pump housing to find the dowel. Put groove of the barrel in alignment with the dowel and put the injection pump straight down into the bore.

4. Push down on extractor (4) (hand force only) and install bushing (6) that holds the injection pump in the pump housing. If the pump is in the correct position, the bushing will turn into the threads of the injection pump housing with the fingers until it is even with the top of the housing (except for the pump that is in position to fire). When bushing is installed correctly, tighten the bushing to 150 ± 10 lb. ft. (205 ± 14 N·m).


NOTICE

Damage to the housing will be the result if the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will have leakage.


5. Install fuel injection line to the pump with 5P144 Socket and tighten to a torque of 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m).

6. Remove stop (1) from end of housing. Put spacer (2) and gaskets (3) between housing and stop (1), and install the original bolts.

7. Move governor control back to shut-off position. Check to be sure governor control moves freely between fuel-on and shut-off position.

Check for the correct installation of injection pump with the engine stopped. Rack travel from the center position in the fuel-on direction can be checked with governor installed, but the governor and governor piston must be removed to check for full rack travel. Use 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group and the chart that follows to check rack travel. Make reference to FUEL RACK SETTING for installation of 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group.

With the governor piston and valve removed, the total amount of fuel rack travel (from shut-off position to full load position) is approximately .800 in. (20.32 mm). If the pump is installed wrong (center tooth of gear segment is not in correct notch of fuel rack) fuel rack travel will be less than .800 in. (20.32 mm). The injection pump will have to be removed and then installed correctly.

------ WARNING! ------

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, it is possible for the engine to run out of control when started. When any of the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed with the fuel injection pump housing on the engine, take the precautions (steps) that follow to stop the engine if it starts to overspeed (run out of control).

--------WARNING!------

a. Remove the air cleaner pipe from the turbocharger leaving the air inlet open as shown.


TURBOCHARGER AIR INLET OPENING

b. If a pump has been installed wrong and the engine does not run in a normal way, put a steel plate over the air inlet opening as shown to stop the engine.


STOPPING THE ENGINE

Checking The Plunger And Lifter Washer On An Injection Pump

Check timing dimension for the fuel injection pumps. Make an adjustment if necessary, with the pump housing off the engine. When an adjustment to the timing dimension is done correctly, fuel injection in the cylinder will be at the correct time. If the timing dimension is too small, fuel injection will be early. If the timing dimension is too large, fuel injection will be late.

An injection pump can have a good fuel flow coming from it but not be a good pump because of slow timing that is caused by wear on the bottom end of the plunger. When making a test on a pump that has been used for a long time, use a micrometer and measure the length of the plunger. If the length of the plunger is shorter than the minimum length (worn) dimension given in the chart, install a new pump.

Look for wear at the top part of the plunger. Check the operation of the plunger according to the instructions for the Fuel Injection Test Bench.


WEAR BETWEEN LIFTER WASHER AND PLUNGER
Fig. A shows the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger and a new lifter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger and lifter washer have worn a large amount. Fig. C shows how the flat end of a new plunger makes bad contact with a worn lifter washer, causing rapid wear to both parts.

When there is too much wear on the pump plunger, the lift washer may also be worn and there will not be good contact between the two parts. To stop fast wear on the end of a new plunger, install new lifters in the place of lifters that have washers with wear.

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.


TIGHTENING THE NUT OF A FUEL INJECTION LINE
1. 5P144 Fuel Line Socket

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and the 5P144 Fuel Line Socket (1) to tighten the fuel line nuts to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m).

Fuel Bypass Valve

The fuel bypass valve controls fuel pressure to the fuel injection pump at full speed to a pressure of 30 psi (205 kPa).

Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

9S9082 Turning Tool


LOCATING TOP CENTER (LEFT SIDE OF ENGINE)
1. Timing bolt. 2. Timing bolt location. 3. Storage location.

No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke is the starting point of all timing procedures.

The timing bolt (1) is kept in storage at location (3) and can be installed in either the left side of the engine at location (2) or in the right side of the engine at location (4).

NOTE: There are two threaded holes in the flywheel. These holes are in alignment with the holes with plugs in the left and right front of the flywheel housing. The two holes in the flywheel are at a different distance from the center of the flywheel so the timing bolt cannot be put in the wrong hole.

Remove bolts and cover from flywheel housing.


LOCATING TOP CENTER (RIGHT SIDE OF ENGINE)
4. Timing bolt location.

Install 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool as shown into housing until shoulder of tool is against housing. Attach a 1/2" drive ratchet to tool and turn flywheel while holding timing bolt in position in hole location (2) or (4) where plug was removed. Stop rotation when timing bolt (1) can be installed in threaded hole of flywheel.

To see if No. 1 piston is on the compression stroke, remove the front valve cover and look at the valves of No. 1 cylinder. The valves will be closed if No. 1 cylinder is on the compression stroke. You should be able to move the rocker arms up and down with your hand.

If No. 1 piston is not on the compression stroke, turn the flywheel 360° and install the timing bolt.

If the flywheel was not turned in the direction of normal engine rotation, or was turned past the timing hole, turn the flywheel clockwise (opposite the direction of normal engine rotation) approximately 30 degrees. The reason for this step is to be sure the play is removed from the timing gears when the engine is put on top center.


USING 9S9082 ENGINE TURNING TOOL

NOTE: The engine is seen from the flywheel end when direction of crankshaft rotation is given.

Next, turn the flywheel counterclockwise until the hole is the flywheel is in alignment with the timing bolt. When the timing bolt can be turned freely in the threaded hole in the flywheel, the No. 1 piston of the engine is on top center.

If the hole in the flywheel is turned beyond the hole in the flywheel housing, turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a minimum of 30° beyond the hole in the flywheel. Now turn the flywheel counterclockwise toward the hole again.

Fuel System Adjustments: On Engine

Camshaft Timing For The Fuel Injection Pump

8S2291 Timing Pin.

1. Install timing pin (1) through the hole in the pump housing and into the notch in the camshaft.


TIMING PIN INSTALLED
1. Timing pin.

2. Loosen four bolts (2) [one bolt on earlier engines] holding the automatic timing advance unit (3) to the drive shaft for the fuel injection pump.


AUTOMATIC TIMING ADVANCE UNIT
2. Bolts. 3. Automatic Timing Advance Unit.

3. Hit the automatic timing advance unit with a soft hammer to make it come loose from the end of the drive shaft for the fuel injection pump. Be sure it will move freely on the end of the shaft.

4. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

5. On earlier engines, tighten the bolt (2) first to 15 lb. ft. (20 N·m). Remove timing pin (1) and tighten bolt (2) to a last torque of 110 ± 10 lb. ft. (149 ± 14 N·m). On later engines, tighten the four bolts (2) evenly to 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m). Remove timing pin (1), and tighten four bolts (2) evenly to 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m). Tighten bolts (2) to a last torque of:

Unit with flat retainer ... 80 ± 5 lb. ft.(110 ± 7 N·m)

Unit with step retainer ... 100 ± 5 lb. ft.(135 ± 7 N·m)

6. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel.

7. Turn the crankshaft two complete revolutions and check the timing again to see that timing is correct.

8. If timing is not correct, do the above procedure again.

Checking Automatic Timing Advance Unit By Timing Light Method

The 1P3500 Injection Timing Group can be used to check the automatic timing advance. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS6964 is part of the group and has instructions for its use.


1P3500 INJECTION TIMING GROUP

Flow Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing

1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group.5P6524 Engine Timing Indicator Group.
5P7268 Adapter.9S215 Dial Indicator.3P1565 Collet.3S3269 Contact Point (PC Engines).5P2393 Contact Point (DI Engines).3S3264 Rod (PC Engines).8S2296 Rod (DI Engines).
5P3564 Flow Check Assembly (DI Engines)8S2291 Timing Pin


5P6524 ENGINE TIMING INDICATOR GROUP
1. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator. 3. 5P7268 Adapter. 5. 8S2296 Rod, 5.25 in. (133.4 mm) long or 3S3264 Rod, 7.12 in (180.9 mm) long. A. 3S3268 Contact Point, .25 in. (6.4 mm) long. B. 5P2393 Contact Point, 1.50 in. (38.1 mm) long.

To find the travel (movement) of piston (7), from point of closing inlet port (6) to top center, use the procedure that follows:

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel.


MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL (PC TYPE ENGINE SHOWN)
1. 3P1565 Collet. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator and Contact Point. 3. 5P7268 Adapter. 4. Precombustion chamber or Direct Injection Adapter. 5. Rod. 6. Inlet port. 7. Piston.

3. Remove the fuel nozzle from the precombustion chamber or direct injection adapter for No. 1 cylinder.

4. Put the correct rod (5) in 5P7268 Adapter (3). Put the 5P7268 Adapter in the precombustion chamber or direct injection adapter and tighten the 5P7268 Adapter finger tight.


NOTICE

Do not use a wrench to tighten the adapter. There will be damage to the nozzle seat if the adapter is too tight.


5. Put the 9S215 Dial Indicator with the correct contact point in adapter (3). Make an adjustment to the dial indicator so both pointers are on "0" (zero).

6. Turn the crankshaft a minimum of 45° in the CLOCKWISE direction (when seen from the flywheel end of the engine).

7. Turn the crankshaft in the COUNTERCLOCKWISE direction (when seen from the flywheel end of the engine) until the dial indicator gives an indication of maximum piston travel. Make an adjustment to the dial indicator if necessary, to put both pointers of the dial indicator at "0" (zero).


TOOL INSTALLED (Typical Illustration)
1. 3P1565 Collet and 5P7268 Adapter. 2. 9S215 Dial Indicator. 8. 5J5634 Hose Assembly. (9 or 10) 7M1999 Tube Assembly (PC Engines) or 5P3564 Flow Check Assembly (DI Engines).

8. Disconnect the fuel line for No. 1 injection pump at the injection pump housing. For engines with precombustion chambers, put a 7M1999 Tube Assembly (9) on No. 1 injection pump and tighten the nut. For engines with direct injection, put the end with the longest pin of a 5P3564 Flow Check Assembly (10) on No. 1 injection pump and tighten the nut. The free end of either tube (9 or 10) must be in a position a little above horizontal and higher than the end of the injection pump.

9. Disconnect fuel line to the fuel filter. Use an adapter to connect the 5J4634 Hose Assembly (8) to the fuel filter. Disconnect the fuel return line from the outlet elbow on the top of the fuel injection pump. Install a cap plug on the outlet elbow.

10. Turn the crankshaft approximately 45° in a CLOCKWISE direction (when seen from the flywheel end of the engine).


1P540 FLOW CHECKING TOOL GROUP
8. 5J4634 Hose Assembly. 9. 7M1999 Tube Assembly. 10 5P3564 Flow Check Assembly (not included in 1P540 Tool Group). 11. Tank Assembly.

11. With 1 U.S. gal. (4 liters) of clean fuel in tank assembly (11), move the governor lever to full FUEL-ON position. Put 15 psi (105 kPa) of air pressure in the tank by using the hand pump or shop air.


NOTICE

If shop air is used, be sure to make an adjustment to the regulator so there is only 15 psi (105 kPa) air pressure in the tank.


12. Hold a pan under the free end of the tube (9) or 10) for the fuel that comes out.

13. Turn the crankshaft slowly in direction of normal rotation (counterclockwise when seen from the flywheel end of the engine). Do this until the flow of fuel coming from the end of the tube (9 or 10) is 6 to 12 drops per minute [point of closing inlet port (6)].

14. Stop rotation of the crankshaft when the flow of fuel is 6 to 12 drops. Take a reading of the measurement on the dial indicator.

15. To check for correct timing of the fuel system, make a comparison of the measurement on the dial indicator with the measurements in one of the following charts. One of the charts is for engines with precombustion chambers and the other chart is for engines with direct injection.

NOTE: The fuel system has a tolerance of ± 1°.

16. If the injection pump timing is wrong, several other cylinders can be checked.

NOTE: On all cylinders other than No. 1, top center (TC) of each piston will have to be found by use of the dial indicator. Only No. 1 cylinder can be found by installation of bolt in flywheel.

17. If they show different readings, remove the injection pump housing to check all lifter settings and plunger lengths, and adjust as needed. See SETTING THE INJECTION PUMP TIMING DIMENSION: OFF ENGINE, and CHECKING THE PLUNGER AND LIFTER WASHER OF AN INJECTION PUMP.

Measuring Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension

5P4165 Indicator Group.
8S3158 Indicator3P1565 Collet Clamp.5P4165 Base.5P4163 Contact Point 4.75 in. (120.7 mm) long.5P4158 Gauge, 2.00 in. (50.8 mm) long.
8S2291 Timing Pin.8S4613 Wrench.8S2244 Extractor

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump with 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Make reference to REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF INJECTION PUMPS (ON ENGINE).

3. Put 5P4158 Gauge (4) into the bore in the fuel pump housing.


CHECKING TIMING DIMENSION
1. 8S3158 Indicator. 2. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 3. 5P4156 Base. 4. 5P4158 Gauge - 2.00 in. (50.8 mm) long. 5. 5P4163 Contact Point.

4. Put 3P1565 Collet Clamp (2) and 5P4156 Base (3) on 8S3158 Indicator (1). Put 5P4163 Contact Point (5) on the indicator. Install the indicator assembly through 5P4158 Gauge (4).

NOTE: The timing dimension can also be checked with the 8S7167 Gauge, 6F6922 Depth Micrometer and 4 to 5 in. (101.6 to 127.0 mm) rod.

5. The correct timing dimension (on engine) for the fuel injection pump is shown in the chart that follows:

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart, make reference to CAMSHAFT TIMING FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMP.

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart and the camshaft timing for the fuel injection pump is correct, make reference to FUEL SYSTEM ADJUSTMENTS: OFF ENGINE.

Fuel Rack Setting

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group.
8S4627 Circuit Tester.9S215 Dial Indicator.9S8903 Contact Point (Flat Face with Bevel)3P1565 Collet Clamp.9S7350 Bracket Group

1. Remove stop (1), spacer (2) and both gaskets (3) from the drive housing for the fuel injection pump.

2. Disconnect the governor control linkage to let the governor control lever move freely through its full travel.


RACK STOP
1. Stop. 2. Spacer. 3. Gaskets.

3. Install the 9S7350 Bracket Group (5) and the 9S215 Dial Indicator (6) on the drive housing for the fuel injection pump.

4. With the governor control lever in the "shut-off" position, put the spacer (4) of the bracket group (the spacer is on the rod connected to the chain) over the rod that makes contact with the rack. Put force on the end of the rod that makes contact with the rack, to hold spacer in position while dial indicator setting is made.

5. Put the dial indicator on zero. Take the spacer away from the rod that makes contact with the rack.


PUTTING FUEL RACK AT CENTER POSITION
4. Spacer. 5. 9S7350 Bracket Group. 6. 9S215 Dial Indicator.

6. Connect the clip end of the 8S4627 Circuit Tester (9) to the brass terminal (8) on the governor housing. Put the other end of the tester to a good ground.

7. Turn the governor lever in the "fuel-on" direction until the light in the tester comes on. Now move the governor lever toward the "shut-off" position until the test light goes out. Now slowly, turn the governor lever toward "fuel-on" until the test light has a minimum light output. In this position, rack stop collar (11) is just making a contact with the torque spring or stop bar.

8. Read the measurement on the dial indicator. Look in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION to find the correct measurement for rack setting.

9. If an adjustment is necessary, remove the cover, or air-fuel ratio control (if so equipped), from the rear of the governor.

10. To make an adjustment to the fuel rack, loosen locknut (10). Turn adjustment screw (12) to change the fuel rack setting.


MEASURING FUEL RACK SETTING
8. Brass terminal. 9. 8S4627 Circuit Tester.


MAKING AN ADJUSTMENT TO THE RACK SETTING
10. Locknut. 11. Stop collar. 12. Adjustment screw.

11. After the adjustment procedure is done, tighten locknut (10) to 9 ± 3 lb. ft. (12 ± 4 N·m).

12. Install the cover, or air-fuel ratio control (if so equipped). Make reference to ADJUSTMENT OF HYDRAULIC AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL.

Fuel System Adjustments: Off Engine

Setting Fuel Injection Pump Dimension

5P6600 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group.5P4165 Indicator Group.
8S3158 Indicator.3P1565 Collet Clamp.5P4165 Base.5P4163 Contact Point, 4.75 in. (120.7 mm) long.5P4158 Gauge, 2.00 in. (50.8 mm) long.
8S4613 Wrench.8S2244 Extractor.8S2291 Timing Pin.


5P6600 OFF ENGINE LIFTER SETTING TOOL GROUP
1. 1P7410 Timing Plate. 2. 5P1768 Pointer Assembly. 3. 5P1761 Shaft. 5. 2S6160 Washer. 6. S509 Bolt. 7. S1594 Bolt.

The off engine setting makes an adjustment for wear of components in the injection pump housing. Adjustment of the accessory drive shaft is a compensation for wear in the timing gears, accessory drive shaft and the camshaft of the injection pumps.

1. Fasten the 5P1768 Pointer Assembly (2) to the pump housing using S509 Bolt (6).


INSTALLATION OF THE 5P1768 POINTER ASSEMBLY
2. 5P1768 Pointer Assembly. 6. S509 Bolt.

2. Install 5P1761 Shaft (3) in the 1P7410 Plate (1). Put the plate with shaft on the drive end of the camshaft of the injection pump.

3. Install the 8S2291 Timing Pin through the hole in the pump housing and into the notch in the camshaft.


INSTALLATION OF THE 1P7410 PLATE
1. 1P7410 Plate. 5. 2S6160 Washer. 7. S1594 Bolt. A. 6F6922 Depth Micrometer and 4 to 5 in. (101.6 to 127.0 mm) rod. B. 8S7167 Gauge.

4. Put the 0° mark on the 1P7410 Plate (4) in alignment with the pointer and tighten S1594 Bolt (7).

NOTE: Be sure 1P7410 Plate (1) does not move from 0° mark while bolt is tightened.

5. Remove the timing pin.

6. The fuel rack must be in the center position before the injection pumps can be removed. Push and hold the fuel rack against Pointer Assembly (2) to center the fuel rack.


MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
8. 8S3158 Indicator. 9. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 10. 5P4156 Base. 11. 5P4158 Gauge - 2.00 in. (50.8 mm) long. 12. Spacer. 13. Timing dimension. 14. 5P4163 Contact Point - 4.75 in. (120.7 mm) long.

7. Use the 8S4613 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor to remove the injection pumps.

NOTE: When injection pumps, spacers and lifters are removed from the injection pump housing, keep the parts of each pump together so they can be installed back in their original location.

8. To adjust (calibrate) the dial indicator for the lifter measurements, use the procedure that follows:

a. Put the 5P4157 Gauge [4.00 in. (100.6 mm)] on the 5P4159 Gauge Stand.

b. With contact point in gauge hole, put the dial indicator and base on top of 5P4157 Gauge.

c. Loosen the screw that locks the dial face. Move the dial face until the large pointer is on zero and tighten the screw.

d. Make a record of the position of the small pointer. The dial indicator is now adjusted (calibrated).

NOTE: When measurement of the pump timing dimension (13) is made, find the difference between the adjustment reading and the present reading on the dial face. A dimension of 4.00 in. (100.6 mm) must be added to the difference in indicator readings for the correct measurement.

NOTE: The timing dimension can also be checked with the 8S7167 Gauge, 6F6922 Depth Micrometer, and 4 to 5 in. (101.6 to 127.0 mm) rod as shown in picture.

9. Make reference to the lifter setting chart for the timing plate degrees for the lifter being checked. To use the timing plate, turn it counterclockwise until the degree setting for the lifter to be checked is in alignment with the pointer.

10. The correct timing dimension for off engine adjustment of the lifter is shown in the chart that follows:

11. The spacer (12) of each injection pump must be changed to change the timing dimension of that injection pump. Make reference to the spacer chart for spacer thickness.

12. Make another check for all timing dimensions after all adjustments have been made.

13. Before the injection pumps are installed in the pump housing, the fuel rack MUST be in the center position. Push and hold the fuel rack against Pointer Assembly (2) when pumps are to be installed in housing bore. For correct alignment of pumps, make reference to INSTALLATION OF INJECTION PUMPS.

14. After the fuel injection pump housing is again installed on the engine, make reference to CAMSHAFT TIMING FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMP.

Governor Adjustments

4S6553 Instrument Group.
1P7448 Mechanical Tachometer Cable.


NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make the adjustment to the low idle and high idle rpm. The correct low idle and high idle rpm, and the measurement for adjustment of the fuel rack are in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION and on the ENGINE INFORMATION PLATE installed on the engine.


Engine rpm must be checked with an accurate tachometer. The 1P7443 Tachometer and the 1P7448 Mechanical Tachometer Cable (from the 4S6553 Instrument Group) can be used.

NOTE: The 1P7448 Mechanical Tachometer Cable can be connected to any of the instruments shown in article MEASURING ENGINE SPEED.

Hydra-Mechanical Governor Adjustment

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

Start the engine and check the low idle and high idle rpm. See the RACK SETTING INFORMATION, or look at the ENGINE INFORMATION PLATE installed on the engine, for the correct low idle and high idle rpm.


IDLE ADJUSTMENT
1. Low idle screw. 2. High idle screw. 3. Cover.

If an adjustment is necessary, remove cover (3) and use the procedure that follows:

1. To adjust the LOW IDLE rpm, move the governor linkage to LOW IDLE position and turn screw (1). Increase the engine speed and then return linkage back to LOW IDLE position to check the setting again.

2. Move the governor linkage to HIGH IDLE position and turn screw (2) to adjust HIGH IDLE rpm. When the specific rpm setting is made, move the governor control to reduce engine speed, then move the linkage to HIGH IDLE and check the setting again. Repeat this procedure until rpm setting is correct.

3. When governor adjustment is correct, install the cover on top of the governor.

When the cover is installed on the governor, the idle adjustment screws fit into holes in the cover. The shape of the holes will not let the idle adjustment screw turn after the idle adjustment is done and the cover is installed.

4. Now install a new wire and seal to cover bolt.

Dashpot Governor Adjustment

NOTE: Low and high idle adjustments are the same as shown for hydra-mechanical governors.


DASHPOT GOVERNOR
1. Low idle screw. 2. High idle screw. 3. Cover. 4. Dashpot reservoir. 5. Adjustment screw for dashpot. 6. Adjustment screw for supply oil to reservoir.

If the dashpot governor of an electric set engine (or some special application engines) does not work correctly (no stability of rpm, or slow changes of rpm when the engine load changes, or variable performance), adjust the governor.

1. With the engine in operation, loosen adjustment screw (6) two or three turns. The oil flow will clean the orifice in the oil passage. Next, tighten screw (6) until it stops. Then, loosen screw (6) only 1/4 to 1/2 turn, to give the correct amount of oil for dashpot reservoir (4).

2. Loosen adjustment screw (5) two or three turns. The oil flow in and out of the dashpot chamber will clean the orifice in the oil passage. Next, tighten screw (5) until it stops. Then, loosen screw (5) only 3/4 to one full turn, to make the correct restriction for dashpot operation. The exact point of adjustment is where the governor gives the best performance.

Measuring Engine Speed

5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter or4S6553 Instrument Group or1P5500 Portable Phototach Group


5P2150 ENGINE HORSEPOWER METER

The 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter can measure engine speed from the tachometer drive on the engine. Special Instruction Form. No. SMHS7050 has instructions for its use.

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group can measure engine speed from the tachometer drive on the engine. It also has the ability to measure engine speed from visual engine parts in rotation. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015 has instructions for its use.


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7341 is with the 4S6553 Engine Test Group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. Differential pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. Pressure gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. Tachometer. 7. Manifold pressure gauge.

Checking Balance Point (Full Load Speed)

8S4627 Circuit Tester.5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter.

The balance point check of the engine is a method to make a diagnosis of engine performance.

If the balance point and the high idle speed are correct, the fuel system operation of the engine is correct. The balance point for the engine is:

A. At full load engine speed.
B. The rpm where the rack stop collar just makes contact with the torque spring or stop bar.
C. The rpm where the engine gets the maximum amount of fuel per stroke.
D. The rpm where the engine has maximum horsepower output.
E. The rpm where an increase in load on the engine puts the engine in a lug condition (a condition in which a small increase in load causes the engine speed to decrease).

Use the procedure that follows to check the balance point. Make reference to TECHNIQUES FOR LOADING ENGINES in Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7050.

1. Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy to the tachometer drive.


CONTINUITY LIGHT INSTALLED
1. Brass terminal screw. 2. Continuity light.

2. Connect the clip end of 8S4627 Circuit Tester (2) to the brass terminal screw (1) on the governor housing. Connect the other end of the tester to a place on the fuel system which is a good ground connection.

3. Start the engine.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

4. With the engine at normal conditions for operation, run the engine at high idle.

5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high idle.

6. Add load on the engine slowly until the circuit tester light comes on (minimum light output). This is the balance point.

7. Make a record of the speed (rpm) at the balance point.

8. Repeat Step 6 several times to make sure that the reading is correct.

9. Stop engine. Make a comparison of the records from Steps 5 and 7 with the information from the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

10. If the balance point is correct, the governor setting is adjusted correctly. If the balance point is not correct, adjust the high idle rpm until you get the correct balance point.


NOTICE

Do not adjust rpm above the range for HIGH IDLE given in RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Damage to engine can result if setting is too high.


Adjustment Of Hydraulic Air-Fuel Ratio Control

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group.
9S215 Dial Indicator.9S8903 Contact Point (Flat Face with Bevel)3P1565 Collet Clamp.9S7350 Bracket Group.

1. The fuel rack setting must be correct before the adjustment for the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control can be checked or changed. Make reference to FUEL RACK SETTING.

NOTE: Use the 9S215 Dial Indicator and 9S8903 Bracket Group from FUEL RACK SETTING to measure rack movement for air-fuel ratio control.

2. Remove cover (3) from the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control.

3. Start the engine.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

4. Push end of valve (1) in and hold it in for two or three seconds. This action will manually move the valve into position to operate with the engine.

5. Rapidly move the governor control lever in the fuel-on direction and read the measurement on the dial indicator. Read the indicator carefully because this reading will be a maximum for only a moment. See the RACK SETTING INFORMATION to find the correct measurement.


HYDRAULIC AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL
1. Valve. 2. Pin. 3. Cover.

6. To make an adjustment to the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control, turn valve (1) in a clockwise direction to increase the amount of fuel possible (more rack travel) at the limited rack position. The counterclockwise direction will decrease the amount of fuel possible (less rack travel) at the limited rack position.

7. After each adjustment is made, the governor control lever must be moved rapidly from the low idle position in the fuel-on direction before an accurate reading can be made.

8. After the correct adjustment has been made, put cover (3) in alignment with pin (2) in the valve and turn the cover to put it in alignment with the nearest bolt holes. Install the bolts.

9. Stop the engine.

10. After the oil pressure has gone out of the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control, full rack travel must be available.

11. Now install the wire and seal on the control.

Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction (negative pressure difference measurement between atmospheric air and air that has gone through air cleaner) of more than 30 in. (762 mm) of water.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust outlet elbow and atmosphere) must not be more than 34 in. (864 mm) for naturally aspirated and 27 in. (686 mm) for turbocharged engines.

Measurement Of Pressure In Inlet Manifold

The efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a comparison of the pressure in the inlet manifold with the information given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. This test is used when there is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Development of this information is done with these conditions:

a. 29.4 in. (747 mm) of mercury barometric pressure
b. 85° F (29° C) outside air temperature
c. 35 API rated fuel

Any change from these conditions can change the pressure in the inlet manfiold. Outside air that has higher temperature and lower barometric pressure than given above will cause a lower horsepower and a lower inlet manifold pressure measurement than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Outside air that has a lower temperature and a higher barometric pressure will cause higher horsepower and a higher inlet manifold pressure measurement.

A difference in fuel rating will also change horsepower and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet manifold can be less than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be more than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. BE SURE THAT THE AIR INLET AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RESTRICTION WHEN MAKING A CHECK OF PRESSURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD.


PLUG FOR PRESSURE TEST

Use the 4S6553 Instrument Group to check engine rpm and the pressure in the inlet manifold. This instrument group has a tachometer for reading engine rpm. It also has a gauge for reading pressure in the inlet manifold. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7341 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. Differential pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. Pressure gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. Tachometer. 7. Manifold pressure gauge.

Exhaust Temperature


1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP

Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7179 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure

Pistons or piston rings that have damage can be the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase. This condition will cause the engine to run rough. There will also be more than the normal amount of fumes coming from the crankcase breather. This crankcase pressure can also cause the element for the crankcase breather to have a restriction in a very short time. It can also be the cause of oil leakage at gaskets and seals that would not normally have leakage.

Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or have valves that need adjustment. Use the test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a cylinder that has low compression, or does not have good fuel combustion. Find the speed that the engine runs the roughest, and keep the engine at this rpm until the test is finished. Loosen a fuel line nut at fuel injection pump to stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so the cylinder will have to be checked thoroughly. Removal of the head and inspection of the valves and valve seats is necessary to find those small defects that do not normally cause a problem. Repair of these problems is normally done when reconditioning the engine.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head has valve seat inserts, valve guides, and bridge dowels that can be removed when they are worn or have damage. Replacement of these components can be made with the tools that follow.

Valves

Valve removal and installation is easier with use of the 5S1330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly and 5S1322 Valve Keeper Inserter.

Valve Seat Inserts

Tools needed to remove and install valve seat inserts are in the 9S3080 Valve Insert Puller Group. Special Instruction Form No. GMG02114 gives an explanation for this procedure. For easier installation, lower the temperature of the insert before it is installed in the head.

Valve Guides

Tools needed to install valve guides are the 5P2396 Driver Bushing and 7S8859 Driver. The counterbore in the driver bushing installs the guide to the correct height. Use a 1P7451 Valve Guide Honing Group to make a finished bore in the valve guide after installation of the guide in the head. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00966 gives an explanation for this procedure. Grind the valves after the new valve guides are installed.

Checking Valve Guide Bore

Use the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group to check the bore of the valve guides. Special Instruction Form No. GMG02562 gives complete and detailed instructions for use of the 5P3536 Dial Bore Gauge Group.


5P3536 VALVE GUIDE GAUGE GROUP

Bridge Dowel

Use a 5P944 Dowel Puller Group with a 5P942 Extractor to remove the bridge dowels. Install a new bridge dowel with a 5P2406 Dowel Driver. This dowel driver installs the bridge dowel to the correct height.

Bridge Adjustment

When the head is disassembled, keep the bridges with their respective cylinders. Adjustment of the bridge will be necessary only after the valves are ground or other reconditioning of the cylinder head is done. Use the procedure that follows to make an adjustment to the bridge.

NOTE: Valves must be fully closed.


BRIDGE ADJUSTMENT

1. Put engine oil on the bridge dowel in the cylinder head and in the bore in the bridge.

2. Install the bridge with the adjustment screw toward the exhaust manifold.

3. Loosen the locknut for the adjustment screw and loosen the adjustment screw several turns.

4. Put a force on the bridge with a finger to keep the bridge in contact with the valve stem opposite the adjustment screw.

5. Turn the adjustment screw clockwise until it just makes contact with the valve stem. Then turn the adjustment screw 30° more in a clockwise direction to make the bridge straight on the dowel, and to make compensation for the clearance in the threads of the adjustment screw.

6. Hold the adjustment screw in this position and tighten the locknut to 22 ± 3 lb. ft. (30 ± 4 N·m).

7. Put engine oil at the point where the rocker arm makes contact with the bridge.

Valve Clearance Setting

NOTE: Valve clearance is measured between the rocker arm and the bridge for the valves.

NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) is checked, adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the measurement is in the range given in the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED. If the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is necessary. See the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED, and make the setting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this chart.


TYPICAL VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK

To make an adjustment to the valve clearance, turn the adjustment screw in the rocker arm. It is not necessary to change the bridge adjustment for normal valve clearance adjustments. Valve clearance adjustments can be made by using the procedure that follows:

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valves for cylinders 1, 2, and 4. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 1, 3, and 5.


VALVE ADJUSTMENT

3. After each adjustment, tighten the nut for valve adjustment screw to 22 ± 3 lb. ft. (30 ± 4 N·m), and check the adjustment again.

4. Remove the timing bolt and turn the flywheel 360° in the direction of engine rotation. This will put No. 6 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Install the timing bolt in the flywheel.

5. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valves for cylinders 3, 5, and 6. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 2, 4, and 6.

6. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel when all adjustments to the valve clearances have been made.


CYLINDER AND VALVE LOCATION

Lubrication System

One of the problems in the list that follows will generally be an indication of a problem in the lubrication system for the engine.

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTION

OIL PRESSURE IS LOW

OIL PRESSURE IS HIGH

TOO MUCH BEARING WEAR

INCREASED OIL TEMPERATURE

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine

Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil comes out of the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket and seal leakage.

Oil Leakage Into Combustion Area of Cylinders

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are four possible ways for oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders:

1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve stems.
2. Worn or damaged piston rings, or dirty oil return holes.
3. Compression ring and/or intermediate ring not installed correctly.
4. Oil leakage past the seal rings in the impeller end of the turbocharger shaft.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result if oil with the wrong viscosity is used. Oil with a thin viscosity can be caused by fuel leakage into the crankcase, or by increased engine temperature.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box.9S9102 Thermister Thermometer Group.

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect can give an indication of low oil pressure.

An 8M2744 Oil Pressure Gauge which is part of the 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box can be used to check oil pressure in the system.


5P6225 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX

This procedure must be followed exactly for the pressure readings to have any value for comparison with Engine Oil Pressure Chart.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with SAE 30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the information in the Engine Oil Pressure Chart does not apply.

2. Find a location on the oil manifold to install a tee. The easiest method is to remove the sending unit for the present gauge and install a tee at this location. Install a probe from the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group in one side of the tee. Connect a 8M2744 Gauge from the 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box to the other side of the tee.


OIL MANIFOLD
1. Pressure Test Location.

3. Run the engine to get the oil temperature at 200 ± 10° F (93 ± 6° C).

4. Keep the oil temperature constant with the engine at the rated rpm from the chart, and read the pressure gauge.

If the results do not fall within the pressure range given in the chart, find the cause and correct it. Engine failure or a reduction in engine life can be the result if engine operation is continued with oil manifold pressure outside this range.

Oil Pressure Is Low

Crankcase Oil Level

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far below the oil pump supply tube. This will cause the oil pump to not have the ability to supply enough lubrication to the engine components.

Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil pump can have a restriction. This will cause cavitation (low pressure bubbles suddenly made in liquids by mechanical forces) and a loss of oil pressure. Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If the bypass valve for the oil pump is held in the open (unseated) position, the lubrication system can not get to maximum pressure. Oil pump gears that have too much wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure.

Oil Filter Bypass Valves

If the bypass valve for the oil filter is held in the open position (unseated) because the oil filter has a restriction, a reduction in oil pressure can result. To correct this problem, remove and clean the bypass valve and bypass valve bore. Install a new Caterpillar oil filter to be sure that no more debris makes the bypass valve stay open.

Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings or Open (Broken or Disconnected Oil Line or Passage) Lubrication System

Components that are worn and have too much bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected.

Piston Cooling Tubes (Jets)

When engine is operated, cooling jets direct oil toward the bottom of the piston to lower piston and ring temperatures. If there is a failure of one of the jets, or it is bent in the wrong direction, seizure of the piston will be caused in a very short time.

Use the 5P8709 Piston Tool Group to check and adjust the alignment of piston cooling jets.

Oil Pressure Is High

Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the oil pump can not move from the closed position.

Too Much Bearing Wear

When some components of the engine show bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in an oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the cause.

If the gauge for oil pressure shows enough oil pressure, but a component is worn because it can not get enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil supply to the component. A restriction in a supply passage will not let enough lubrication get to a component, and this will cause early wear.

Increased Oil Temperature

Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the oil cooler. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is operated. The oil pressure of the engine will not get low just because the oil cooler has a restriction.

Also check the oil cooler bypass valve to see if it is held in the open position (unseated). This condition will let the oil through the valve instead of the oil cooler, and oil temperature will increase.

Cooling System

This engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can have safe operation at a temperature that is higher than the normal boiling (steam) point of water. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (low pressure bubbles suddenly made in liquids by mechanical forces) in the water pump. With this type system, it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to be made in the cooling system.

The cause for increased engine temperature is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not made. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before a test is made with test equipment.

Visual Inspection Of The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive belts for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing surface for the cap. The sealing surface must be clean.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When a diagnosis is made of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and height above sea level on the boiling (steam) point of water.

Test Tools for Cooling System

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.9S7373 Air Meter Group.1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

The 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine hotter than normal) or overcooling (engine cooler than normal) problems. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of the cooling system. The testing procedures is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7140.


9S7373 AIR METER GROUP

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7063.


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group is used to check the fan speed. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015.

Pressure Cap Test

9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a bad seal on the pressure cap of the system. Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or to the surface that seals. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, valve, seal, or surface that seals must be removed.

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.


TYPICAL SCHEMATIC OF PRESSURE CAP
A. Sealing surface of cap and radiator.

To check the pressure cap for the pressure that makes the pressure cap open, use the procedure that follows:

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

------ WARNING! ------

If the engine has been operated and the coolant is hot, loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system, then remove the pressure cap.

--------WARNING!------

2. Put the pressure cap on the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP

3. Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that makes the pressure cap open.

4. Make a comparison of the reading on the gauge with the correct pressure at which the pressure cap must open.

NOTE: The correct pressure that makes the pressure cap open is on the pressure cap and is also in the SPECIFICATIONS.

5. If the pressure cap is bad, install a new pressure cap.

Radiator and Cooling System Leak Tests (Systems That Use Pressure Cap)

To test the radiator and cooling system for leaks, use the procedure that follows:

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

------ WARNING! ------

If the engine has been operated and the coolant is hot, loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system, then remove the pressure cap.

--------WARNING!------

2. Make sure the coolant is over the top of the radiator core.

3. Put the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group on the radiator.

4. Get the pressure reading on the gauge to 3 psi (20 kPa) more than the pressure on the pressure cap.

5. Check the radiator for outside leakage.

6. Check all connections and hoses for the cooling system for outside leakage.

7. If you do not see any outside leakage and the pressure reading on the gauge is still the same after 5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system does not have leakage. If the reading on the gauge goes down and you do not see any outside leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the cooling system. Make repairs as necessary.

Gauge for Water Temperature

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. or2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.


2F7112 THERMOMETER INSTALLED

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system could be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage. If a place can not be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the gauge for water temperature. Use the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group or the 2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

Start the engine and run it until the temperature is at the desired range according to the test thermometer. If necessary, put a cover over part of the radiator or cause a restriction of the coolant flow. The reading on the gauge for water temperature must be the same as the test thermometer within the tolerance range in the chart.


WATER TEMPERATURE GAUGE

Water Temperature Regulators

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is 197°F (92°C). Move the water around in the pan to make it all the same temperature.

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for 10 minutes.

5. After ten minutes, remove the regulator and immediately measure the distance the regulator has opened. The distance must be a minimum of .375 in. (9.53 mm).

6. If the distance is less than .375 in. (9.53 mm), make a replacement of the regulator.

V-Belt Tension Chart

Basic Block

Piston Rings

This engine has piston grooves and rings of the KEYSTONE (taper) design. A special 5P4812 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available to check the top two ring grooves in the piston. For instructions on use of the gauge, see the GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS: PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.


5P4812 PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use the 7M3978 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use the 5P3526 or 7M3977 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder liner.

Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the step sequence that follows:

1. Put 2P2506 Thread Lubricant on bolt threads and contact surfaces of nut and cap.

2. Tighten all bolts to 60 ± 4 lb. ft. (80 ± 5 N·m).

3. Put a mark on each nut and end of bolt.

4. Tighten each nut 120° from the mark.

The connecting rod bearings fit tightly in the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are worn (fretted), check bore size. This can be an indication of wear because of a loose fit.

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Connecting rod bearings are available with .025 in. (0.64 mm) and .050 in. (1.27 mm) smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than the original size).

Main bearings are available with a larger outside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger than the original size). The size available is .025 in. (0.64 mm) larger outside diameter than the original size bearings.

Cylinder Block

The bore in the block for main bearings can be checked with the main bearing caps installed without bearings. Tighten the nuts that hold the caps to the torque shown in the SPECIFICATIONS. Alignment error in the bores must not be more than .003 in. (0.08 mm). Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7606 gives instructions for the use of 1P4000 Line Boring Tool Group for alignment of the main bearing bores. The 1P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group can be used to check the size of the bores. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00981 is with the group.


1P3537 DIAL BORE GAUGE GROUP

Projection Of Cylinder Liner

8B7548 Push-Puller.
Three 3H465 Plates.
1P2396 Puller Plate.Two 3/4 in. 16 NF Bolts, 7 in. (177.8 mm) long.Four 3/4 in. 16 NF Bolts, 3 in. (76.2 mm) long.Eight 2F126 Seals (Copper Washers).1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group.8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement.

Check liner projection above top plate as follows:

1. Make certain that top plate (4) and the cylinder liner flange are clean. Install a new top plate gasket, but do not install liner seals when this check is made.


HOLDING TOP PLATE TO CYLINDER BLOCK (Typical Example)
1. 3H465 Plate. 2. 1P2396 Puller Plate. 3. 2F126 Seals (copper washers). 4. Top plate.

2. Use 3/4 in. NF bolts, 3 in. (76.2 mm) long, with two 2F126 Seals (3) on each bolt to hold the top plate (4) to the cylinder block. Install two bolts with seals (3) on each side of the cylinder liner. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 10 lb. ft. (14 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m), 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m) and then to 70 lb. ft. (95 N·m).

NOTE: To keep installation and removal of bolts and washers to a minimum as each liner is checked, install two bolts with washers on each side of each cylinder liner along the complete length of the top plate.

3. Use a 1P2396 Puller Plate (2), three 3H465 Plates (1), 8B7548 Push-Puller (6), and two 3/4 in. 16 NF bolts, 7 in. (177.8 mm) long to hold the liner down.

4. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 5 lb. ft. (7 N·m), 15 lb. ft. (20 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m), and then to 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m). Distance from bottom edge of 8B7548 Push-Puller (6) to top plate must be the same on both sides of cylinder liner.


MEASURING LINER HEIGHT PROJECTION (Typical Example)
5. Dial indicator. 6. 8B7548 Push-Puller. 7. 1P2402 Block.

5. Use a 1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group to measure liner projection. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00623 is with the tool group.

6. To zero dial indicator (5), use the back of 1P5507 Gauge with dial indicator (5) mounted in 1P2402 Block (7).

7. Liner projection must be .001 to .006 in. (0.03 to 0.15 mm). (Make the measurement to the flange of the liner, not the inner ring.) The maximum difference between high and low measurements made at four places around each liner is .002 in. (0.05 mm). The average projection of liners next to each other must not be more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The maximum difference in the average projection for all cylinder liners must not be more than .004 in. (0.10 mm).

NOTE: If liner projection changes from point to point around the liner, turn the liner to a new position within the bore. If still not within specifications, move liner to a different bore.

NOTE: When liner projection is correct, put a temporary mark on the liner and top plate so when seals and band are installed, the liner can be installed in the correct position.

The contact face of the cylinder block can be machined with use of the 8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement to adjust liner projection. Form FM055228 is part of the cylinder block counterboring tool arrangement and gives tool arrangement and information to use the tool.

The counterbore depth has a range from a minimum of .030 in. (0.76 mm) to a maximum of .045 in. (1.14 mm). Install the .030 in. (0.76 mm) shim directly below the liner flange. If it is necessary to use more than one shim, the other shims must be installed under the .030 in. (0.76 mm) shim.

The shims that follow are available for the adjustment of the liner projection:

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

8S2328 Dial Indicator Group.

Face Run Out (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearance must be removed to get correct measurements.


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of the flywheel housing.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

2. Put a force on the crankshaft toward the rear before the indicator is read at each point.

3. With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the indicator at locations (B), (C) and (D).

4. The difference between lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .012 in. (0.30 mm), which is the maximum permissible face run out (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel housing.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

1. Fasten the dial indicator as shown so the anvil of the indicator will touch the bore of the flywheel housing.


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING

2. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft up against the top of the bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This notation is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

3. Divide the measurement from Step 2 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).

4. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write measurement in the chart.

8. Add lines I & II by columns.

9. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal eccentricity (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

10. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.

11. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable", the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable", do Step 12.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

12. Loosen the bolts that hold the flywheel housing to the cylinder block. Hit the flywheel housing lightly with a soft hammer to put it in the correct position. Tighten the bolts that hold the flywheel housing to the cylinder block and do Steps 2 through 11 again.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Always put a force on the crankshaft in the same direction before the indicator is read so the crankshaft end clearance (movement) is always removed.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment.

1. Install 7H1942 Dial Indicator (3) and make an adjustment of 7H1940 Universal Attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed .005 in. (0.13 mm).


CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH PILOT BEARING BORE

Vibration Damper

Damage to or failure of the damper will increase vibrations and result in damage to the crankshaft. It will cause more gear train noise at variable points in the speed range.

The vibration damper has marks (1) on the hub and the ring. These marks give an indication of the condition of the vibration damper. If the marks are not in alignment, the rubber part (between the ring and the hub) of the vibration damper has had a separation from the ring and/or hub. If the marks are not in alignment, install a new vibration damper.


VIBRATION DAMPER
1. Alignment marks.

A used vibration damper can have a visual wobble (movement to the front and then to the rear when in rotation) on the outer ring and still not need replacement, because some wobble of the outer ring is normal. To see if the amount of wobble is acceptable, or replacement is necessary, check the damper with the procedure that follows:

1. Install a dial indicator, contact point and other parts as necessary to hold the dial indicator stationary. The contact point must be perpendicular (at 90° angle) to the face of the outer ring of the damper, and must make contact approximately at the center of the outer ring.

2. Push on the front end of the crankshaft so the end play (free movement on the centerline) is removed. Keep the crankshaft pushed back until the measurements are done.

3. Adjust the dial indicator to zero.

4. Turn the crankshaft 360° and watch the dial indicator. A total indicator reading of .000 to .080 in. (0.00 to 2.03 mm) is acceptable.

Electrical System

Most of the tests of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections must be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully charged. If the on-engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

Battery

5P300 Electrical Tester.9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger-Tester.5P957 or 5P3414 Coolant and Battery Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. GEG02276, and to the instructions inside the cover of the tester, when the 5P300 Electrical Tester is used.

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit will result if the connections (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is in operation. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage will damage, not only the charging unit, but also the regulator and other electrical components.

------ WARNING! ------

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to personnel can be the result.

--------WARNING!------


9S1990 BATTERY CHARGER-TESTER

Load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. To do this, put a resistance across the main connections (terminals) of the battery. For a 6, 8 or 12 V battery, put a test load of three times the ampere/hour rating (the maximum test load on any battery is 500 amperes). Let the test load remove the charge (discharge) of the battery for 15 seconds and immediately test the battery voltage. A 6 V battery in good condition will show 4.5 V; an 8 V battery will show 6 V; a 12 V battery will show 9 V. Each cell of a battery in good condition must show 1.6V on either a 6, 8 or 12 V battery.

Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS6891 when checking the battery with the 9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger-Testers.

Charging System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. GEG02276, and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system operates correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is constantly in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (more than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 50 service hours).

Make a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator on the engine, when possible, using wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off-engine (bench) testing will give a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. After repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that the units are repaired to their original condition of operation.

Before the start of on-engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked as shown in the Steps that follow:

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.240 Sp. Gr.) fully charged and held tightly in place. The battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give correct circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and have the ability to operate the charging unit.

Alternator Regulator Adjustment

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to the charging rate of the alternator.

Earlier Delco-Remy 24V 50A (5S9088 Alternator)

Remove the plug from the cover of the alternator regulator and turn the inside adjustment with a screwdriver. Turn the adjustment one or two notches to change the alternator charging rate.

Later Delco-Remy 24V 50A (5S9088 Alternator) and Delco-Remy 12V 75A (5S6698 Alternator)

The later 5S9088 Alternator has a different location for the voltage adjustment screw than the early 5S9088 Alternator. The voltage adjustment screw for the later 5S9088 Alternator is located under the end plate. The adjustment screw for the 5S6698 Alternator is also under the end plate.

To adjust the voltage setting on these alternators, use the procedure that follows:

1. Remove end plate (2) and cover (3) from the alternator.


5S9088 ALTERNATOR
1. Adjustment screw under plug (earlier regulator). 2. End plate.

2. Remove the rubber sealant from the adjustment screw (4).

3. Use a voltmeter to measure alternator voltage output.

4. Turn adjustment screw (4) counterclockwise to lower the voltage setting. Turn adjustment screw (4) clockwise to raise the voltage setting.


LOCATION OF COVER
3. Cover.

5. Put 3S6252 Rubber Sealant on adjustment screw (4) and install cover (3) and end plate (2).


NOTICE

Make certain that field wire (5) is not located over transistor pins (6). The pins can make a hole in the insulation of the wire.



ALTERNATOR REGULATOR
4. Voltage adjustment screw. 5. Field wire. 6. Transistor pins.

Delco-Remy 24V 60A (4N3986 Alternator) Delco-Remy 32V 60A (4N3987 Alternator)

To make an adjustment to the voltage output on these alternators, remove the voltage adjustment cap (1) from the alternator, turn the cap 90°, and install it again into the alternator. The voltage adjustment cap has four positions: HI, LO, and two positions between the high and the low setting.


ALTERNATOR REGULATOR ADJUSTMENT
1. Voltage adjustment cap.

Delco-Remy 24V 35A (6N9294 Alternator)

No adjustment can be made to change the rate of charge on this alternator regulator. If rate of charge is not correct, a replacement of the regulator is necessary.


6N9294 ALTERNATOR

Motorola Alternator Regulator (Separate from Alternator)

To make an adjustment to the voltage output, remove the cover from the voltage regulator and change the location of the metal strap (1).

To make an increase in the voltage (approximately .4 volt in a 12 volt system and .6 volt in a 24 volt system), remove the nuts from the two studs nearest to the word "HI". Install the metal strap on these studs and install the nuts.

To make a decrease in the voltage (approximately .4 volt in a 12 volt system and .6 volt in a 24 volt system), remove the nuts from the two studs nearest to the word "LO". Install the metal strap on these studs and install the nuts.


VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT
1. Metal strap.

A fine adjustment can be made by removing cover screw (2) from the insulator and turning the adjustment screw with a Phillips screwdriver. Turn clockwise to make an increase in voltage.

NOTE: Total adjustment is one-half turn.


NOTICE

Do not let screwdriver make contact with cover.



FINE VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT
2. Cover screw.

Delco-Remy Alternator; Pulley Nut Tightening

Tighten nut that holds the pulley to a torque of 75 ± 5 lb. ft. (100 ± 7 N·m) with the tools shown.


ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION
1. 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). 2. 8S1590 Socket (5/16" with 3/8" drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group. 8H8555 Socket (15/16" with 1/2" drive) not shown.

Starting System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. GEG02276, and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when the 5P300 Electrical Tester is used.

Use a D.C. Voltmeter to find starting system components which do not function.

Move the start control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.

If the solenoid for the starter motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery did not get to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a broken circuit from the battery. More testing is necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter.

The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance.

Make a test with one voltmeter lead fastened to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid, and the other lead to the ground. Look at the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the heat-start switch or the wires for the heat-start switch.

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the heat-start switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading indicates a broken circuit from the battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and wiring. If there is a voltmeter reading, the problem is in the heat-start switch or in the wires for the heat-start switch.

Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the battery wire connection of the starter switch and put the other lead to a good ground. A voltmeter reading indicates a failure in the switch.

A starter motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starter motor can also be caused by a short circuit, loose connections and/or dirt in the motor.

To test for correct output of starter motors and starter solenoids, make reference to SPECIFICATIONS.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment

When the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starter motor removed.


CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.

1. Install the solenoid without connector (1) from the MOTOR connection (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.

3. Connect the other side of battery to ground terminal (3).

4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked MOTOR to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

5. Push the pinion toward commutator end to remove free movement.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be .36 in. (9.1 mm).

7. To adjust pinion clearance, remove plug and turn nut (4).

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Prestolite)

There are two adjustments on this type motor. They are end play for the armature and pinion clearance.

End Play For The Armature

The correct end play for the armature is .005 to .030 in. (0.13 to 0.76 mm). The adjustment is made by adding or removing thrust washers on the commutator end of the armature shaft.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment

1. To adjust the pinion distance, connect the solenoid to a 12 volt battery as shown. For a short moment, connect a wire from the "motor" stud of the solenoid to the stud at (1) in the commutator end. This moves the solenoid and drive into the cranking position.

Disconnect the wire.

NOTE: The drive is in the cranking position until the battery is disconnected.


CONNECTIONS FOR ADJUSTMENT OF THE PINION CLEARANCE
1. Stud.

2. Push the drive toward the commutator end of the motor to eliminate any slack movement in the linkage and measure the distance between the outside edge of the drive sleeve and the thrust washer. The distance (3) must be .020 to .050 in. (0.51 to 1.27 mm).


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
2. Adjusting nut. 3. Distance.

3. Remove the plug. Turn the adjusting nut (2) in or out as necessary to get this distance.

4. Install the plug.

Rack Shut-Off Solenoid Adjustment

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group.
9S215 Dial Indicator.9S8903 Contact Point, (Flat Face with Bevel)3P1565 Collet Clamp.9S7350 Bracket Group.


RACK SOLENOID
1. Distance between shaft and plate. 2. Travel .62 in. (15.7 mm). 3. Starting position of plunger plate from mounting flange is .44 in. (11.2 mm) to measure travel of plunger.

The correct adjustment of the fuel rack shut-off solenoids is necessary to help prevent failures of the solenoids. Use the procedure that follows to adjust the shaft:

1. Adjust the plunger plate so it is .44 in. (11.2 mm) from the flange face as shown in the illustration.

2. Adjust the correct shaft according to the dimension shown in the chart.

3. After the solenoid is installed on the engine, three checks must be made to give proof that the solenoid adjustment is correct.

A. The adjustment must let the fuel rack move to the full load position. Use 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group to measure the fuel rack position (see subject FUEL RACK SETTING).

B. The solenoid must be able to move the fuel rack to shut-off position.

C. For solenoids with two sets of windings (pull-in and hold-in), the adjustment must give the plunger enough travel to cause only the "hold-in" windings to be activated when the fuel rack is held in the shut-off position. Use a thirty ampere ammeter to measure solenoid current during engine shutdown. If the adjustment is correct, less than two amperes will be read on the ammeter when solenoid plunger is in the "hold-in" position.

4. If necessary, make adjustments to the shaft until all three conditions in Step 3 are met.

Single winding solenoids do not have the "hold-in" windings. A higher current is necessary to pull the plunger into position, and the same current level is used to hold the plunger at this position. This type of solenoid must not be activated constantly for a time period of more than 2.5 minutes, or damage will result.

Caterpillar Information System:

3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Systems Operation
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Pressure Regulating Valve For Air Starting Motor
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Air Starting Motor<BR> 4N4368, 6N1633, 6N4147, 6N9131 (Ingersoll-Rand Number 150 BMP-E78RH-54)
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Connection For Glow Plug Wiring
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Service Meter And Tachometer Drive
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Pressure Switch
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Starter Switch
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Shut-Off Solenoids
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Starter Solenoids
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Starter Motors
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Alternator Regulator
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Alternators<BR> 2N6398 24V (Motorola Number MH24-902A, 8MH3005F); 2N6397 24V (Motorola Number MA24-902A, 8MA3006F)
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3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Woodward PSG Governor
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Governor Linkage
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Governor Air Actuator
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Oil Pressure Switch<BR> 2N7744 Switch (Texas Instrument No. 20PS66-1)
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Pressure Switch<BR> 2L3402 Switch
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Governor Controls
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Air Fuel Ratio Controls
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Radiators<BR> (4N3014, 4N3015, 4N3016, 4N3023)
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Primary Fuel Filter
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Flywheels
3406 INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINES Belt Tightener<BR> (3N9582)
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