Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn: Recommended Procedure
1. Low or No Battery Voltage - Check battery voltage. If battery voltage is less than 8 volts, put a charge to the battery. If battery will not hold a charge, install a new battery.
2. Bad Switch, Bad Wiring or Connection in Switch Circuit - With ignition switch in START position, check voltage at switch connection on starter solenoid. If there is no voltage, or if the voltage is low at this connection, check wiring, connections, ignition switch, and magnetic switch (if used).
3. Bad Cable or Connection; Battery to Starter - With ignition switch in the START position, check voltage at connection of battery cable to starter. If there is no voltage, or if the voltage is low at this connection and there is good voltage at the battery, check for bad cable or connection between the battery and the starter.
4. Bad Starter Solenoid - Remove and repair a solenoid which does not work when voltage is correct at both the battery and ignition switch connections.
5. Bad Starting Motor - If the solenoid works and the starting motor does not turn the crankshaft, the starting motor is bad. Before removing the starting motor, turn the crankshaft by hand to be sure a mechanical failure inside the engine, transmission, or power take-off is not preventing the crankshaft from turning. If crankshaft turns freely by hand, engage the starting motor again. If the starting motor still will not work, remove the starting motor and repair it or install a new starting motor.
6. Transmission or Power Take-Off Problem Prevents Crankshaft From Turning - If crankshaft can not be turned by hand, disconnect the transmission and power take-off. If crankshaft will now turn, find cause of the problem in the transmission or power take-off and make necessary corrections.
7. Inside Problem Prevents Engine Crankshaft From Turning - If the crankshaft can not be turned after disconnecting the transmission and power take-off, remove the fuel nozzles and check for fluid in the cylinders while turning the crankshaft. If fluid in the cylinders is not the problem, the engine must be disassembled to check for other inside problems. Some of these inside problems are bearing seizure, piston seizure, and valves making contact with pistons.
Engine Crankshaft Turns Too Slowly
8. Low Battery Voltage - Check battery voltage. If battery voltage is less than 8 volts, put a charge to the battery. If battery will not hold a charge, install a new battery.
9. Bad Cable or Connection; Battery to Starter - With switch in START position, check voltage at battery cable connection to starter. If voltage is less than 8 volts check the cables and connections.
10. Oil Too Thick For Free Crankshaft Rotation - Use SAE 10W/30, 10W/40, or SAE 30 grade oils for temperatures above 32° F (0° C). Use SAE 10W, 10W/30, or 10W/40 grade oils for temperatures below 32° F (0° C). At temperatures below -10° F (-23° C) it may be necessary to warm the oil for free crankshaft rotation.
11. Bad Starting Motor - Remove and test. Make repairs as necessary or install a new starting motor.
12. Extra Outside Loads - Damage to the power take-off equipment and/or transmission can put extra load on the engine. This prevents free rotation of the crankshaft. To check, disconnect the transmission and power take-off and start the engine.
13. Mechanical Problem Inside Engine - Take the engine apart and check all components for damage.