3208 TRUCK ENGINE Caterpillar


Testing And Adjusting

Usage:



Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. Finding the source of the problem is difficult, especially when smoke is coming from the exhaust. Smoke coming from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection nozzle, but it can also be caused by the following:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.
b. An overload at high altitude.
c. Burning of too much oil.
d. Not enough compression.

Fuel System Inspection

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad bend.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter if the machine is so equipped.

4. Remove any air that may be in the fuel system.

5. Check the flow of fuel from the constant bleed valve. The flow must be a minimum of 1 pint (0.47 litres) in one minute at full load speed.


LOCATION OF PLUG
1. Plug.

6. Check the fuel pressure in the fuel system. Fuel pressure at FULL LOAD must be 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa).

To check fuel pressure, remove plug (1) that is just behind the fuel shut-off solenoid on the top cover of the fuel pump housing. Install the necessary fittings and a gauge to check fuel pressure.

Testing 9L6969 Fuel Injection Nozzles

5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group or8S2242 Nozzle Testing Group.8S2245 Injector Cleaning Tool Group.9S7354 Torque Wrench.5P4244 Adapter, for 5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group.9S3093 Adapter, for 8S2242 Nozzle Testing Group.8H8505 Combination Wrench.8H8502 Combination Wrench.8S2274 Socket.8S1589 Socket.9S5031 Socket.5P4813 Socket.5/64" Hex Wrench.

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that is misfiring, or running rough, and causing black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that gives misfiring. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine running. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine running, test the injection pump and injection nozzle for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the engine is running at low idle speed, can be an indication of the condition of a fuel injection nozzle. Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port, is an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication of a nozzle with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port, can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, caused by a nozzle with a defect.


NOTICE

Do not test or disassemble nozzles unless you have the correct service tools.


Before testing a fuel injection nozzle, remove any loose carbon from the tip of the nozzle with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush. Remove the carbon seal dam. Clean the groove for the carbon seal dam and the body of the nozzle below the groove with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush. A change in color in the area below the groove is normal and does not effect the body of the nozzle. Remove the carbon, but do not use the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush enough to cause damage to the body of the nozzle. Do all tests before the nozzle is disassembled for cleaning or before making any adjustments to a nozzle. A test can show that the nozzle must not be used again.

------ WARNING! ------

When testing a fuel injection nozzle, keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector. Fuel from the orifices in the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------

NOTE: Remove cap (1) from the fuel injection nozzle before putting the nozzle on the 5P4150 Nozzle Tester.


FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
1. Cap.

Put the fuel injection nozzle (5) to the 5P4150 Nozzle Tester (2) using the 5P4721 Tube Assembly (3) and the 5P4244 Adapter (4). The nut on the fuel injection nozzle can be tightened by hand if the 1H1023 Seal does not have damage.


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967b oil or Kent-Moore J23300-585 or Shell 66631 calibration oil when testing. Dirty test oil will damage components of the fuel injection nozzle.


NOTE: Kent-Moore J23300-585 calibration oil can be purchased from Kent-Moore Corporation, 1501 South Jackson Street, Jackson, Michigan 49203. Shell 66631 calibration oil can be purchased from Shell Oil Company.


CONNECTING NOZZLE TO TESTER (5P4150 Nozzle Tester shown)
2. 5P4150 Nozzle Tester. 3. 5P4721 Tube Assembly. 4. 5P4244 Adapter. 5. Fuel Injection Nozzle.


FUEL INJECTION NOZZLE
6. Locknut (for pressure adjustment screw). 7. Pressure adjustment screw. 8. O-ring seal. 9. Locknut (for lift adjustment screw). 10. Lift adjustment screw.

Opening Pressure Test


NOTICE

Put a shop towel around the top of the fuel injection nozzle (pressure screw end) to take in any possible leakage of fuel.


1. Close the gauge protector valve. Close the on-off valve. Open the pump isolator valve. Flush the fuel injection nozzle by operating the nozzle tester for 10 to 15 strokes at a rate of 60 strokes per minute.

2. Open the gauge protector valve. Make a slow increase to the pressure until the valve in the fuel injection nozzle opens. It is possible for the reading of the pressure on the gauge to go down fast if the valve makes a noise (chatters) when it opens. It is also possible for the reading of the pressure on the gauge to be almost constant when the valve in the fuel injection nozzle opens. The pressure needed to open the valve must be the same as shown in the chart. If the opening pressure is less than 2200 psi (15 200 kPa), do not use the fuel injection nozzle again.

NOTE: The valve in the fuel injection nozzle can be good and still not make a noise (chatter), or not have a very fine vapor (spray) from the orifices in the tip of the fuel injection nozzle during Step 2.

NOTE: The correct setting of the opening pressure for used nozzles that have been cleaned is 2700 to 2900 psi (18 600 to 19 980 kPa).

3. To make an adjustment to the opening pressure, use the following procedure:

a. Remove the fuel injection nozzle (5) from the 5P4150 Nozzle Tester and put it in the 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool (11). Loosen locknut (9) holding the lift adjustment screw. Turn the lift adjustment screw (10) counterclockwise one turn.


LOOSENING LOCKNUT
5. Fuel injection nozzle. 11. 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool. 12. 8H8502 Combination Wrench.


NOTICE

If the lift adjustment screw is not turned counterclockwise one turn, the valve can be bent or the seat for the valve can be damaged when the pressure adjustment screw is turned.


b. Hold the lift adjustment screw (10) with a 5/64" hex wrench (13) and remove the locknut (9).


REMOVING LOCKNUT
9. Locknut (for lift adjustment screw). 13. 5/64" hex wrench.

c. Loosen the locknut (6) that holds the pressure adjustment screw (7).


LOOSENING LOCKNUT
5. Fuel injection nozzle. 14. 8H8505 Combination Wrench.

d. Put the fuel injection nozzle (5) on the nozzle tester (2). Turn the pressure adjustment screw (7) clockwise using a 5P4813 Socket (15). Each one-fourth of a turn will increase the opening pressure approximately 250 psi (1720 kPa). Do not turn more than one-half of a turn to increase the opening pressure.


OPENING PRESSURE ADJUSTMENT
15. 5P4813 Socket.

e. Hold the pressure adjustment screw (7) and tighten locknut (6) just enough so that the pressure adjustment screw (7) will not turn.


TIGHTENING LOCKNUT
5. Fuel injection nozzle. 14. 8H8505 Combination Wrench. 15. 5P4813 Socket.

4. After the opening pressure adjustment is made, install the locknut (9) that holds lift adjustment screw (10). Make the valve lift adjustment. See VALVE LIFT ADJUSTMENT.

Valve Lift Adjustment

1. With the opening pressure correct and while pumping test oil through the fuel injection nozzle, hold the locknut (9) and slowly turn the lift adjustment screw (10) clockwise until the pressure starts to increase above the opening pressure.

2. Check to be sure the valve is on the seat by making the pressure 200 to 500 psi (1380 to 3450 kPa) more than the opening pressure.


NOTICE

Do not bend the valve or damage the seat by turning the lift adjustment screw (10) with too much force.


NOTE: Some fuel can be at the tip of the fuel injection nozzle but a rapid flow of drops (dribble) must not be seen.

3. Turn the lift adjustment screw (10) counter-clockwise 3/4 ± 1/8 of a turn.

4. Hold the lift adjustment screw (10) with a 5/64" hex wrench and tighten locknut (9) just enough so that the lift adjustment screw (10) will not turn.


TIGHTENING LOCKNUT
5. Fuel injection nozzle. 12. 8H8502 Combination Wrench. 13. 5/64" Hex Wrench.

Checking Seat Condition

1. Put a shop towel around the top of the body of the fuel injection nozzle (pressure screw end) to take in the leakage. Close the gauge protector valve.

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and operate the pump rapidly for a minimum of five strokes to put the valve on the seat. Open the gauge protector valve. Be sure the nozzle tip is completely dry.

3. Make the pressure 250 to 300 psi (1720 to 2050 kPa) less than the opening pressure. If more than 3 drops of fuel get on the tip of the fuel injection nozzle in 15 seconds, clean or make replacement to the fuel injection nozzle.

Spray Characteristic (Pattern)

NOTE: The adjustment for the valve lift must be correct before checking the spray pattern.

1. Close the gauge protector valve and the on-off valve. Open the pump isolator valve.

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector.


ANALYSIS OF NOZZLE SPRAY PATTERN

3. Make a slow increase in pressure and look at the spray pattern when fluid begins to flow through the fuel injection nozzle. The spray must be the same through all four orifices. Any change, either vertically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad nozzle. See the ANALYSIS OF NOZZLE SPRAY PATTERN.

Return Leakage Test

1. Put the tip of the fuel injection nozzle a little above the horizontal position. Tighten the nuts that connect the fuel injection nozzle to the tester.

2. Operate the tester until the pressure is at 1400 to 1600 psi (9630 to 11 045 kPa).

3. Look at the leakage from the return at the top (pressure screw end) of the fuel injection nozzle. After the first two drops fall, leakage must be a minimum of 1 drop and a maximum of 10 drops in 15 seconds with SAE J967b oil or Kent-Moore J23300-585 or Shell 66631 calibration oil, with the temperature of the calibration oil at 65° to 75° F (18° to 24° C). More than 10 drops in 15 seconds is an indication of parts with too much wear or bad parts, and replacement of the fuel injection nozzle is necessary.

Tightening Locknuts and Cap

1. Remove the fuel injection nozzle (5) from the 8S2267 Nozzle Tester (2) and put it in the 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool (11).

2. Tighten the locknut (6) holding the pressure adjustment screw (7) to 70 to 80 lb. in. (8.0 to 9.1 N·m).


TIGHTENING PRESSURE SCREW LOCKNUT (Typical Example)

3. Tighten the locknut (9) holding the lift adjustment screw (10) to 35 to 45 lb. in. (4.0 to 5.1 N·m).


TIGHTENING VALVE LIFT SCREW LOCKNUT (Typical Example)

4. Install a new O-ring seal (8). Install cap (1) and tighten to 110 to 120 lb. in. (12.4 to 13.6 N·m).

NOTE: Be sure to install a new O-ring seal (8) before installing the cap.


TIGHTENING CAP
16. 9S5031 Socket.

Cap Leakage Test

With the adjustments and tests complete, check for leakage between the cap and the body of the fuel injection nozzle.

1. Put the fuel injection nozzle (5) on the 8S2267 Nozzle Tester (2).

2. Get the pressure to approximately 4000 psi (27 500 kPa). Do this by pumping the tester until the cap is completely full of fuel, and then continue to pump until the pressure is 4000 psi (27 500 kPa). There must not be any leakage between the cap and the body of the fuel injection nozzle. If there is leakage, make replacement of the O-ring seal (8) and check for cracks in the cap. Check nozzle again. If there is still leakage, make replacement of the fuel injection nozzle.

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection nozzles.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection nozzle and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and the 5P144 Fuel Line Socket to tighten the fuel line nuts to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m).

Fuel Injection Pumps

When injection pumps, sleeves and lifters are removed from the injection pump housing, keep the parts of each pump together so they can be installed back in their original location.

Be careful when disassembling injection pumps. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger, sleeve and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel or sleeve of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when putting the plunger in the bore of the barrel or sleeve.

When an injection pump is installed correctly, the plunger is through the sleeve and the adjustment lever is engaged with the groove on the sleeve. The bushing that holds the injection pump in the pump housing must be kept tight. Tighten the bushing to 70 ± 5 lb. ft. (95 ± 7 N·m). Damage to the housing will result if the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will leak.


AIR INLET PIPE (Typical Example)

------ WARNING! ------

If the sleeves on one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, damage to the engine is possible if cautions are not taken at first starting. When the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed with the fuel injection pump housing on engine, take the following cautions when first starting the engine.

--------WARNING!------

a. Remove the air cleaner leaving the air inlet pipe open as shown.

b. If the sleeve on pump has been installed wrong and the engine starts to run too fast, put a steel plate over the air inlet opening as shown to stop the engine.


STOPPING THE ENGINE (Typical Example)

Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

No. 1 piston at top center (TDC) on the compression stoke is the starting point for all timing procedures.

1. Remove the plug from timing hole (2) in the front cover. Put bolt (1) in timing hole (2). The bolt from hole (3) can be used.


INSTALLING BOLT
1. 1D4539 Bolt, 5/16 in.-18NC, 2.5 in. (63.5 mm) long. 2. Timing hole. 3. Hole.

2. Turn the crankshaft CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) until bolt (1) will go into the hole in the drive gear for the camshaft.

3. Remove the valve cover on the right side of the engine (as seen from rear of engine). The two valves at the right front of the engine are the intake and exhaust valves for No.1 cylinder.

4. The intake and exhaust valves for No.1 cylinder must now be closed and the timing pointer will be in alignment with the TDC-1 on the damper assembly. The No.1 piston is now at top center on the compression stroke.

Fuel System Adjustments

Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing; On Engine

The timing of the fuel injection pump can be checked and changed if necessary, to make compensation for movement in the taper sleeve drive or worn timing gears. The timing can be checked and, if necessary, changed using the following method.

Checking Timing By Timing Pin Method

5P2371 Puller.3P1544 Timing Pin.

1. Remove bolt (1) from the timing pin hole.


TIMING HOLE BOLT
1. Bolt.

2. Turn the crankshaft CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) until timing pin (2) goes into the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps.

3. Remove the plug from timing hole (4) in the front cover. Put bolt (3) through the front cover and into the hole with threads in the timing gear. The bolt from hole (5) can be used.


TIMING PIN INSTALLED (Typical Example)
2. 3P1544 Timing Pin.


INSTALLING BOLT
3. 1D4539 Bolt, 5/16 in.-18 NC, 2.5 in. (63.5 mm) long. 4. Timing hole. 5. Hole.

4. If the timing pin is in the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps, and bolt (3) goes into the hole in the timing gear through timing hole (4), the timing of the fuel injection pump is correct.

NOTE: If bolt (3) does not go in the hole in the timing gear with timing pin (2) in the notch in the camshaft, use the following procedure.


LOCATION OF COVER
6. Cover for the tachometer drive assembly. 7. Nuts.

a. Remove nuts (7) and the cover for the tachometer drive assembly (6).

b. Remove the tachometer drive shaft (9) and washer (8) from the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps.

NOTE: Tachometer drive shaft (9) and washer (8) are removed as an assembly.


LOCATION OF BOLT
8. Washer. 9. Tachometer drive shaft.

c. Put 5P2371 Puller (10) on the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps. Tighten bolts (11) until the drive gear on the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps comes loose.


LOOSENING DRIVE GEAR
10. 5P2371 Puller. 11. Bolts.

d. Remove the 5P2371 Puller.

e. Turn the crankshaft CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) until bolt (3) goes into the hole in the timing gear. With timing pin (2) in the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps, and bolt (3) in the hole in the timing gear, the timing for the engine is correct.

f. Install washer (8) and tachometer drive shaft (9). Tighten tachometer drive shaft to (see illustrations for identification):

Earlier - 80 ± 5 lb. ft. (110 ± 7 N·m)

Later - 110 ± 10 lb. ft. (150 ± 14 N·m)

Then remove timing pin (2).


EARLIER TACHOMETER DRIVE SHAFT


LATER TACHOMETER DRIVE SHAFT

g. Turn the crankshaft two complete revolutions CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) and put timing pin (2) and bolt (3) in again. If timing pin (2) and bolt (3) can not be installed do Steps a through f again.

h. Remove bolt (3) from the timing gear and install in hole (5). Install the plug in timing hole (4). Remove timing pin (2) and install bolt (1). Install cover for the tachometer drive assembly (6).

Checking Timing By Fuel Flow Method

3P1544 Timing Pin.1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group.9M9268 Dial Indicator.Pan for holding the fuel.5P2371 Puller.8S2298 Adapter Group.

See Special Instruction (SMHS7083) for complete instructions for the fuel flow method of engine timing (injection sequence).

1. Remove bolt (1) from the timing pin hole.


TIMING HOLE BOLT
1. Bolt.

2. Turn the crankshaft CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) until timing pin (2) goes into the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pumps.


TIMING PIN INSTALLED
2. 3P1544 Timing Pin.

3. Remove timing pin (2).

4. Remove the valve cover from the right side of the engine. Remove the fuel return line, rocker arm assembly, and the fuel injection nozzle for No.1 cylinder.


DIAL INDICATOR INSTALLED
3. 9M9268 Dial Indicator. 4. 8S2298 Adapter Group.

5. Put 8S2298 Adapter Group (4) and 9M9268 Dial Indicator (3) in the No.1 cylinder. Adjust dial indicator (3) so both pointers are on "0" (zero).

6. Turn the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) a minimum of 45 degrees.

7. Turn the crankshaft CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) until dial indicator (3) gives an indication of maximum travel of the piston. Make an adjustment to dial indicator (3), if necessary, to put both pointers of the dial indicator on "0" (zero).

8. Disconnect the fuel line for No.1 fuel injection pump at the housing for the fuel injection pumps. Put 7M1999 Tube Assembly (8) on No.1 fuel injection pump and tighten the nut. The position of the end of tube assembly (8) must be a little above horizontal as shown.

9. Disconnect the line for the supply of fuel at the fuel filter. Use an adapter to connect 5J4634 Hose Assembly (9) to the fuel filter.

10. Disconnect the fuel return line from constant bleed valve (5). Put cap (6) on the constant bleed valve.

11. Turn the crankshaft COUNTERCLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) approximately 45 degrees.

12. With 1 gal. (3.8 litre) of clean fuel in 1P539 Pressure Tank (10), move the governor lever to full FUEL-ON position.

NOTE: Solenoid must be activated (ignition switch turned on) or solenoid must be removed before governor lever can be moved to FUEL-ON position.


CONSTANT BLEED VALVE
5. Constant bleed valve. 6. Cap.

13. Put 15 psi (105 kPa) of air pressure in the tank by using the hand pump or shop air.


NOTICE

If shop air is used, be sure to adjust the regulator so there is no more than 15 psi (105 kPa) of air pressure in the tank.


14. Put pan (7) under the end of tube assembly (8) for the fuel that comes out of the tube.


FUEL FLOW CHECK OF TIMING
7. Pan. 8. 7M1999 Tube Assembly. 9. 5J4634 Hose Assembly. 10. 1P539 Pressure Tank.

15. Turn the crankshaft, slow, in the direction of normal rotation CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine). Do this until the flow of fuel from the end of tube assembly (8) is 12 to 18 drops per minute.

16. Stop rotation of the crankshaft when the flow of fuel is 12 to 18 drops per minute. Take a reading of the measurement on dial indicator (3).

17. To check for correct timing of the fuel system, make a comparison of the reading on dial indicator (3) with the correct measurement in the chart. Timing must be set within ± 1° of correct timing angle.

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart, see the subject CHECKING TIMING BY TIMING PIN METHOD.

Checking Automatic Timing Advance Unit By Timing Light Method

1P3500 Injection Timing Group or2P8280 Injection Timing Group


1P3500 INJECTION TIMING GROUP

Either group can be used to check the automatic timing advance. Special Instruction (GMG00501) is part of the groups and has detailed instructions for their use.

NOTE: When either of these injection timing groups are used, the cap from the 9L6969 Nozzle Assembly must be removed. This will let fuel bleed from the cap end of the nozzle, and will maintain line pressure in the normal range.


NOTICE

Do not use the engine in service with the cap removed from the nozzle. The fuel will drain into the crankcase and the result will be thin oil (oil dilution). Also a new 1H1023 Seal must be used when the cap is installed.


Fuel Setting

5P4203 Field Service Tool Group

The procedure that follows for fuel setting can be done with the housing for the fuel injection pumps either on or off the engine.


REMOVAL OF COVER
1. Shut-off solenoid. 2. Cover.


NOTICE

Before any service work is done on this fuel system, the outside of the housing for the fuel injection pumps and all parts connected to it must be especially clean.


1. Remove shut-off solenoid (1) and cover (2).

2. Put the 5P298 Zero Set Pin (5), with 17.8507 on it, in the pump housing.


INSTALLATION OF COVER
3. 5P4226 Adapter. 4. 3J6956 Spring. 5. 5P298 Zero Set Pin, with 17.8507 on it.

3. Put adapter (3) and spring (4) over zero set pin (5). Use a 1D4533 Bolt and a 1D4538 Bolt to fasten adapter (3) to the housing for the fuel injection pumps.

4. Put screw (6) in the hole over pin (5) and spring (4).


INSTALLATION OF SCREW
6. 8S7271 Screw.

5. Turn screw (6) clockwise until pin (5) is held against the housing for the fuel injection pump. DO NOT tighten screw (6) too tight.

6. Put clamp (7) in adapter (3).

7. Move the governor control lever to FULL LOAD position.


INSTALLATION OF CLAMP
3. Adapter. 7. 3P1565 Collet Clamp.

8. Put 5P4809 Point (9) on dial indicator (8). Put the indicator assembly in clamp (7).


INSTALLATION OF DIAL INDICATOR
7. 3P1565 Collet Clamp. 8. 3P1567 Dial Indicator. 9. 5P4809 Point.


INDICATOR SET ON ZERO
8. 3P1567 Dial Indicator. 10. Pointers.

9. Adjust dial indicator (8) so both pointers (10) are on "0" (Zero).

10. Using wrench (11) turn the 8S7271 Screw (6) counterclockwise. Turn screw (6) six or more turns.


LOOSENING SCREW (6)
11. 5P4205 Wrench.

11. Put the clip end of the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to a good ground. Put the other end of the 8S4627 Circuit Tester on the load stop contact.


8S4627 CIRCUIT TESTER

12. Move the governor control lever to the LOW IDLE position.

13. Move the governor control lever slowly toward the HIGH IDLE position until the continuity light just comes on. Make a note of the reading on dial indicator (8). Do this step several times to make sure the reading is correct.

14. Make a comparison of this reading and the fuel setting in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

15. If the reading on dial indicator (8) is not correct, do the following.

Leaf Type Torque Spring

a. Write down the dimension that is on dial indicator (8).

b. Write down the dimension given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

c. Remove the test tools [adapter (3), spring (4), and dial indicator (8)] from the housing for fuel injection pumps.


LEAF TYPE TORQUE SPRING
12. Location of shims. 13. Stop bar. 14. Leaf type torque spring. 15. Load stop pin.

d. Install or remove shims at location (12) to get the correct dimension as given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. The difference between the dimensions in (a) and (b) is the thickness and amount of shims to remove or install to get the correct setting.

e. Install the correct amount of shims (12) torque spring (14), and stop bar (13) on the housing for the fuel injection pumps.

f. Install the test tools and do the test procedure again. Do this until the dimension on the dial indicator is the same as the dimension given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. After the fuel setting is correct, remove the test tools. Install cover (2) and shut-off solenoid (1).

Load Stop Adjustment

a. Use wrench (18) and loosen locknut (19).


ADJUSTMENT OF FUEL SETTING
16. Screwdriver. 17. Adjustment screw. 18. Wrench.

b. Using screwdriver (16) turn adjustment screw (17) until the reading on dial indicator (8) is the same as the dimension given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

c. When the adjustment is correct, tighten locknut (19). Check the adjustment again by doing Steps 11 through 15 again.


ADJUSTMENT SCREW FOR FUEL SETTING
17. Adjustment screw. 19. Locknut. 20. Load stop pin.

d. Remove the test tools. Install cover (2) and shut-off solenoid (1).

Crossover Levers

3P1546 Calibration Pin, 5P4206 Wrench,5P4209 Gauge, 5P7253 Socket Assembly.

Checking Crossover Levers

NOTE: The crossover levers normally do not need checking unless one or more of the following conditions exist ( after the timing is checked and the other corrections shown in TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE have been made):

A. The engine produces too much black smoke.
B. The engine runs rough because fuel delivery is not even.
C. Some cylinders continue to fire at fuel shutoff position.
D. The complete injection group is being reconditioned.


NOTICE

Before any service work is done on this fuel system, the outside of the injection pump housing and all parts connected to it must be clean.


1. Remove the fuel shutoff solenoid (1), top cover (2) of the fuel pump housing and the cover over the torque control group.

2. Remove the fuel that is in the injection pump housing and the governor housing.


REMOVAL OF COVERS
1. Shut-off solenoid. 2. Top cover.

3. Put the 3P1546 Calibration Pin (3) in calibration hole as shown.


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PIN
3. 3P1546 Calibration Pin with 15.9410 on it.

4. Install the 5P4226 Adapter (7) as shown. Fasten it in position with a 1D4533 bolt (5) and a 1D4538 bolt (6).


INSTALLING 5P4226 ADAPTER AND 8S7271 SCREW
4. Screw. 5. 1D4533 Bolt. 6. 1D4538 Bolt. 7. 5P4226 Adapter.

5. Put the 8S7271 Screw (4) (setscrew) in the hole over the calibration pin (3). Tighten the setscrew (4) to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2.3 to 2.8 N·m) with the 2P8264 Socket.


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE SCREW
8. Low idle screw. 9. Lever.

6. Adjust low idle screw (8) to position lever (9) to .35 ± .04 in. (8.0 ± 1.0 mm) from governor housing boss.

7. Loosen the bolts that hold sleeve levers (A) and slide levers (A) out of the way.


CROSSOVER LEVERS
10. Crossover lever. 11. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. A. Sleeve levers.


INSTALLING 5P4209 GAUGE
13. 5P4209 Gauge. 14. Shaft. 15. Shaft.

8. Put gauge (13) on shafts (14) and (15). Slide gauge (13) toward crossover levers (10) and (11) until dowel pin (12) goes into hole in gauge (13).


CHECKING CLEARANCE OF CROSSOVER LEVER
13. 5P4209 Gauge. 16. Feeler gauge.

9. If dowel pin (12) must be lifted to go into the hole in gauge (13), the levers must be adjusted. See ADJUSTMENT OF CROSSOVER LEVERS.

10. If gauge (13) must be lifted more than .008 in. (0.20 mm) to let dowel pin (12) go into the hole in gauge (13), see ADJUSTMENT OF CROSSOVER LEVERS.

11. To check the maximum clearance of .008 in. (0.20 mm) that is acceptable under one side of gauge (13), hold the center and one side of gauge (13) against sleeve lever shaft (15). Use a feeler gauge to check clearance. Torque for bolts that hold sleeve levers (A) is 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m).

NOTE: After the checking of the crossover levers is complete, the two fuel injection pumps must be calibrated where sleeve levers have been moved to install 5P4209 Gauge. See FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

Adjustment of Crossover Levers

1. Remove the fuel shutoff solenoid (1) top cover (2) of the fuel pump housing and the cover over the torque control group.

2. Remove the fuel that is in the injection pump housing and the governor housing.

3. Put the 3P1546 Calibration Pin (3) in calibration hole.

4. Install the 5P4226 Adapter (7). Fasten it in position with a 1D4533 Bolt (5) and a 1D4538 Bolt (6). Put 8S7271 Screw (4) (setscrew) in the hole over the calibration pin (3). Tighten the setscrew (4) to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2.3 to 2.8 N·m) with the 2P8264 Socket.

5. Adjust low idle screw (8) to position lever (9) to .35 ± .04 in. (8.0 ± 1.0 mm) from governor housing boss.

6. Loosen the bolts that hold sleeve levers (A) and slide levers (A) out of the way.


CROSSOVER LEVERS
10. Crossover lever. 11. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. A. Sleeve levers.

7. Loosen the bolts that hold crossover lever (10) and (11) and move lever (10) off dowel pin (12).


5P4209 GAUGE INSTALLED
11. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. 13. 5P4209 Gauge.


ADJUSTMENT OF CROSSOVER LEVERS
13. Gauge. 14. Shaft. 15. Shaft. 16. 5P4206 Wrench.

8. Put gauge (13) on shafts (14) and (15), put crossover lever (11) in a position so dowel pin (12) will fit in the gauge hole. Hold gauge (13) down and torque the bolt that holds crossover lever (11) to 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m).

9. Check adjustment again with the 5P4209 Gauge (13). Put gauge (13) on shafts (14) and (15), slide gauge toward crossover lever (11) to engage dowel pin (12) into hole in gauge (13).

10. If dowel pin (12) must be lifted to go into gauge, the lever must be adjusted again. If gauge (13) is lifted, a maximum of .008 in. gauge (13) is lifted, a maximum of .008 in. (0.20 mm) clearance is acceptable under one side of gauge (13). Use a feeler gauge to check clearance.

11. Slide crossover lever (10) on to dowel pin (12). Torque the bolt that holds crossover lever (10) to 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m).


TIGHTENING BOLT
10. Crossover lever. 12. Dowel pin. 16. Wrench.

12. Check the adjustment again with the 5P4209 Gauge.

NOTE: After the adjustment of the crossover levers is completed, all of the fuel injection pumps must be calibrated. SEE FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

Fuel Pump Calibration

3P2200 Tool Group8S2243 Wrench*5P4226 Adapter* or 2P8331 Cover*5P4205 Wrench*5P4206 Wrench**1P4533 Bolt*1D4538 Bolt*8S7271 Screw*5P7253 Socket Assembly**5P6562 Clamp**


*Part of 5P4203 Tool Group


**Not part of a Tool Group


3P2200 TOOL GROUP
1. 3P1540 Calibration Pump. 2. 4N218 Bushing. 3. 1P7379 Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Dial Indicator with 3P2226 Collet. 5. 5P6510 Box. 6. 3P1545 Calibration Pin with 17.3734 on it, (in-line engines). 7. 3P1546 Calibration Pin with 15.9410 on it. (Vee engines). 8. 1S9836 Wrench.

NOTE: 3P1540 Calibration pump must have the 5P6557 Spring installed instead of the 1P7377 Spring.

Checking Fuel Pump Calibration

The following procedure for fuel pump calibration can be done with the housing for the fuel injection pumps either on or off the engine.


NOTICE

Before any service work is done on this fuel system, the outside of the injection pump housing and all parts connected to it must be clean.


1. Remove fuel shut-off solenoid (9), top cover (10) of the fuel pump housing and the cover over the torque control group.

2. Remove the fuel that is in the injection pump housing and the governor housing.


REMOVAL OF COVERS
9. Shut-off solenoid. 10. Top cover.

3. Install 3P1546 Calibration Pin (7) in the calibration hole.


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PIN
7. 3P1546 Calibration Pin with 15.9410 on it.

4. Install 5P4226 Adapter (13) as shown. Fasten it in position on the injection pump housing with a 1D4533 bolt (12) and a 1D4538 bolt (14).

5. Put 8S7271 Screw (11) in the hole over calibration pin (7). Tighten screw (11) to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2.3 to 2.8 N·m).


INSTALLING 5P4226 ADAPTER AND 8S7271 SCREW
11. Screw. 12. 1D4533 Bolt. 13. 5P4226 Adapter. 14. 1D4538 Bolt.


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE SCREW
15. Low idle screw. 16. Lever.

6. Adjust low idle screw (15) to position lever (16) to .35 ± .04 in. (8.0 ± 1.0 mm) from governor housing boss.

7. Use the 8S2243 Wrench and remove the fuel injection pumps to be checked.

NOTE: If pump is removed carefully, the sleeve will remain on the plunger. If the sleeve falls off the pump plunger during removal, find it immediately and replace it on the pump plunger before removal of another pump. The original sleeve must remain with the same pump plunger.

NOTE: When sleeve is installed on pump plunger, the narrower of the two lands on the sleeve must be toward top of pump (nearest the pump spring).

8. Clean the barrel and plunger of calibration pump (1). Put clean diesel fuel on the calibration pump for lubrication.

NOTE: Be sure that the spring on calibration pump (1) is the 5P6557 Spring instead of the 1P7377 Spring which was installed on earlier calibration pumps.


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PUMP
1. 3P1540 Calibration Pump.

9. Put calibration pump (1) in the place of the pump to be checked with the flat place (20) on the plunger toward tang (17) on lever (18). When the calibration pump (1) is all the way in the bore, turn it 180° in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Tang (17) on lever (18) is now in groove (19) of calibration pump (1). Then install 4N218 Bushing (2) using the 8S2243 Wrench and a torque wrench to tighten it to 70 ± 5 lb. ft. (95 ± 7 N·m).


CALIBRATION PUMP INSTALLED
1. 3P1540 Calibration Pump. 17. Tang on lever. 18. Lever. 19. Groove of calibration pump. 20. Flat on plunger.

NOTE: Turning calibration pump (1) 180° gives the same reference point for all measurements.

NOTE: Use 4N218 Bushing (2) and calibration pump (1) together. The contact surfaces of the standard bushing, fuel injection pump and the housing for the fuel injection pumps are sealing surfaces. Keep them clean and free of scratches, to prevent leaks.


PUTTING DIAL INDICATOR ON ZERO
3. Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Dial Indicator with 3P2226 Collet. 21. Lockscrew. 22. Locknut. 23. 3P2226 Collet.

10. Put dial indicator (4) on microgage (3) and hold them together tightly. Loosen lockscrew (21) and turn the face of dial indicator (4) to put the pointer at "0". Tighten lockscrew (21).

Remove dial indicator (4) from microgage (3). Look at the face of dial indicator (4) and put dial indicator (4) on microgage (3) again. The pointer must move through one to one and one half revolutions before stopping at exactly "0". If the number of revolutions is not correct, loosen the locknut on 3P2226 Collet (23), and adjust the position of the 3P2226 Collet until the pointer has the correct number of revolutions. Then do the check again. When the adjustment is correct do step 11.


NOTICE

If locknut (22) on the 3P2226 Collet is too tight, it can cause interference in the operation of the dial indicator.



5P6562 CLAMP INSTALLED
24. Shaft. 25. 5P6562 Clamp.

11. Put 5P6562 Clamp (25) in the position shown, next to the transfer pump end. Clamp (25) pushes shaft (24) down against the bottom of its bearing. The other end of shaft (24) is held down against its bearing by 3P1546 Calibration Pin (7) which is held by 8S7271 Screw (11). The combination of forces from clamp (25) and calibration pin (7) is necessary to hold shaft (24) in its normal operating position against the lifting force from the spring in calibration pump (1).


DIAL INDICATOR POSITION
4. 3P1568 Dial Indicator with 3P2226 Collet. 25. Clamp.

NOTE: When checking pumps on the "slave" side [side opposite from governor control lever (16)], put clamp (25) on both ends of sleeve shaft as shown.


INSTALLING CLAMP ON "SLAVE" SIDE
25. 5P6562 Clamps.

12. Put dial indicator (4) on the calibration pump (1) as shown. Hold it tightly in place. Move shaft (24) toward the governor end to remove end play. To remove any clearance in the linkage, lift the crossover lever dowel and rapidly let it go. Do this several times. Then look at the reading on the dial indicator (4).

13. If the dial indicator (4) reading is more than ± 0.050 mm from "0.000" (outside the TOTAL TOLERANCE), do steps 17 to 20, ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.


DIAL INDICATOR READING
Desired reading for all pumps is "0.000".
Maximum permissible tolerance for pump readings in any FUEL INJECTION PUMP GROUP is 0.100 mm (-0.050 to +0.050 mm on dial indicator).
Maximum permissible differences between any two pumps in the same FUEL INJECTION PUMP GROUP is 0.050 mm.
TOTAL TOLERANCE shows the maximum permissible range of pointer positions which are acceptable. If any reading is outside the range of TOTAL TOLERANCE, do ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps.
BAND is an example only. It shows a 0.050 mm range. This range shows the maximum permissible difference between any two readings for all the pumps. If any two readings are farther apart than the 0.050 mm range, do ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps.

If the dial indicator (4) reading is near either end of the TOTAL TOLERANCE, check another pump. If the next reading is outside the TOTAL TOLERANCE or if the two readings have a difference of 0.050 mm or more, do the Steps 15 to 19, ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

NOTE: The mechanic doing the checking must make the decisions of which and how many pumps to check according to the symptoms of the fuel injection pump being tested.

14. If dial indicator (4) readings for all the pumps are within the limits in Step 13, the calibration is acceptable. Remove the tooling, and install the parts which were removed.

NOTE: For troubleshooting purposes, if the dial indicator (4) reading is "0" or near "0", the calibration of the other pumps is probably in the tolerance.

Adjustment of Fuel Pump Calibration

15. Remove all pumps with 8S2243 Wrench.

16. Clean the barrel and plunger of calibration pump (1). Put clean diesel fuel on the calibration pump (1) for lubrication.

17. Install calibration pump (1) in the place of one of the pumps according to the procedure in Step 9.

18. Loosen bolt (26) with 1S9836 Wrench (8) or 5P4206 Wrench. Turn the lever (18) on shaft (24) enough to move the top of plunger (28) of calibration pump (1) below top surface (27) of calibration pump (1). Tighten bolt (26) just enough for lever (18) to hold plunger (28) stationary.


5P4206 WRENCH
18. Lever. 26. Bolt. A. 5P4206 Wrench.

NOTE: When bolt (26) has the correct torque, pushing with a small amount of force on lever (18) through the wrench moves plunger (28) up in calibration pump (1).

19. Move shaft (24) toward the governor to remove end play. Then push down on lever (18) through the wrench until top of plunger (28) is almost even with top surface (27) of calibration pump (1) as shown.


PLUNGER POSITION
1. Calibration pump. 27. Top surface of calibration pump. 28. Plunger.

20. Check dial indicator (4) according to Step 10. Then put dial indicator (4) in place over the center of calibration pump (1) and hold it there tightly. Now move plunger (28) of calibration pump (1) by pushing on lever (18) through the wrench. Stop moving the plunger when the dial indicator is at approximately 0.009 mm past "0.000". Tighten bolt (26) to 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.8 ± 0.2 N·m).

NOTE: When moving plunger (28), make sure that the last direction of plunger (28) movement is in the up direction. If plunger (28) goes up too far, move plunger (28) down to a position below that desired. Then move plunger (28) up to the desired position.

NOTE: The action of tightening bolt (26) usually changes the reading on dial indicator (4) by approximately 0.010 mm in the minus direction.


± 0.010 mm CALIBRATION TOLERANCE

Move shaft (24) toward shutoff several times to remove clearance in the linkage. Dial indicator (4) reading must be 0.000 ± 0.010 mm as shown.

When the pump calibration is correct make a record and then do the same procedure for all of the other pumps.

NOTE: When calibrating pumps on the "slave" side [side opposite from governor control lever (16)], put clamp (25) on both ends of the sleeve shaft as shown in picture number A33385X1.


INSTALLING CLAMP ON "SLAVE" SIDE
25. 5P6562 Clamps.

Governor Adjustments


NOTICE

A mechanic that has the correct training is the only one to make the adjustment of low idle and high idle rpm. The correct low idle and high idle rpm, and the measurements for adjustment of fuel setting are given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.


Check engine rpm with a tachometer that has good accuracy. If the low idle or high idle rpm needs an adjustment, use the following procedure:


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE RPM
1. Adjustment bolt for low idle. 2. Locknut.

1. For adjustment of low idle, loosen locknut (2) and turn adjustment bolt (1) to get as near as possible to the correct low idle rpm.

2. After the low idle adjustment is correct, tighten locknut (2).


ADJUSTMENT OF LOW IDLE RPM
1. Adjustment bolt for low idle. 2. Locknut.

3. To make an adjustment to the high idle rpm, remove the small cover (4) at the top rear of the fuel system.

4. Loosen locknut (5) and turn adjustment screw (3) to get as near as possible to the correct high idle rpm.


ADJUSTMENT OF HIGH IDLE RPM
3. Adjustment screw. 4. Cover. 5. Locknut.

5. After each idle adjustment is made, move the governor lever to change the rpm of the engine. Now move the governor lever back to the point of first adjustment to check the idle adjustment. Keep doing the adjustment procedure until the low idle and high idle rpm are the same as given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

6. After adjustment of high idle rpm is correct, tighten locknut (5) and install cover (4).

Checking Balance Point (Full Load Speed)

Checking the Balance Point of the engine is a method of making a diagnosis of engine performance.

If the balance point and the high idle speed are correct, the fuel system of the engine is operating correctly. The balance point for the engine is:

1. At full load speed.
2. The point where the load stop pin is against the load stop.
3. The point where the engine gets the maximum amount of fuel per stroke.
4. The point where the engine has maximum horsepower output.
5. The point where an increase in load on the engine puts the engine in a lug condition (a condition in which a small increase in load makes the engine speed decrease).

Procedure for Checking Balance Point

1. Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy to the tachometer drive.

2. Connect a continuity light to the brass terminal screw (1) on the cover for the load stop. Connect the other end of the light to a place on the fuel system which is a good electrical connection.


TERMINAL LOCATION
1. Brass terminal screw.

3. Start the engine.

4. With the engine at operating conditions, run the engine at high idle.

5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high idle.

6. Add load on the engine slowly until the continuity light just comes on. This is the balance point.

7. Make a record of the speed at the balance point.

8. Repeat Step 6 several times to make sure that the reading is correct.

9. Stop engine. Make a comparison of the records from Steps 5 and 7 with the information from the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

10. If the balance point is correct, the fuel system is working correctly. If the balance point is not correct, adjust the high idle rpm until you get the correct balance point.

Procedure For Installation Of Dashpot Governor

2P8315 Bracket Assembly.5P302 Bar.3P1544 Timing Pin.5P301 Driver.

Remove Governor

1. Install the fuel injection pump housing on the bracket assembly (A).

2. Remove the bolts (1) that hold the governor housing (2) to the fuel injection pump housing.


GOVERNOR HOUSING
1. Bolts. 2. Governor housing. A. 2P8315 Bracket Assembly.

3. Remove the governor housing (2).

4. Remove two springs (4) and the seat (3) from the governor housing. Remove springs (4) from seat (3).


REMOVING SPRINGS AND SEAT
3. Seat. 4. Springs.

5. Remove the seat (7) from the shaft.


REMOVING GOVERNOR PARTS
5. Cover. 6. Spring. 7. Seat.

6. Remove the spring (6) from the shaft.

7. Remove the cover (5) from the pump housing.

8. Remove the shaft (8) and the lever (9) from the pump housing.


REMOVING SHAFT AND LEVER
8. Shaft. 9. Lever.

9. Remove the thrust collar (11) from the shaft.


REMOVING COVER AND THRUST COLLAR
10. Cover. 11. Thrust collar.

10. Remove the cover (10) from the pump housing.

11. Loosen the two bolts (12) that hold the torque spring assembly (13) and remove it from the pump housing.


REMOVING TORQUE SPRING
12. Bolts (two). 13. Torque spring assembly.

12. Remove the pin (14) from the pump housing.

13. Remove the screw (15) and the nut (17) from the pump housing.

14. Remove the ring that holds the lever and remove the lever (18) from the dowel (16).


REMOVING GOVERNOR PARTS
14. Pin. 15. Screw. 16. Dowel. 17. Nut. 18. Lever.


REMOVING SHIELD
19. Shield. B. 5P302 Bar.

15. Remove the shield (19) from the camshaft with bar (B).


NOTICE

Pull on the shield only a small amount in each location, so it will not have distortion or damage. The shield is staked in place and can be damaged when removed. If the shield is damaged it must be replaced.



REMOVING BOLTS
20. Bolts (three). C. 3P1544 Timing Pin.

16. Install the timing pin (C) to hold the camshaft.

17. Remove the bolts (20) that hold the flyweight assembly to the camshaft.


REMOVING FLYWEIGHT ASSEMBLY (Typical Example)
21. Flyweight assembly.

18. Remove the flyweight assembly (21) from the camshaft.

Install Dashpot Governor

1. Put the new longer shaft (22) in flyweight assembly (21). The new longer shaft is 5.031 in. (127.80 mm) long.

2. Put flyweight assembly (21) in position on the camshaft.


INSTALLING FLYWEIGHT ASSEMBLY (Typical Example)
21. Flyweight assembly. 22. Shaft.

NOTE: Be sure the dowel that holds shaft (22) is in position on the back of the flyweight assembly.

3. Install the bolts (20) that hold flyweight assembly (21) to the camshaft. Tighten bolts (20) to 10 ± 2 lb. ft. (14 ± 3 N·m).


FLYWEIGHT ASSEMBLY INSTALLED
20. Bolts (three). 21. Flyweight assembly. 22. Shaft.

4. Remove timing pin (C).

5. Put shield (19) in position over the flyweights.

6. Use driver (D) to install shield (19) the remainder of the way on to the camshaft.


POSITIONING SHIELD
19. Shield.


INSTALLING SHIELD (Typical Example)
D. 5P301 Driver.

7. Install lever (18) on dowel (16) and install the ring that holds the lever on the dowel.

NOTE: Stake shield (19) in two places, 180 degrees apart, around the cover in alignment with the groove in the camshaft.


LEVER INSTALLED
16. Dowel. 18. Lever.

8. Install pin (14) in the pump housing.


INSTALLING PIN
14. Pin.

9. Put torque spring assembly (13) in position on the pump housing. Tighten bolts (12) that hold the torque spring assembly to the pump housing.


TORQUE SPRING INSTALLED
12. Bolts. 13. Torque spring assembly.

10. Install cover (10) on the pump housing.


INSTALLING COVER
10. Cover.

11. Put thrust collar (11) in position between the flyweights. Lift the flyweight and push thrust collar (11) forward.


THRUST COLLAR IN POSITION
11. Thrust collar.

12. Install screw (15) and nut (17) in the pump housing.


SCREW INSTALLED
15. Screw. 17. Nut.

13. Put lever (9) in position in the pump housing and in the groove in thrust collar (11). Put a new O-ring seal on shaft (8). Install shaft (8) in the pump housing and through the holes in lever (9).


LEVER INSTALLED
8. Shaft. 9. Lever. 11. Thrust collar.

14. Install cover (5) on the pump housing.


COVER INSTALLED
5. Cover.

15. Install spring (6) on shaft (22).

16. Install seat and piston assembly (23) on shaft (22).


SPRING INSTALLED
6. Spring. 22. Shaft.

NOTE: Turn spring (24) on the piston and seat. Turn spring (24) until it just contacts the shoulders on the piston and seat. The piston and seat must be alignment after spring (24) is installed. If not, remove the spring and install again.


SEAT AND PISTON ASSEMBLY INSTALLED
22. Shaft. 23. Seat and piston assembly. 24. Spring.

17. Remove bolts (28). Remove governor shaft (26), governor lever (27), and shims (25) from the governor housing.


GOVERNOR HOUSING
25. Shims (two). 26. Governor shaft. 27. Governor lever. 28. Bolts.

18. Put governor shaft (26) and governor lever (27) in the governor housing for the dashpot governor. Be sure there is a shim (25) on each side of governor lever (27). Install bolts (28) that hold governor lever (27) to governor shaft (26).

19. Install springs (4) and seat (3) into governor housing (29).

NOTE: Be sure both springs are completely on seat (3) before installing in governor housing (29).

20. Position governor housing (29) on the pump housing. Install bolts (1) that hold governor housing (29) on the pump housing.


GOVERNOR HOUSING INSTALLED
1. Bolts. 29. Governor Housing. A. 2P8315 Bracket Assembly.

21. Remove bracket assembly (A).

Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction of more than 25 in. (635 mm) of water difference in pressure.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust outlet elbow and atmosphere) must not be more than 34 in. (864 mm) of water.

Measurement Of Exhaust Temperatures

Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction (GMG00697) is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP

Cylinder Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or valves that need adjustment. Run the engine at the speed that gives rough running. To find a cylinder that has low compression or does not have good fuel ignition, loosen a fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine rough running. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so more checking of the cylinder will be needed.

An analysis of the engine cylinder condition can be done with controlled pressure air through the cylinder head. Special Instruction GMG00694 explains the procedure.

1. Remove the fuel injection nozzle.

2. Adapt an air hose to 1P5564 Adapter. Install the 1P5564 Adapter in the fuel injection nozzle opening in the cylinder head.

3. Start crankshaft rotation until the piston in the cylinder being inspected is at TC on the compression stroke. In this position the valves of this cylinder will be against their seats.

4. Force the air into the cylinder and then check for air leakage. An air leak from the exhaust opening is an indication of exhaust valve leakage and an air leak from the air cleaner inlet is an indication of intake valve leakage. If the air leakage is into the crankcase during this test, the piston or piston rings can be the cause.

Checking Adjustment Of The Valve Lash

Check the adjustment of the valve lash during the first 3000 miles of operation and every 24,000 miles of operation after the first adjustment. If the engine is not used for 24,000 miles in six months, check the adjustment of the valve lash after every six months.

To check and make adjustment to the valve lash, use the following procedure:

1. Remove the valve covers.


CYLINDER, VALVE, AND PUMP LOCATION

2. Turn the crankshaft CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine) until No.1 piston is at top center on the compression stroke. The TDC-1 mark on the damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer.

3. Make adjustment to the valves for No.1 and No.2 cylinders. To make the adjustment, loosen locknut (2). Turn the adjustment screw (1) until the feeler gauge (3) will go between the end of the valve stem and the rocker arm.


VALVE LASH ADJUSTMENT
1. Adjustment screw. 2. Locknut. 3. Feeler gauge.

NOTE: Use a .015 in. (0.38 mm) feeler gauge for the intake valves. Use a .025 in. (0.64 mm) feeler gauge for the exhaust valves.

4. After the adjustment is complete, hold adjustment screw (1) and tighten locknut (2) to 24 ± 5 lb. ft. (32 ± 7 N·m). After the locknut is tightened, check the adjustment again.


TIGHTENING LOCKNUT

5. Turn the crankshaft 180° CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine). The VS mark on the damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer. Make adjustment to the valves for No.3 and No.7 cylinders.

6. Turn the crankshaft 180° CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine). The TDC-1 mark on the damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer. Make adjustment to the valves for No.4 and No.5 cylinders.

7. Turn the crankshaft 180° CLOCKWISE (as seen from front of engine). The VS mark on damper assembly will be in alignment with the timing pointer. Make adjustment to the valves for No.6 and No.8 cylinders.

When the adjustment of the valve lash needs to be done several times in a short period of time, it can be an indication of wear in a different part of the engine. Find the problem and make any necessary repairs to prevent more damage to the engine.

Not enough valve lash, if not corrected, can be the cause of rapid wear of the camshaft and cam followers. Not enough valve lash can also be an indication of the seats for the valves being bad. Some reasons for the seats for the valves becoming bad are fuel injection nozzles with defects, restriction to the inlet air or dirty air filters, wrong fuel setting, or using the engine on loads that are too large for the engine.

Too much valve lash, if not corrected, can be the cause for broken valve stems, push rods, or spring retainers. A fast increase in valve lash can be an indication of any of the following:

a. Camshaft and cam followers with wear.

b. Rocker arms with wear.

c. Push rods that are bent.

d. Loose adjustment screw for the valve lash.

e. Broken socket on the upper end of a push rod.

If the camshaft and cam followers show signs of rapid wear, look for fuel in the lubrication oil or dirty lubrication oil as a possible cause when making the necessary repairs.

Procedure For Measuring Camshaft Lobes

To find lobe lift (A) of camshaft, use the following procedure:

1. Measure lobe height (B) of one exhaust and one intake lobe.

2. Measure base circle (C) of one exhaust and one intake lobe.

3. Subtract base circle (C) dimension (STEP 2) from lobe height (B) dimension (STEP 1). The difference is actual lobe lift (A).

4. The specified (new) lobe lift (A) is:

(a) Exhaust lobe ... .3071 in.(7.800 mm)

(b) Intake lobe ... .3077 in.(7.816 mm)

5. The maximum permissible difference between actual lobe lift (STEP 3) and specified lobe lift (STEP 4) is .010 in. (0.25 mm).


CAMSHAFT LOBE
A. Lobe lift. B. Lobe height. C. Base circle.

Lubrication System

One of the problems in the following list will generally be an indication of a problem in the lubrication system for the engine.

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTIONOIL PRESSURE IS LOWOIL PRESSURE IS HIGHTOO MUCH COMPONENT WEAR

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine

Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil is coming out of the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket and seal leakage.

Oil Leakage Into Combustion Area of Cylinders

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are three possible ways for oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders:

1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve stems.
2. Worn or damaged piston rings or dirty oil return holes.
3. Compression ring not installed correctly.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result of using oil with the wrong viscosity. Oil with a thin (low) viscosity can be caused from dirt or fuel getting in the crankcase, or by the engine getting too hot.

Oil Pressure Is Low

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect may give an indication of low oil pressure.

When the engine is running at rated speed with SAE 30 oil at operating temperature, the oil pressure measured at the clean side of the oil filter at the oil filter base will be 55 to 85 psi (380 to 590 kPa).

A minimum low pressure reading of 15 psi (105 kPa) is normal at low idle rpm. If there is no oil pressure, stop the engine immediately. An 8M2744 Gauge, which is part of 7S8875 Hydraulic Test Box, can be used for checking pressure in the system.


7S8875 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX

Crankcase Oil Level

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far below the oil pump supply tube. This will result in the oil pump not having the ability to supply enough lubrication to the engine components.

Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil pump can have a restriction. This will result in cavitation and a loss of oil pressure. Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If the pressure regulating valve for the system is held in the open (unseated) position, the lubrication system can not get to maximum pressure. Oil pump gears that have too much wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure.

Oil Filter and Oil Cooler Bypass Valves

If the bypass valve for the oil filter is held in the open position (unseated) and the oil filter has a restriction, a reduction in oil pressure can result.

The bypass valve is in the oil filter base. The bypass valve will cause the flow of oil to go around the filter elements when there is a reduction to the flow through the elements.

If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil cooler bypass valve in the oil filter base will open. This will cause the flow of oil to go around the oil cooler.

Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings or Open, Broken or Disconnected Oil Line or Passage in Lubrication System

Components that are worn and have too much bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage that is open, broken, or disconnected.

Oil Cooler

Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the oil cooler.

If the oil cooler has a restriction the oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is running. The oil pressure of the engine will become low if the oil cooler has a restriction.

Oil Pressure Is High

Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the oil pump can not move from the closed position.

Too Much Component Wear

When some components of the engine show bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in an oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the cause.

If the gauge for oil pressure shows the correct oil pressure, but a component is worn because it is not getting enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil supply to that component. A restriction in a supply passage will not let enough lubrication get to a component and this will cause early wear.

Cooling System

The cooling system is a pressure type with regulators at the outlet, the cooling system is equipped with a shunt line.

A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can have safe operation at a temperature that is higher than the normal boiling (steam) point of water. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (the sudden making of low pressure bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces) in the water pump. With this type system, it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to be made in the cooling system.

The cause for an engine getting too hot is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not made. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before testing with testing equipment.

Visual Inspection Of The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive belt for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing surface for the cap. The sealing surface must be clean.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and height above sea level on the boiling (steam) point of water.

Test Tools for Cooling System

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.9S7373 Air Meter Group.1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

The 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine running too hot) or overcooling (engine runs too cool) problems. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of the cooling system. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction (GMG00450).


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction (GMG00203).


9S7373 AIR METER GROUP

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group is used to check the fan speed. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction (GMG00819).


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and pressure relief valves, and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP

Gauge For Water Temperature

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system can be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage. If a place can not be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the gauge for water temperature. Use the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.


NOTICE

Be careful when working around an engine if it is running.



9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP INSTALLED (Typical Example)

Start the engine. Put a cover over part of the radiator. The reading on the gauge for water temperature must be the same as the reading on the thermistor thermometer.

Pressure Cap For Radiator

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a bad seal on the pressure cap of the radiator. Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or the sealing surface. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, seal or fill neck of the radiator must be removed.


SCHEMATIC OF PRESSURE CAP
A. Sealing surface of cap and radiator.

Temperature Regulator

Test procedure for water temperature regulators:

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Put heat to a pan of water. Get the temperature of the water to 197° F (92° C).

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of hot water. Put the regulator completely under the water. Do not let the regulator make contact with the pan.

4. Keep the temperature of the water at 197° F (92° C) for ten minutes. Make the water move around. This keeps all of the water at the same temperature.

5. After ten minutes, remove the regulator and immediately measure the distance the regulator is opened. The distance must be a minimum of .380 in. (9.65 mm).

Water Pump Pressure Check

9S8138 Pressure Gauge.3B7722 Bushing.

The pressure at the outlet for the water pump tells if the shunt system and water pump are operating correctly. To check the pump pressure, install pressure gauge (2) in the front cover. The pressure must be a minimum of 15 psi (105 kPa) at 2800 rpm.


GAUGE INSTALLED (Typical Example)
1. 3B7722 Bushing. 2. 9S8138 Pressure Gauge.

If the pump pressure is less than the minimum pressure: First, check the vent tube between the radiator top tank and the surge tank; it must have an inside diameter of approximately .19 in. (4.8 mm).

Second, check to see that the shunt line has a minimum inside diameter of .75 in. (19.1 mm).

Inspect Rebuilt Water Pumps

The water pump is serviced only as a complete unit and separate parts for the water pump are not available. Some others can be reconditioning these water pumps, using a different impeller, or an impeller they have machined on the face for the seal or on the vanes.

Unless the same impeller or one like it is used and positioned on the shaft correctly, it is possible for a rebuilt water pump not to give enough flow of coolant to cool the engine. If the one who rebuilt the water pump used an impeller with a design different from the original equipment water pump, be sure the output of his rebuilt water pump is as good as the original equipment water pump.

Here is how to check a rebuilt water pump:

1. Bearing end clearance must be .001 to .025 in. (0.03 to 0.64 mm).
2. The clearance (2) between the face of the impeller and the front cover is .011 to .035 in. (0.28 to 0.89 mm).


IMPELLER CLEARANCE AND HEIGHT
1. Front cover. 2. Impeller clearance [.011 to .035 in. (0.28 to 0.89 mm)]. 3. Impeller. 4. Impeller height [1.265 to 1.275 in. (32.12 to 32.39 mm)].

Clearance (2) is an indication of the condition of the impeller and of the location of the impeller on the shaft. It can also be an indication of the condition of the bearing and front cover. Check the clearance of the impeller in the following way.

a. Put a small amount of wax or a soft material on two vanes of the impeller directly opposite of each other.


REMOVING END CLEARANCE

b. Using a new gasket, install the water pump and tighten the bolts holding the water pump. DO NOT turn the pulley.

c. Push in on the pulley with a force of about 15 lbs. (67 N). This will remove the end clearance.

d. Remove the water pump. Measure the thickness of the wax that is between the vanes and the front cover. When the last bolts are removed, be careful not to hit the clay or wax. The impeller clearance (2) is .011 to .035 in. (0.28 to 0.89 mm).

Heater Connections


LOCATIONS OF HEATER CONNECTIONS

V-Belt Tension Chart

The front housing has several plugs that give access to water passages inside the housing. For the correct access points to install heater hoses, see the LOCATIONS OF HEATER CONNECTIONS picture.

Dynamometer Test Caution

To prevent possible damage to an engine while testing on a dynamometer, the water temperature regulators must be installed and shunt line (2) connected as shown.


SHUNT LINE CONNECTED TO ENGINE (Typical Example)
1. FT790 Cooling Tower Group. 2. Shunt line.

Procedure For Assembling Fan Mounting Pulley Assemblies

1. Install bearing cups (3 and 5) in pulley (1).

2. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant in bearing cone (4).


TYPICAL PULLEY
1. Pulley. 2. Seal. 3. Bearing cup. 4. Bearing cone. 5. Bearing cup.

3. Install bearing cone (4) in bearing cup (5).

4. Install seal (2) in pulley (1). Be sure the sealing lip of seal (2) is toward bearing cone (4). Put a small amount of 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant on the lip of seal (2).


TYPICAL PULLEY ASSEMBLY WITH HEXAGON NUT AND PINNED SHAFT
1. Pulley. 2. Seal. 3. Bearing cup. 4. Bearing cone. 5. Bearing cup. 6. Sleeve. 7. Bearing cone. 8. Shaft. 9. Hexagon nut. 11. Washer. 12. Spacer. 15. Pin. A. Area to put lubricant.

5. Install sleeve (6) and pulley (1) on shaft (8).


NOTICE

Do not damage the sealing lip of seal (2) when putting the pulley on the shaft.


6. Install the 4N7950 Spacer (12) on shaft (8). The 4N7950 Spacer is .440 ± .001 in. (11.18 ± 0.03 mm) long.

7. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant around spacer (12) until area (A) is one-third to one-half full of lubricant.

8. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant in bearing cone (7) and install the bearing in bearing cup (3).


TYPICAL PULLEY ASSEMBLY WITH SPANNER NUT AND LOCK
1. Pulley. 2. Seal. 3. Bearing cup. 4. Bearing cone. 5. Bearing cup. 6. Sleeve. 7. Bearing cone. 8. Shaft. 10. Lock. 11. Washer. 12. Spacer. 14. Spanner nut. A. Area to put lubricant.

9. Install washer (11) and nut (9), or install washer (11), lock (10), and nut (14).

10. To tighten spanner nut (14), use a 5P3518 Spanner Wrench (13).


SPANNER WRENCH
13. 5P3518 Spanner Wrench.

11. Tighten nut.

NOTE: For pulley assemblies with spanner nut (14) and lock (10), tighten nut to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m). For pulley assemblies with hexagon nut (9) and pin (3) in shaft, tighten nut to 110 ± 15 lb. ft. (149 ± 20 N·m).

12. After the nut is tightened, check the end clearance of pulley (1). The pulley must have .001 to .010 in. (0.03 to 0.25 mm) end clearance. If the end clearance is correct, see Step 15 for pulley with spanner nut (14) or see Step 16 for pulley with hexagon nut (9).

13. If the end clearance is less than .001 in. (0.03 mm), remove the 4N7950 Spacer (12) and install a 4N7951 Spacer. The 4N7951 Spacer is .450 ± .001 in. (11.43 ± 0.03 mm) long. Assemble the pulley and again check end clearance. If the original end clearance is more than .010 in. (0.25 mm), remove the 4N7950 Spacer and install a 4N7949 Spacer. The 4N7949 Spacer is .430 ± .001 in. (10.92 ± 0.03 mm) long.

NOTE: Be sure to put 3S3230 Bearing Lubricant around the new spacer so area (A) is one-third to one-half full of lubricant. Always put more lubricant in bearing cone (7) before installing in bearing cup (3).

14. Install the remainder of the parts and again tighten nut (9) to 110 ± 15 lb. ft. (149 ± 20 N·m) or nut (14) to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m). Check the end clearance again to be sure it is correct.

15. When the end clearance is correct, bend a part of lock (10) so it will fasten spanner nut (14) and not let nut (14) turn. If necessary, it is permissible to tighten nut (14) as much as 30° farther to make lock (10) bend correctly in spanner nut (14).

NOTE: Do not loosen nut (14) to fasten lock (10).


PULLEY ASSEMBLY WITH HUB INSTALLED
9. Nut. 16. Hub. 17. Bolts. 18. Gasket. B. Area to put lubricant.

16. Put 2S3230 Bearing Lubricant in area (B). Area (B) must be a minimum of one-third to one-half full of lubricant.

17. Install gasket (18), hub (16), and bolts (17). Tighten bolts (17) to 18 ± 5 lb. ft. (24 ± 7 N·m).

Basic Block

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use the 5F9059 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use the 5P3524 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder block.

Tighten the connecting rod nuts in the following step sequence:

1. Put crankcase oil on bolt threads and seating faces of cap and nut.

2. Tighten both nuts to 30 ± 3 lb. ft. (40 ± 4 N·m).

3. Put a mark on each nut and cap.

4. Tighten each nut 60° from the mark.

The connecting rod bearings should fit tightly in the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are worn (fretted), check for bore size as this is an indication of wear because of looseness.

5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge

A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available for checking ring grooves with straight sides. For instructions on the use of the gauge, see the GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.


PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Bearings are available with a smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than the original size). Main bearings are available with a larger outside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger than the original size).

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

8S2328 Dial Indicator Group.

Heat the ring gear to install it. Do not heat to more than 400° F (204° C). Install the ring gear so the chamfer on the gear teeth is next to the starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearances must be removed to get correct measurements.

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of the flywheel housing.

2. Force the crankshaft to the rear before reading the indication at each point.


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

3. With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the indicator at locations (B), (C) and (D).

4. The difference between lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .008 in. (0.20 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel housing.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

1. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft up against the top bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

2. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

3. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

4. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Add lines I & II by columns.

8. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

10. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable", the flywheel housing must be changed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Force the crankshaft the same way before the indicator is read so the crankshaft end clearance (movement) is always removed.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH PILOT BEARING BORE

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed .005 in. (0.13 mm.).

Electrical System

Most of the testing of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections clean and tight and the battery fully charged. If on the engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

Battery

5P300 Electrical Tester.9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger Tester.5P957 or 5P3414 Coolant and BatteryTester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction (SEHS7006) and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit will result, if the connections, (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is charging. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage.

High voltage will damage, not only the charging unit but also the regulator and other electrical components.


9S1990 BATTERY CHARGER TESTER


NOTICE

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is charging.


Load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. To do this, put a resistance, across the main connections (terminals) of the battery. For a 6, 8 or 12 V battery, use a test load of three times the ampere/hour rating (the maximum test load on any battery is 500 amperes). Let the test load remove the charge (discharge) of the battery for 15 seconds and with the test load still applied test the battery voltage. A 6 V battery in good condition will show 4.5 V; and 8 V battery will show 6 V; a 12 V battery will show 9 V. Each cell of a battery in good condition must show 1.6 V on either a 6, 8 or 12 V battery.

The Special Instruction (GEG00058) with the 9S1990 Charger Tester gives the battery testing procedure.

Charging System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction (SEHS7006) and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system is operating correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is always in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (one ounce per cell per week or every 50 service hours).

Test the charging units and voltage regulators on the engine, when possible, using wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off the engine (bench) testing will give an operational test of the charging unit and voltage regulator. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. Final testing will give proof that the units are repaired to their original operating condition.

Before starting on the engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked. See the following Steps.

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.240 Sp. Gr.) full charged and held tightly in place. The battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give proper circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and are able to drive the load of the charging unit.

Alternator: Pulley Nut Tightening (Delco-Remy)


ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION
1. 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). 2. 8S1590 Socket (5/16-3/8" drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group. 8H8555 Socket (15/16" - 1/2" drive) not shown.

Tighten nut holding the pulley to a torque of 60 ± 5 lb. ft. (80 ± 7 N·m) with the tools shown.

Starting System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction (SEHS7006) and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

Use a D. C. Voltmeter to find starting system components which do not function.

Move the starting control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel. The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance. Pinion clearance for Delco-Remy starters is .36 in. (9.1 mm).

If the solenoid for the starting motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery is not getting to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a broken circuit from the battery. Further testing is necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter.

Further test by fastening one voltmeter lead to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the starter switch or wiring. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the battery wire connection of the starter switch and put the other lead to a good ground. A voltmeter reading indicates a failure in the switch.

A starting motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starting motor can also be caused by shorts, loose connections, and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

Whenever the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starting motor removed.


CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.

1. Install the solenoid without connector (1) from the MOTOR connection (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), "SW".

3. Connect the other side of battery to ground terminal (3).

4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) "MOTOR" to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.

5. Push the pinion toward commutator end to remove free movement.


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be .36 in. (9.1 mm).

7. Pinion clearance adjustment is made by removing plug and turning nut (4).

Allison Automatic Transmission

Linkage Adjustment

Adjust the selector lever in the operators compartment. Adjust the selector lever on the transmission. Make adjustments until stops in the shift tower and the detents in the transmission are in the correct position at the same time.

Adjust the linkage between the governor and the transmission throttle valve. Make this adjustment so the transmission will shift up at approximately 50 rpm less than full load speed. Check this adjustment any time the shifting of the transmission feels different than normal. Also check when the transmission automatically shifts either up or down too soon.

NOTE: See RACK SETTING INFORMATION for engine full load speed.

Back to top
The names Caterpillar, John Deere, JD, JCB, Hyundai or any other original equipment manufacturers are registered trademarks of the respective original equipment manufacturers. All names, descriptions, numbers and symbols are used for reference purposes only.
CH-Part.com is in no way associated with any of the manufacturers we have listed. All manufacturer's names and descriptions are for reference only.