3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Caterpillar


Testing And Adjusting

Usage:



Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. Finding the source of the problem is difficult, especially when smoke is coming from the exhaust. Smoke coming from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by the following:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.
b. An overload at high altitude.
c. Burning of too much oil.
d. Not enough compression.

Fuel System Inspection

1. Look at the reading on the gauge for fuel pressure. Not enough fuel pressure is an indication of a problem with the components that send fuel to the engine.

2. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

3. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad bend.

4. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter if so equipped.

5. Remove any dirt that may be in the fuel system.

6. Check fuel flow from orifice check valve. Flow should be about 8 oz. in 25 seconds (250 ml in 22 seconds) with the pressure in the housing for the fuel injection pumps at 30 ± 5 psi (205 ± 35 kPa).

Testing Fuel Injection Equipment

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that is misfiring, or running rough, and causing black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that gives misfiring. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine misfiring. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine running, test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder.

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.


TIGHTENING THE NUT OF A FUEL INJECTION LINE
1. 5P144 Fuel Line Socket.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and the 5P144 Fuel Line Socket (1) to tighten the fuel line nuts to 30 ± 5 lb. ft. (40 ± 7 N·m).

Injection Pumps

When injection pumps, sleeves and lifters are removed from the injection pump housing, keep the parts of each pump together so they can be installed back in their original location.

Be careful when disassembling injection pumps. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger, sleeve and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel or sleeve of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when putting the plunger in the bore of the barrel or sleeve.

Be sure that all the sleeves are installed correctly on the plungers. When an injection pump is installed correctly, the plunger is through the sleeve and the adjustment lever is engaged with the groove on the sleeve. The bushing that holds the injection pump in the pump housing must be kept tight. Tighten the bushing to 70 ± 5 lb. ft. (95 ± 7 N·m). Damage to the housing will result if the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will leak.

------ WARNING! ------

If the sleeves on one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, it is possible for the engine to run out of control when started. When any of the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed with the fuel injection pump housing on the engine, take the precautions (steps) that follow to stop the engine if it starts to overspeed (run out of control).

--------WARNING!------

a. Remove the air cleaner leaving the air inlet pipe open as shown.


AIR INLET PIPE


STOPPING THE ENGINE

b. If the sleeve on pump has been installed wrong and the engine operates in a not regular way, put a steel plate over the air inlet opening as shown to stop the engine.

Checking The Fuel Injection Valves

Check the fuel injection valves for:

1. Too much carbon on the tip of the nozzle or in the nozzle orifice.
2. Wear of the orifice.
3. Nozzle screen being dirty or broken.

Use the Caterpillar Diesel Fuel Injection Test Bench to test the nozzle.

Check the seat of the nozzle and the seat in the precombustion chamber before installing the fuel injection valve. It is important to keep the correct torque on the nut that holds the fuel nozzle in the precombustion chamber. Tighten the nut to 105 ± 5 lb. ft. (140 ± 7 N·m). There will be damage to the nozzle if the nut is too tight. If the nut is not tight enough the nozzle can leak.

Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

For Engines With Timing Pointer

5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group.

No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke is the starting point for all timing procedures.

NOTE: The engine is seen from the flywheel end when direction of crankshaft rotation is given.

1. Remove starting motor.

2. Install tooling as shown.


ENGINE TURNING TOOLS INSTALLED
1. 5P7306 Housing. 2. 5P7305 Gear.

3. To find top center compression stroke for No. 1 piston, first turn the flywheel clockwise (opposite the direction of engine rotation) approximately 30 degrees. The reason for making this step is to be sure the play is removed from the timing gears when the engine is put on top center.

4. Turn the flywheel counterclockwise until the mark TC 1 on the flywheel is in alignment with the timing pointer (3). The No. 1 piston is on top center.

NOTE: If the TC 1 mark on the flywheel is turned beyond the timing pointer in the flywheel housing, turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a minimum of 30° before turning counterclockwise toward alignment again.


FINDING TOP CENTER
3. Timing pointer (in alignment with mark on flywheel).

5. To see if No. 1 piston is on the compression stroke, look at the valves of No. 1 cylinder. The valves will be closed if No. 1 cylinder is on the compression stroke. You should be able to move the rocker arms (4) up and down with your hand.


VALVE COVER REMOVED
4. Rocker arms.

6. If No. 1 piston is not on the compression stroke, turn the flywheel 360° counterclockwise and bring the TC 1 & 6 cyl. mark in alignment with the timing pointer again.

For Engines With Timing Bolt Hole

5P7307 Engine Turning Tool Group.

No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke is the starting point for all timing procedures.

NOTE: The engine is seen from the flywheel end when direction of crankshaft rotation is given.

1. Remove starting motor.

2. Install tooling as shown.


ENGINE TURNING TOOLS INSTALLED
1. 5P7306 Housing. 2. 5P7305 Gear.

3. To find top center (TC) compression stroke for No. 1 piston, first turn the flywheel clockwise (opposite the direction of engine rotation) approximately 30 degrees. The reason for making this step is to be sure the play is removed from the timing gears when the engine is put on top center.

4. Remove the plug (3). Turn the flywheel counterclockwise until a 3/8" - 16NC bolt can be installed in the flywheel through the hole in the flywheel housing. The No. 1 piston is on top center.

NOTE: If the flywheel is turned beyond the point where the 3/8"-16 NC bolt (3) can be installed in the flywheel turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a minimum of 30° before turning counterclockwise toward alignment again.


LOCATION OF TIMING HOLE
3. Plug.

5. To see if No.1 piston is on the compression stroke, look at the valves of No.1 cylinder. The valves will be closed if No.1 cylinder is on the compression stroke. You should be able to move the rocker arms (4) up and down with your hand.


VALVE COVER REMOVED
4. Rocker arms.

6. If No.1 piston is not on the compression stroke, remove the 3/8"-16 NC bolt and turn the flywheel 360° counterclockwise. Install the 3/8"-16 NC bolt as before. The No.1 piston is now at top center on the compression stroke (TC1).

Fuel System Adjustments

Checking Timing By Timing Pin Method

5P2371 Puller.1/4"-20 NC bolts, 13/4" long (two).1/4" Flat washers (two).

1. For engines with timing bolt hole, put No.1 piston at top center (TC) compression position. For engines with timing pointer, put No.1 piston at 11/2° after top center (ATC). Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION FOR NO.1 PISTON.

2. Remove bolt (2).

3. Remove timing pin (1) from the cover of the governor housing.


TIMING PIN
1. Timing pin. 2. Bolt.

4. Put timing pin (1) in hole (3). If timing pin goes into the notch in the camshaft, the timing of the fuel injection pump is correct.


INSTALLING TIMING PIN
1. Timing pin. 3. Hole for timing pin.

5. If the timing pin does not go into the notch in the camshaft with the No.1 piston at 11/2° ATC or with the timing bolt installed in the flywheel, turn the engine flywheel until the pin goes into the notch.

NOTE: If the engine uses a timing bolt in the flywheel, be sure to remove the timing bolt before turning the flywheel.

6. Remove cover (4) from the front housing.


COVER
4. Cover.

7. Loosen bolt (5) holding automatic timing advance unit to drive sleeve for fuel injection pump.


AUTOMATIC TIMING ADVANCE UNIT
5. Bolt.

8. Make automatic timing advance unit loose from the drive sleeve with 5P2371 puller (6) as shown.


5P2371 PULLER INSTALLED
6. 5P2371 Puller. 7. 1/4"-20 bolt, 13/4" long. 8. 1/4" Flat washer.

9. Turn the engine flywheel clockwise at least 60°.

10. For engines which use a timing bolt, turn the flywheel counterclockwise until a 3/8-16 NC bolt (9) can be installed in the flywheel as shown.


TIMING BOLT INSTALLED
9. Timing bolt.

11. With timing bolt and timing pin in position, apply a torque of 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m) to the automatic timing advance unit in a clockwise direction (as viewed from front of engine). While holding the torque on the automatic timing advance unit, tighten bolt (5) to 110 ± 5 lb. ft. (150 ± 7 N·m).

12. Remove the timing pin and the 3/8-16 NC bolt from the flywheel.

13. For engines which use a timing pointer, turn the engine flywheel counterclockwise until the No.1 piston is at 11/2° after top center (ATC) compression position.


TIMING MARKS

14. Tighten the bolt (5) to 110 ± 5 lb. ft. (150 ± 7 N·m). Remove the timing pin (1).


TIGHTENING AUTOMATIC TIMING ADVANCE UNIT

15. Turn the engine flywheel two complete revolutions in the counterclockwise direction. The timing is correct if the timing pin (1) goes into the notch in the camshaft for the fuel injection pump at the same time that either the TC1 mark on the flywheel is 11/2° beyond alignment with the timing pointer or that timing bolt (9) can be installed in the flywheel.

Checking Timing by Fuel Flow Method

1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group.3S2954 Engine Timing Indicator Group.5P2371 Puller.

See Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7083 for complete instructions for the fuel flow method of engine timing (injection sequence).

Travel of piston (6), from point of closing inlet port (5) to top center, can be found by using the tools listed under Tools Needed. Make a conversion of travel of piston (6) to degrees and determine if timing is correct.

NOTE: The fuel system timing has a tolerance of ± 1°.

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Remove the fuel nozzle from the precombustion chamber for No. 1 cylinder.


MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL
1. 3S3263 Adapter Assembly. 2. 9M9268 Dial Indicator. 3. Precombustion chamber. 4. 3S3264 Rod. 5. Inlet port. 6. Piston. 7. Crankshaft.

3. Put the 3S3264 Rod in the 3S3263 Adapter Assembly. Put the 3S3263 Adapter Assembly in the precombustion chamber and tighten the adapter finger tight.


NOTICE

Do not use a wrench to tighten the adapter. There will be damage to the nozzle seat if the adapter is too tight.


4. Put the 9M9268 Dial Indicator in the adapter assembly. Make an adjustment to the dial indicator so both pointers are on "0" (zero).

5. Turn the crankshaft a minimum of 45° in the CLOCKWISE direction.

NOTE: The direction of rotation is given as seen from the flywheel end of the engine.

6. Turn the crankshaft in the counterclockwise direction until the No. 1 piston is at the top of its stroke. Adjust the dial indicator if necessary to put both of the dials at "0" (zero).


TIMING INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED
1. 3S3263 Adapter Assembly. 2. 9M9268 Dial Indicator.

7. Disconnect the fuel line for No. 1 injection pump at the injection pump housing. Put the 7M1999 Tube Assembly (8) on No. 1 injection pump and tighten the nut. The position of the end of tube assembly (8) must be a little above horizontal as shown.


TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT FOR FUEL FLOW CHECK OF TIMING
1. 3S3263 Adapter Assembly. 2. 9M9268 Dial Indicator. 8. 7M1999 Tube Assembly. 9. Pan for holding fuel. 10. Constant bleed valve. 11. Governor control shaft. 12. 5J4634 Hose Assembly. 13. 2P8294 Housing. 14. 2P8298 Gear Assembly. 15. 1P539 Pressure Tank.

8. Disconnect fuel supply line at the fuel filter. Use an adapter to connect the 5J4334 Hose Assembly to the fuel filter.

9. Disconnect the fuel return line from the constant bleed valve. Put a cap on the constant bleed valve.


INSTALLATION OF CAP
10. Constant bleed valve. 16. Cap.

10. Turn the crankshaft approximately 45° in a clockwise direction with the engine turning tools.

11. With 1 gal. (3.8 liter) of clean fuel in the 1P539 Pressure Tank (15), move the governor control to full FUEL-ON position. Put 15 psi (105 kPa) of air pressure in the tank by using the hand pump or shop air.


NOTICE

If shop air is used, be sure to make an adjustment to the regulator so there is only 15 psi (105 kPa) air pressure in the tank.


12. Put a pan (9) under the end of tube assembly (8) for the fuel that comes out of the end of the line.

13. Turn the crankshaft slowly in counterclockwise direction. Do this until the flow of fuel coming from the end of the tube assembly (8) is 12 to 18 drops per minute. This is the point of closing inlet port.

14. Stop rotation of the crankshaft when the flow of fuel is 12 to 18 drops per minute. Take a reading of the measurement on the dial indicator.

15. Disconnect the 5J4634 Hose Assembly from the fuel filter.

16. Make a comparison of the reading on the dial indicator with the chart.

17. If the reading on the dial indicator (2) is the same as the chart, the timing of the fuel system is correct. If the reading on the dial indicator (2) is different from the chart by more than 1° make adjustment to the timing. Make reference to Checking Timing By Timing Pin Method for the correct method for adjusting the timing of the fuel system.

18. After adjusting the timing by the timing pin method, a check by the fuel flow method should show that the timing is correct. If the two methods do not give the same result, look for the reason and correct it.

Checking Timing Advance By Timing Light Method

1P3500 Injection Timing Group.


1P3500 INJECTION TIMING GROUP

This group can be used to check the automatic timing advance. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS6964 is part of the group and has detailed instructions for its use.

1. Put the engine at top center (TC) compression position for No. 1 piston. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.


TRANSDUCER AND POINTER IN POSITION
1. Fuel injection line for No. 1 cylinder. 2. Transducer. 3. Pointer. 4. Mark.

2. Make a mark (4) on the damper in alignment with "pointer (3)". (A stationary object for reference.)

3. Disconnect the fuel injection line (1) for the No. 1 cylinder at the easiest place for access.

4. Install a transducer (2) in the line.

5. Remove the air from the line.

6. Connect the lines as shown.


CONNECTIONS FOR TIMING LIGHT

7. Start the engine. With the engine at operating temperature, run the engine at low idle speed.

8. Put the light in the direction of the mark on the damper. Put switch (7) in "ADV" position.

9. Turn knob (6) to put the mark on the damper in alignment with the reference point on the engine.

10. Make a record of the reading on the dial (5).


TIMING LIGHT
5. Dial. 6. Knob. 7. Switch.

11. Run the engine at high idle. Turn the knob (6) again to put the mark on the damper in alignment with the reference point.

12. Make a record of the reading on the dial (5).

13. Put the knob (6) in the time position. See the way the mark on the damper moves when the engine speed goes from low idle to high idle. If the mark (4) moves smoothly the function of the automatic timing advance unit is correct.

14. Make a comparison of the readings from the timing light with the chart.

If the difference between the reading at high idle and at low idle (timing advance) is correct and the function of the automatic timing advance is smooth, the unit is good.

NOTE: Make sure that the high and low idle speeds are correct when checking the operation of the automatic timing advance unit.

Make a replacement of the automatic timing advance unit if either the function is not smooth or the timing advance is not correct.

Make reference to Checking Timing by Timing Pin Method for the correct procedure for checking and changing the timing.

Governor Adjustments


NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make the adjustment to the low idle and high idle rpm. The correct low idle and high idle rpm, and the measurement for adjustment of the fuel system setting are in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION and on the ENGINE INFORMATION PLATE installed on the engine.


Check engine rpm with a tachometer that has good accuracy. If the low idle or high idle rpm needs an adjustment, use the following procedure:

1. Remove cover (3).

2. To make an adjustment to the high idle rpm, loosen locknut (2) and turn adjustment screw (1). Turning the screw in makes the engine run slower. Turning the screw out makes the engine run faster. Hold screw (1) and tighten locknut (2) after adjustment procedure is done.


LOCATION OF IDLE ADJUSTMENT SCREWS
1. High idle adjustment screw. 2. Locknut. 3. Cover. 4. Low idle adjustment bolt.

3. To make an adjustment to the low idle rpm, turn bolt (4). Turning the bolt in makes the engine run faster. Turning the bolt out makes the engine run slower. Grooves in cover (3) hold bolt (4) and keep it from turning after adjustment is done and the cover is installed.

4. After each idle adjustment is made, move the governor lever to change the rpm of the engine. Now move the governor lever back to the point of first adjustment to check the idle adjustment. Keep doing the adjustment procedure until the low idle and high idle rpm are the same as given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION and on the ENGINE INFORMATION plates on the side of the engine.

Measuring Engine Speed

Remove the service meter from the rear of the fuel injection pump housing. Install the necessary parts of a 5P1759 Tachometer Drive Group in its place. Then connect the tachometer part of one of the following:

5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter4S6553 Instrument Group1P5500 Portable Phototach Group1P3500 Injection Timing Group


5P2150 ENGINE HORSEPOWER METER

The 5P2150 Engine Horsepower Meter can measure engine speed from the tachometer drive on the engine. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7050 has instructions for its use:


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. 4S6992 Differential Pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. 8M2743 Gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. 4S6991 Tachometer. 7. 4S6997 Manifold Pressure Gauge.

Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7341 is with the 4S6553 Engine Test Group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group can measure engine speed from the tachometer drive on the engine. It also has the ability to measure engine speed from visible rotating parts of the engine. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015 has instructions for its use.


1P3500 INJECTION TIMING GROUP

Special Instruction Form No. SMHS6964 is with this group and has instructions for its use.

Checking Balance Point (Full Load Speed)

Checking the Balance Point of the engine is a fast way to make a diagnosis of engine performance.

If the balance point and the high idle speed are correct, the fuel system of the engine is operating correctly. The balance point for the engine is:

1. At full load speed.
2. The point where the load stop pin is against the load stop.
3. The point where the engine gets the maximum amount of fuel per stroke.
4. The point where the engine has the most horsepower output.
5. The point where an increase in load on the engine puts the engine in a lug condition (a condition in which a small increase in load makes the engine speed get much less).

Procedure for Checking Balance Point

1. Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy to adapter (1) on the end of the fuel injection pump.


CHECKING BALANCE POINT
1. Adapter.

2. Connect a continuity light (2) to the brass terminal screw (3) on the cover for the load stop. Connect the other end of the light to a place on the fuel system which is a good electrical connection.


CHECKING BALANCE POINT
2. Continuity light. 3. Brass terminal screw. 4. Tachometer drive shaft.

3. Start the engine.

4. With the engine at operating conditions, run the engine at high idle.

5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high idle.

6. Add load on the engine slowly until the continuity light just comes on. This is the balance point.

7. Make a record of the speed at the balance point.

8. Repeat Step 6 several times to make sure that the reading is correct.

9. Stop engine. Make a comparison of the records from Steps 5 and 7 with the information from the ENGINE INFORMATION plates on the side of the engine or with RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

10. If the full load speed is not correct, adjust the HIGH IDLE speed to make a change in the full load speed.

11. If the high idle speed is out of tolerance and the full load speed is correct, look for a weak governor spring or the wrong governor spring. Both the full load speed and the high idle speed must be within the tolerance given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.


ENGINE INFORMATION PLATES (Typical Example)

Governor Control Linkage Adjustment

1P2385 Protractor Assembly.

1. Put the governor control lever on the serrated governor control shaft at 90° dimension (1), from horizontal, when the governor is in LOW. IDLE position.


EARLIER GOVERNOR CONTROL LINKAGE
1. 90° Dimension (governor control lever). 2. Dimension to be adjusted (governor linkage cross shaft lever).


LATER GOVERNOR CONTROL LINKAGE
1. 90° Dimension (governor control lever). 2. Dimension to be adjusted (governor linkage cross shaft lever).

2. With the governor in LOW IDLE position, make an adjustment to the length (make longer or shorter) of the link assembly. Make the adjustment until lever (5) is at the correct dimension (2).

NOTE: For EARLIER GOVERNOR CONTROL LINKAGE the correct dimension (2) is:

7L405 Flywheel Housing 105°

7L4158 Flywheel Housing 107°

For LATER GOVERNOR CONTROL LINKAGE the correct dimension (2) is 95°.


MEASURING ANGLE OF LEVER
3. 1P2385 Protractor Assembly. 4. Link assembly. 5. Governor linkage cross shaft lever.

3. Tighten the levers and link assembly locknuts when lever positions are correct.

Fuel System Setting

5P4203 Field Service Tool Group or3P1550 Field Service Tool Group.

Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7013 is with this group and has instructions for its use.

The following procedure for fuel system setting can be done with the housing for the fuel injection pumps either on or off the engine.

1. Disconnect the governor control linkage.

2. Remove the shutoff solenoid (1).

3. Remove the fuel ratio control (2).

4. Remove cover (3).


FUEL SYSTEM SETTING
1. Shutoff solenoid. 2. Fuel ratio control. 3. Cover.


INSTALLATION OF PIN AND SPRING
4. Hole. 5. Spring. 6. 5P299 Pin, with 19.2831 on it.

5. Put 5P299 Pin (6) into hole (4).

6. Put cover (14) and spring (5) over pin (6). Use a 1D4533 Bolt and 1D4538 Bolt to hold cover (14) to the injection pump housing.

7. Put 8S7271 Screw in the hole over pin (6) and spring (5). Tighten the screw until, the pin is held against the injection pump housing.

NOTE: 5P6602 Adapter (A) is a replacement for 5P4226 Adapter and 2P8331 Cover (14) for fuel setting.


DIAL INDICATOR IN CONTACT WITH FUEL CONTROL SHAFT
7. Dial indicator. 8. Clamp. 9. Magnetic point. 10. Fuel control shaft.

8. Put clamp (8) in 2P8331 Cover (14) or 5P6602 Adapter (A). Put 3P1569 Magnetic Point or 5P4809 Point on indicator (7) and install indicator (7) in clamp (8).

NOTE: If the indicator automatically goes to the extended position, use the 5P4809 Point. If the indicator does not automatically go to the extended position, use the 3P1569 Magnetic Point.


FUEL SYSTEM SETTING (With 5P6602 Adapter)
11. Contact. 12. 8S4627 Circuit Continuity Tester Light. 13. Clip. 15. Governor control shaft. A. 5P6602 Adapter.

9. Turn the governor control shaft (15) in the direction shown and hold it at the full load position.

10. Make an adjustment to put both dials of the dial indicator (7) at zero.

11. Connect the clip end (13) of continuity light (12) to a good electrical ground. Put the other end of continuity light (12) in contact with the contact (11) as shown.


FUEL SYSTEM SETTING (With 2P8331 Cover)
14. 2P8331 Cover. 15. Governor control shaft. 16. Hole.

12. Turn the 8S7271 Screw counterclockwise. Turn it slowly until the continuity light just goes on.

13. Make a record of the reading on the dial indicator (7).

14. Do this procedure several times to make sure that the reading is correct.

15. Make a comparison of this reading and the FUEL SYSTEM SETTING on the ENGINE INFORMATION plates or from RACK SETTING INFORMATION. If the reading is not the same, make sure the governor control shaft is in the full load position. Then do Steps 7 through 14 again.

16. If the reading on the dial indicator is not correct, do the following:

Load Stop Adjustment:

a. Put the 3P2210 Socket on locknut (18). Loosen the locknut and turn the torque control screw (17) with a screwdriver until the reading on the dial indicator (7) is correct. Tighten the locknut (18).

b. Check the adjustment by doing Steps 7 through 14 again.


ADJUSTMENT FOR FUEL SYSTEM SETTING
17. Torque control screw. 18. Locknut. 19. Load stop pin or coil spring torque spring.

c. When the adjustment is correct, install the fuel ratio control (2).

NOTE: The arrangement of the tooling for checking the fuel ratio control is the same as for checking the fuel setting. Make reference to Fuel Ratio Control Setting at this point if a check of the fuel ratio control setting is desired.

d. Remove the tooling and install the cover (3) and shutoff solenoid (1).


FUEL RATIO CONTROL IN POSITION WITH LEVER

NOTE: When installing the fuel ratio control, move the governor control to the shutoff position. Then put the bottom end of the fuel ratio control in position under the pin in the lever as shown.

Leaf Type Torque Spring:

a. Write down the dimension that is on the dial indicator.

b. Write down the dimension given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

c. Remove the test tools [cover (14), spring (5) and dial indicator (7)] from the injection pump housing.

d. Install or remove shims at location (20) to get the correct dimension as given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. The difference between the dimensions in (a) and (b) is the thickness and amount of shims to remove or install to get the correct setting.


LEAF TYPE TORQUE SPRING
19. Load stop pin. 20. Location of shims. 21. Stop bar. 22. Leaf type torque spring. 23. Shims.

e. Install correct amount of shims (23) torque spring (22) and stop bar (21) on the injection pump housing. Install the test tools on the injection pump housing and do the test procedure again. Remember the tester light must come on when the correct dimension is on the dial indicator.

f. Do the test procedure until the dimension on the dial indicator is the same as the dimension given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. After fuel system setting is correct, remove the fuel system setting tools and install cover (3).

Fuel Ratio Control Setting

NOTE: The following procedure can be done with the fuel system either on or off the engine. In either way, damage to the fuel system can be the result if dirt gets into the fuel system.

The adjustment of the Fuel Setting must be correct before making checks or adjustments to the Fuel Ratio Control.

Make a reference to Fuel System Setting for the correct procedure for checking and making adjustments to the Fuel System Setting.

1. With the tooling still installed from the procedure Fuel System Setting, turn the 8S7271 Screw in until the 5P299 Pin is against the fuel injection housing.

2. Make an adjustment if necessary to make the reading of both dials on the dial indicator be zero.

3. Turn 8S7271 Screw out 6 or more turns. Move the governor control shaft to the full load position. The reading on the dial indicator must be the same as the Fuel Ratio Control Setting on the ENGINE INFORMATION plates or in RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

NOTE: The reading on the dial indicator has a tolerance of ± 0.10 mm. This tolerance is for the turning of bolt (1) for the alignment of the bolt holes in the cover (2).


MAKING ADJUSTMENT TO FUEL RATIO CONTROL
1. Bolt. 2. Cover. 3. Body. 4. Governor control shaft. A. Direction for full fuel position.

4. If the reading is not correct, remove the cover (2). Turn the bolt (1) with the cover (2) until the reading on the dial indicator is correct. Be sure that the governor control shaft (4) is turned to the full fuel position.

5. Install cover (2).

NOTE: If the bolt holes in the cover (2) are not in alignment with bolt holes in the body (3), turn the bolt (1) with the cover (2) to put the bolt holes in the cover in alignment with the nearest holes on the body (3).

6. Remove the tooling and install cover (5), shutoff solenoid (6) and governor control linkage.


FUEL SYSTEM
5. Cover. 6. Shutoff solenoid.

Fuel Pump Calibration

3P2200 Tool Group8S2243 Wrench*5P6602, 5P4226 Adapter* or 2P8331 Cover*5P4205 Wrench*5P4206 Wrench*1D4533 Bolt*1D4538 Bolt*5P4209 Gauge*8S7271 Screw*2P8264 Socket*6V190 Clamp**5P7253 Socket Assembly **


*Part of 5P4203 Tool Group


**Not part of a Tool Group


3P2200 TOOL GROUP
1. 3P1540 Calibration Pump. 2. 4N218 Bushing. 3. 1P7379 Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Dial Indicator with 3P2226 Collet. 5. 5P6510 Box. 6. 3P1545 Calibration Pin with 17.3734 on it, (in-line engines). 7. 3P1546 Calibration Pin with 15.9410 on it. (Vee engines). 8. 1S9836 Wrench.

NOTE: 3P1540 Calibration pump must have the 5P6557 Spring installed instead of the 1P7377 Spring.

Checking Fuel Pump Calibration

The following procedure for fuel pump calibration can be done with the housing for the fuel injection pumps either on or off the engine.


NOTICE

Before doing any service work on this fuel system, the outside of the injection pump housing and all parts connected to it must be clean.


1. Remove plug (11) from the cover (10) of the housing for the fuel injection pumps.

2. Hold a container under the pump housing for the fuel that comes out of the hole for plug (11).


REMOVAL OF COVERS
9. Cover. 10. Cover for injection pump housing. 11. Plug. 12. Spring for bypass valve. 13. Bypass valve.

3. Remove the fuel ratio control, cover (9), and cover (10).

NOTE: Cover (10) has a bypass valve and spring behind it in the injection pump housing.

4. Put the 3P1545 Calibration Pin, (6) with 17.3734 on it, in calibration hole as shown.


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PIN AND ADAPTER
6. 3P1545 Calibration Pin with 17.3734 on it. 14. 5P6602 Adapter. 15. Hole.

NOTE: 5P6602 Adapter is a replacement for 5P4226 Adapter and 2P8331 Cover. Either can be used for this procedure.

5. Install the 5P6602 Adapter (14) as shown. Fasten it in position with a 1D4533 Bolt and a 1D4538 Bolt.

6. Put the 8S7271 Screw (setscrew) in the hole (15) over the calibration pin (6). Tighten the setscrew to 20 to 25 lb. in. (2 to 3 N·m) with the 2P8264 Socket.

7. Install a lever if necessary, and turn the governor control shaft (16) to the full load position (fully counterclockwise) and fasten it in this position.

8. Use the 8S2243 Wrench and remove the fuel injection pump to be checked.

9. Clean the barrel and plunger of calibration pump (1). Put clean diesel fuel on the calibration pump (1) for lubrication.


INSTALLING CALIBRATION PUMP
1. 3P1540 Calibration pump. 16. Governor control shaft. 17. Flat place on plunger. 18. Lever.

10. Put the calibration pump (1) in the place of the pump to be checked with the flat place (17) on the plunger toward the tang (19) on lever (18). When the calibration pump (1) is all the way in the bore, turn it 180° in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction. The tang (19) on lever (18) is now in the groove of the calibration pump (1). Then install the 4N218 Bushing (2) using the 8S2243 Wrench and a torque wrench to tighten it to 70 ± 5 lb. ft. (95 ± 7 N·m).


CALIBRATION PUMP INSTALLED
1. 3P1540 Calibration pump. 18. Lever. 19. Tang. 20. Spring.

NOTE: Turning calibration pump (1) 180° gives the same reference point for all measurements.

NOTE: Use the 4N218 Bushing (2) and the calibration pump (1) together. The contact surfaces of the standard bushing, fuel injection pump and the housing for the fuel injection pumps are sealing surfaces. Keep them clean and free of scratches, to prevent leaks.

NOTE: Be sure that spring (20) on calibration pump (1) is the 5P6557 Spring instead of the 1P7377 Spring which was installed on earlier calibration pumps.

11. Put dial indicator (4) on microgage (3) and hold them together tightly. Loosen lockscrew (21) and turn the face of dial indicator (4) to put the pointer at "0". Tighten lockscrew (21).

Remove dial indicator (4) from microgage (3). Look at the face of dial indicator (4) and put dial indicator (4) on microgage (3) again. The pointer must move through one to one and one half revolutions before stopping at exactly "O". If the number of revolutions is not correct, loosen the locknut on the 3P2226 Collet, and adjust the position of the 3P2226 Collet until the pointer has the correct number of revolutions. Then do the check again. When the adjustment is correct do step 12.


PUTTING DIAL INDICATOR ON ZERO
3. 1P7379 Microgage. 4. 3P1568 Indicator with 3P2226 Base. 21. Lockscrew.


NOTICE

If the locknut on the 3P2226 Collet is too tight, it can cause interference in the operation of the dial indicator.



6V190 CLAMP INSTALLED
1. Calibration pump. 22. 6V190 Clamp. 23. Shaft.

12. Put 6V190 Clamp (22) in the position shown, next to the transfer pump end. 6V190 Clamp (22) pushes shaft (23) down against the bottom of its bearing. The other end of shaft (23) is held down against its bearing by 3P1545 Calibration Pin (6) which is held by 8S7271 Screw. The combination of forces from 6V190 Clamp (22) and 3P1545 Calibration Pin (6) is necessary to hold shaft (23) in its normal operating position against the lifting force from spring (20) in calibration pump (1).


DIAL INDICATOR POSITION
1. Calibration pump. 4. Dial indicator. 18. Lever. 23. Shaft.

13. Put dial indicator (4) on the calibration pump (1) as shown. Hold it tightly in place. Move shaft (23) toward the governor end to remove end play. Push on lever (18) as shown (toward shutoff) several times. This removes any clearance in the linkage. Then look at the reading on the dial indicator (4).

14. If the dial indicator (4) reading is more than ± 0.050 mm from "0.000" (outside the TOTAL TOLERANCE), do steps 16 to 20, ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

If the dial indicator (4) reading is near either end of the TOTAL TOLERANCE, check another pump. If the next reading is outside the TOTAL TOLERANCE or if the two readings have a difference of 0.050 mm or more, do the Steps 16 to 20, ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION.

NOTE: The mechanic doing the checking must make the decisions of which and how many pumps to check according to the symptoms of the fuel injection pump being tested.


DIAL INDICATOR READING
Desired reading for all pumps is "0.000".
Maximum permissible tolerance for all readings is ± 0.050 mm.
Maximum permissible difference between any two pumps is 0.050 mm.
TOTAL TOLERANCE shows the maximum permissible range of pointer positions which are acceptable. If the reading is outside the range of TOTAL TOLERANCE, do ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps.
BAND is an example only. It shows a 0.050 mm range. This range shows the maximum permissible difference between any two readings for all the pumps. If any two readings are farther apart than the 0.050 mm range, do ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION for all pumps.

NOTE: For troubleshooting purposes, if the dial indicator (4) reading is "0" or near "0", the calibration of the other pumps is probably in the tolerance.

15. If dial indicator (4) readings for all the pumps are within the limits in step 14, the calibration is acceptable. Remove the tooling, and install the parts which were removed.

Adjusting Fuel Pump Calibration

16. Remove all pumps with 8S2243 Wrench.

17. Install calibration pump (1) in the place of one of the pumps according to the procedure in Steps 9 and 10.


ADJUSTING FUEL PUMP CALIBRATION
4. Dial indicator. 8. 1S9836 Wrench. 18. Lever. 22. 6V190 Clamp. 23. Shaft. 24. Bolt.

18. Loosen bolt (24) with 1S9836 Wrench (8) or 5P4206 Wrench. Turn the lever (18) on shaft (23) enough to move the top of plunger (25) of calibration pump (1) below top surface (26) of calibration pump (1). Tighten bolt (24) just enough for lever (18) to hold plunger (25) stationary.

NOTE: When bolt (24) has the correct torque, pushing with a small amount of force on lever (18) through the wrench moves plunger (25) up in calibration pump (1).

19. Move shaft (23) toward the governor to remove end play. Then push down on lever (18) through the wrench until top of plunger (25) is almost even with top surface (26) of calibration pump (1) as shown.

20. Check dial indicator (4) according to step (11). Then put dial indicator (4) in place over the center of calibration pump (1) and hold it there tightly. Now move plunger (25) of calibration pump (1) by pushing on lever (18) through the wrench. Stop moving the plunger when the dial indicator is at approximately 0.000 mm. Tighten bolt (24) to 24 ± 2 lb. in. (2.70 ± 0.23 N·m) using the 5P7253 Socket Assembly.


PLUNGER POSITION
1. Calibration pump. 25. Plunger. 26. Top surface of calibration pump.

NOTE: When moving plunger (25), make sure that the last direction of plunger (25) movement is in the up direction. If plunger (25) goes up too far, move plunger (25) down to a position below that desired. Then move plunger (25) up to the desired position.

NOTE: The action of tightening bolt (24) usually changes the reading on dial indicator (4) by approximately 0.010 mm. Stop moving plunger (25) up at the necessary point to get the reading on dial indicator (4) at 0.000 ± 0.010 mm after tightening bolt (24).


± 0.010 mm CALIBRATION TOLERANCE

Move shaft (23) toward shutoff several times to remove clearance in the linkage. Dial indicator (4) reading must be 0.000 ± 0.010 mm as shown.

When the pump calibration is correct make a record and then do the same procedure for all of the other pumps.

Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction of more than 25 in. (635 mm) of water difference in pressure.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust outlet elbow and atmosphere) must not be more than 40 in. (1016 mm) of water.

Measurement Of Pressure In Inlet Manifold

By checking the pressure in the inlet manifold the efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a comparison with the information given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. This test is used when there is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Development of this information is done with these conditions: 29.4 in. (746.7 mm) of mercury barometric pressure, 85° F (29° C) outside air temperature and 35 API rated fuel. Any change from these conditions can change the pressure in the inlet manifold. Outside air that has higher temperature and lower barometric pressure than given above will cause a lower horsepower and inlet manifold pressure measurement, than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. Outside air that has a lower temperature and higher barometric pressure will cause a higher horsepower and inlet manifold pressure measurement.

A difference in fuel rating will also change horsepower and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet manifold can be less than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be more than given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. BE SURE THAT THE AIR INLET AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RESTRICTION WHEN MAKING A CHECK OF PRESSURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD.

Use the 4S6553 Instrument Group to check engine rpm and the pressure in the inlet manifold. This instrument group has a tachometer for reading engine rpm. It also has a gauge for reading pressure in the inlet manifold. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7341 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedures.


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. 4S6992 Differential Pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. 8M2743 Gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. 4S6991 Tachometer. 7. 4S6997 Manifold Pressure Gauge.


POSITION FOR PRESSURE TEST (With Aftercooler)
A. Remove plug and install a tee for testing.


POSITION FOR PRESSURE TEST
A. Remove elbow and install a tee for testing.

Checking Aftercooler Operation

Use the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group to check the operation of the aftercooler.

Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7140 gives the procedures for using the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

Special Instruction Form No. GEG01024 gives the operating conditions for engines with watercooled aftercoolers.

NOTE: These conditions are for engines on dynamometer tests but the operating ranges are approximately the same.


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

Turbocharger

Every 200,000 miles or if any unusual sound or vibration in the turbocharger is noticed, a quick check of bearing condition can be made without disassembling the turbocharger. This can be done by removing the piping from the turbocharger and inspecting the compressor impeller, turbine wheel and compressor cover. Rotate the compressor and turbine wheel assembly by hand and observe by feeling excess end play and radial clearance. The rotating assembly should rotate freely with no rubbing or binding. If there is any indication of the impeller rubbing the compressor cover or the turbine wheel rubbing the turbine housing, recondition the turbocharger or replace with a new or rebuilt one.

End clearance is best checked with a dial indicator. Attach a dial indicator with the indicator point on the end of the shaft. Move the shaft from end to end making note of the total indicator reading.

End play for T12 Turbochargers should be .006 to .011 in. (0.15 to 0.27 mm). If end play is more than the maximum end play rebuild or replace the turbocharger. End play less than the minimum end play could indicate carbon build up on the turbine wheel and should be disassembled for cleaning and inspection.


(Typical Example) CHECKING TURBOCHARGER ROTATING ASSEMBLY END PLAY

A more reliable check of bearing condition can be made only when the turbocharger is disassembled and the bearings, shaft journal and housing bore diameters can actually be measured.


(Typical Example) CHECKING TURBOCHARGER RADIAL CLEARANCE

Radial clearance can also be checked with a dial indicator. Remove the oil return line from the turbocharger. Attach a dial indicator with an extension indicator point long enough to contact the shaft through the oil return hole. Make sure the contact point is centered on the shaft (highest indicator reading). Raise both ends of the shaft all the way then push down in the opposite direction. Total movement of the indicator should be between .004 in. (0.10 mm) and .009 in. (0.23 mm). If radial clearance exceeds .009 in. (0.23 mm) or minimum clearance is under .004 in. (0.10 mm), the turbocharger should be disassembled and the bearings checked.

NOTE: Care must be taken not to cock the shaft or a false reading will be obtained.

Measurement Of Exhaust Temperatures

Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7179 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure

Pistons or piston rings that have damage can be the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase. This condition will cause the engine to run rough. There will also be more than the normal amount of fumes coming from the crankcase breather. This crankcase pressure can also cause the element for the crankcase breather to have a restriction in a very short time. It can also be the cause of oil leakage at gaskets and seals that would not normally have leakage.

Normal crankcase pressure with a clean crankcase breather is 2 in. (50.8 mm) of H2O or less.

Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or have valves that need adjustment. Use the test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a cylinder that has low compression, or does not have good fuel combustion. Find the speed that the engine runs the roughest, and keep the engine at this rpm until the test is finished. Loosen a fuel line nut at fuel injection pump to stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so the cylinder will have to be checked thoroughly.

NOTE: The test that follows cannot be used with engines that have pistons with keystone rings.

A cylinder leakage test that uses air pressure in the cylinder can be used to indicate the condition of the piston rings, valves, and valve seats. Make reference to SPECIAL INSTRUCTION FORM NO. GMG00694 for a list of tools needed and the test procedure. Removal of the head and inspection of the valves and valve seats is necessary to find those small defects that do not normally cause a problem. Repair of these problems is normally done when reconditioning the engine.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head has valves, valve seat inserts, and valve guides that can be removed when they are worn or have damage. Replacement of these components can be made with the tools that follow.

Valves

Valve removal and installation is easier with use of the 5P1330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly and 5S1322 Valve Keeper Inserter.

Valve Seat Inserts

Tools needed to remove and install seat inserts are in the 9S3080 Valve Insert Puller Group. Special Instruction Form No. GMG02114 gives an explanation for this procedure. For easier installation, lower the temperature of the insert before it is installed in the head.

Valve Guides

Tools needed to install valve guides are the 7S8858 Driver Bushing and 7S8859 Driver. The counterbore in the driver bushing installs the guide to the correct height. Use a 1P7451 Valve Guide Honing Group to make a finished bore in the valve guide after installation of the guide in the head. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00966 gives an explanation for this procedure. Grind the valves after the new valve guides are installed.

Checking Valve Guide Bore

Use the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group to check the bore of the valve guides. Special Instruction Form No. GMG02562 gives complete and detailed instructions for use of the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group.


3P3536 VALVE GUIDE GAUGE GROUP

Precombustion Chamber Position

Use 5F8353 Wrench to remove and install chamber.

Put 5M2667 Gasket, with "2C" on it, on the precombustion chamber. Put 5P3931 Anti-Seize Compound on the threads of the precombustion chamber. Install the precombustion chamber in the cylinder head and tighten to 150 ± 10 lb. ft. (205 ± 14 N·m). If the opening for the glow plug is not in the "A range", remove the precombustion chamber and 5M2667 Gasket. If the opening for the glow plug was in the "B range" use 2S8959 Gasket with "2S" on it. If the opening for the glow plug was in the "C range" use 2S8960 Gasket with "2X" on it. Put 5P3931 Anti-Seize Compound on the threads of the precombustion chamber. Install the precombustion chamber with the correct gasket and tighten the precombustion chamber to 150 ± 10 lb. ft. (205 ± 14 N·m).

Valve Clearance

NOTE: Valve clearance is measured between the rocker arm and the valves.

NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) is checked, adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the measurement is in the range given in the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK: ENGINE STOPPED. If the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is necessary. See the chart for VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING: ENGINE STOPPED, and make the setting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this chart.


VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.

2. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valves for cylinders 1, 2, and 4. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 1, 3, and 5.


CYLINDER AND VALVE IDENTIFICATION

3. Turn the flywheel 360° in the direction of engine rotation. This will put No. 6 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke.

4. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valve for cylinder 3, 5, and 6. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 2, 4, and 6.

5. After valve adjustment is correct, tighten the nuts for the valve adjustment screws to 22 ± 3 lb. ft. (28 ± 4 N·m).


VALVE ADJUSTMENT

Procedure For Measuring Camshaft Lobes

To find lobe lift, use the procedure that follows:

A. Measure camshaft lobe height (B) of one exhaust and one intake lobe.

B. Measure base circle (C) of one exhaust and one intake lobe.

C. Subtract base circle (STEP B) from lobe height (STEP A). The difference is actual lobe lift (A).

D. Specified camshaft lobe lift (A) is .3300 in. (8.382 mm).

Maximum permissible difference between actual lobe lift (STEP C) and specified lobe lift (STEP D) is .010 in. (0.25 mm).


CAMSHAFT LOBE
A. Lobe lift. B. Lobe height. C. Base circle.

Lubrication System

One of the problems in the following list will generally be an indication of a problem in the lubrication system for the engine.

TOO MUCH OIL CONSUMPTIONOIL PRESSURE IS LOWOIL PRESSURE IS HIGHTOO MUCH BEARING WEAR

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine

Check for leakage at the seals at each end of the crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil is coming out of the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket and seal leakage.

Oil Leakage Into Combustion Area of Cylinders

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are four possible ways for oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders:

1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve stems.
2. Worn or damaged piston rings or dirty oil return holes.
3. Compression ring not installed correctly.
4. Oil leakage past the seal rings in the impeller end of the turbocharger shaft.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result of using oil with the wrong viscosity. Oil with a thin viscosity can be caused by fuel getting in the crankcase, or by the engine getting too hot.

Oil Pressure Is Low

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect can give an indication of low oil pressure. Check the gauge with a test gauge.

Use the following procedure to check engine oil pressure. Do the procedure exactly or the pressure measurements are not good for comparison with the chart.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with either SAE 10 or SAE 30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the information in the engine oil pressure chart does not apply.

2. Find a location on the engine oil manifold to install a tee. The easiest method is to remove the sending unit for the present gauge and install a tee at this location. Install a probe from the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group in one side of the tee. Connect an 8M2744 Gauge from the 5P6225 Hydraulic Test Box to the other side of the tee.


OIL MANIFOLD
1. Pressure Test Location.


5P6225 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX

3. Run the engine to get the engine oil temperature at 210° F (99° C).

NOTE: A 5° F (3° C) increase in temperature gives approximately 1 psi (7 kPa) decrease in engine oil pressure.

4. Keep the engine oil temperature constant. With the engine at the rpm from the chart, read the pressure gauge. Make a comparison between the pressure reading on the test gauge and the minimum permissible pressure from the ENGINE OIL PRESSURE CHART. If the pressure reading on the test gauge is below the minimum permissible pressure, find the cause and correct it. Operation of the engine with low oil pressure can be the cause of engine failure or of a reduction in engine life.

Crankcase Oil Level

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far below the oil pump supply tube. This will cause the oil pump to not have the ability to supply enough lubrication to the engine components.

Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil pump can have a restriction. This will cause cavitation (the sudden making of low pressure bubbles in liquids by mechanical forces) and a loss of oil pressure. Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If the bypass valve for the oil pump is held in the open (unseated) position, the lubrication system can not get to maximum pressure. Oil pump gears that have too much wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure.

Oil Filter and Oil Cooler Bypass Valves

If the bypass valve for the oil filter or oil cooler is held in the open position (unseated) and the oil filter or oil cooler has a restriction, a reduction in oil pressure can be result. To correct this problem, install a new Caterpillar oil filter.

Too Much Clearance at Engine Bearings Or Open (Broken or Disconnected Oil Line or Passage) Lubrication System

Components that are worn and have too much bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected.

Oil Cooler

Look for a restriction in the oil passages of the oil cooler. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is running. The oil pressure of the engine will not get low just because the oil cooler has a restriction.

Oil Pressure Is High

Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the oil pump can not move from the closed position.

Too Much Bearing Wear

When some components of the engine show bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in an oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the cause.

If the gauge for oil pressure shows enough good oil pressure, but a component is worn because it is not getting enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil supply to that component. A restriction in a supply passage will not let enough lubrication get to a component and this will cause early wear.

Cooling System

The engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can operate safely at a temperature that is higher than the normal point where water changes to steam. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (air in inlet of pump) in the water pump. With this type system it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to form in the cooling system.

The cause for an engine getting too hot is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not done. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before testing with testing equipment.

Visual Inspection Of The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing surface for the cap. The sealing surface must be clean.

8. Look for large amounts of dirt in the radiator core and on the engine.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and the height above sea level on the boiling point (steam) of water.

Test Tools for Cooling System

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.9S7373 Air Meter Group.1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

The 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine running too hot) or overcooling (engine runs too cool) problems. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of the cooling system. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7140.


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP


9S7373 AIR METER GROUP

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7063.

------ WARNING! ------

When making the checks fasten the transmission in neutral and put the parking brakes on. Make all checks at engine LOW IDLE and on the side of the radiator opposite the fan. Wear eye protection.

--------WARNING!------

The 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group is used to check the fan speed. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7015.


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and pressure relief valves, and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP

Gauge for Water Temperature

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. or2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system could be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage. If a place can not be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the gauge for water temperature. Use the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group or the 2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------


2F7112 THERMOMETER INSTALLED


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

Start the engine. The reading on the gauge for water temperature should be the same as the reading on the thermistor thermometer.

Pressure Cap


SCHEMATIC OF PRESSURE CAP
A. Sealing surface of cap and radiator.

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a bad seal on the pressure cap of the system. Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or the sealing surface. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, seal or sealing surface must be removed.

To check the pressure cap for the pressure that makes the pressure cap open, use the following procedure:

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

------ WARNING! ------

Always stop the engine to inspect the cooling system. Loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system, then remove the pressure cap. Hot coolant and steam can cause personal injury. Let coolant become cool before it is drained.

--------WARNING!------

2. Put the pressure cap on the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

3. Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that makes the pressure cap open.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP

4. Make a comparison of the reading on the gauge with the correct pressure at which the pressure cap must open.

NOTE: The correct pressure that makes the pressure cap open is on the pressure cap and is also in the SPECIFICATIONS.

5. If the pressure cap is bad, install a new pressure cap.

Testing Radiator and Cooling System for Leaks

To test the radiator and cooling system for leaks, use the procedure that follows:

------ WARNING! ------

Always stop the engine to inspect the cooling system. Loosen the pressure cap to the first stop and let the pressure out of the cooling system, then remove the pressure cap. Hot coolant and steam can cause personal injury. Let coolant become cool before it is drained.

--------WARNING!------

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

2. Make sure the coolant is over the top of the radiator core.

3. Put the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group on the radiator.

4. Get the pressure reading on the gauge to 3 psi (20 kPa) more than the pressure on the pressure cap.

5. Check the radiator for outside leakage.

6. Check all connections and hoses for the cooling system for outside leakage.

7. If you do not see any outside leakage and the pressure reading on the gauge is still the same after 5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system does not have leakage. If the reading on the gauge goes down and you do not see any outside leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the cooling system. Make repairs as necessary.

Water Temperature Regulators

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is 195° F (90° C). This is the correct temperature for opening the regulator. Move the water around in the pan to make it all be the same temperature.

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for 10 minutes.

5. After ten minutes, remove the regulator and immediately measure the distance the regulator has opened. The distance must be a minimum of .375 in. (9.53 mm).

6. If the distance is less than .375 in. (9.53 mm), make a replacement of the regulator.

V-Belt Tension Chart

Basic Block

Piston Ring Groove Gauge

(Pistons That Use Keystone Rings)

Make reference to GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.

The 5P4812 KEYSTONE PISTON RING GAUGE GROUP is necessary for measuring these grooves. Put the pin end of gage "2" in the groove at four places around the circumference. Do this to both grooves. The flat edge of the gauge must be between the grooves. If there is clearance between the flat edge of the gauge and the piston at all test locations, for both grooves, the piston is reusable. If the flat edge is in contact with the piston, at any of the test locations, the piston is not reusable. Install a new piston.


5P4812 KEYSTONE PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE GROUP

(Pistons With Straight Sides in Ring Grooves)

A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available for checking ring grooves with straight sides. For instructions on the use of the gauge, see the GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.


PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use the 7S9470 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use the 5P3525 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder block.

Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the following step sequence:

1. Put crankcase oil on threads.

2. Tighten both nuts to 30 ± 3 lb. ft. (40 ± 4 N·m).

3. Put a mark on each nut and cap.

4. Tighten each nut 90° from the mark.

The connecting rod bearings should fit tightly in the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are worn (fretted), check for bore size as this is an indication of wear because of looseness.

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Bearings are available with .010 in. (0.25 mm), .020 in. (0.51 mm) and .030 in. (0.76 mm) smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller) than the original size.

Cylinder Liner Projection

(Counterbored Block)

1P2394 Adapter Plate.Two 3H465 Plates.Crossbar (from 8B7548 Push-Puller).Two 5/8"-11 NC bolts, 5.5 in. (140 mm) long.Two 4B4281 Washers.1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group.


CHECKING LINER PROJECTION
1. Bolts (two). 2. Crossbar. 3. 4B4281 Washers (two). 4. 1P2394 Adapter Plate. 5. 3H465 Plates (two).

Check liner height projection as follows:

1. Make sure that the bore in block and the cylinder liner flange are clean.

2. Put adapter plate (4) on top the cylinder liner. Put crossbar (2) on the adapter plate. Using bolts (1), washers (3) and plates (5), install the crossbar to the cylinder block as shown. Tighten bolts (1) in four steps to: 5 lb. ft. (7 N·m), 15 lb. ft. (20 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m) and then to 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m). Distance from bottom edge of crossbar, to top of cylinder block, must be the same on both sides of the cylinder liner.


ZEROING INDICATOR
6. 1P2402 Block. 7. 1P2403 Dial Indicator. 8. 1P5507 Gauge.

3. Put the dial indicator (7) on zero using the back of gauge (8) with dial indicator (7) installed in block (6).

4. Use a 1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group to get a measurement of liner projection. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00623 is with the tool.

5. Make a measurement of the cylinder liner projection in at least four locations around the cylinder liner. Projection must be within .0020 to .0056 in. (0.051 to 0.142 mm) and the four measurements should not vary more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The average projection between adjacent cylinders must not vary more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The average projection of all cylinder liners under one head must vary more than .004 in. (0.10 mm).

NOTE: If liner projection changes from point to point around the liner, turn the liner to a new position within the bore. If still not within specifications move liner to a different bore.

NOTE: When liner projection is correct, put a temporary mark on the liner and top plate so when seals and band are installed, the liner can be installed in the correct position.

6. Use the 8S3140 Counterboring Tool Arrangement to machine the contact face on block if needed. Special Instruction Form No. FM055228 gives an explanation of the use of the 8S3140 Counterboring Tool Arrangement.

Adjustment Shims For Liner Projection

Cylinder Liner Projection

(Spacer Plate Block)

1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group
1P2403 Dial Indicator1P5512 Contact Point .88 in. (22.4 mm) long1P2402 Gauge Body1P5507 Gauge
1P2394 Adapter Plate8B7548 Push-Puller (crossbar only)3H465 Plates (2)S1589 Bolt 5/8-11 NC-1.75 in. (44.5 mm) long1S379 Washer (copper)1D4595 Bolt 5/8-11 NC-6.00 in. (152.4 mm) long2S736 Washer

The correct cylinder liner projection is important to prevent a leak between the liner, cylinder head, and block. Check cylinder liner projection above the spacer plate as follows:

1. Be sure that the surfaces of the cylinder block, cylinder liner, and the spacer plate are clean.

2. Install the spacer plate gasket and spacer plate (4) on the cylinder block. Use S1589 Bolts (1) with two 1S379 Washers on each bolt to hold the spacer plate to the cylinder block. Put two bolts with washers on each side of the opening for the cylinder liner. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 10 lb. ft. (14 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m), 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m), and 70 lb. ft. (95 N·m).

NOTE: To keep from moving bolts and washers as each liner is checked install two bolts with washers on each side of each cylinder liner, along the complete length of the spacer plate.

3. Install the cylinder liner without seals in the cylinder block. Put adapter plate (7) on the cylinder liner as shown. Install crossbar (2) with 1D4595 Bolts (3), and 2S736 Washers, and 3H465 Plates (5) as shown. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 5 lb. ft. (7 N·m), 15 lb. ft. (20 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (35 N·m), and 50 lb. ft. (70 N·m). The measurement from the bottom of crossbar (2) to the spacer plate, must be the same on both sides of the cylinder liner.

4. Install the 1P5512 Contact Point on dial indicator (6). Put the dial indicator in the 1P2402 Gauge Body. To adjust the dial indicator to zero, put dial indicator and gauge body on the 1P5507 Gauge. Move the dial indicator until the hand moves 1/4 turn. Tighten bolt on body to hold the dial indicator in this position. Turn the dial face until the zero is in alignment with the hand.

5. Measure the cylinder liner projection as close as possible to the four corners of the adapter plate on the liner. The liner projection must be .0013 to .0069 in. (0.033 to 0.175 mm). The difference between the four measurements must not be more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The difference in the average cylinder liner projection of liners next to each other must not be more than .002 in. (0.05 mm). The difference in the average cylinder liner projection of all liners under one cylinder head must not be more than .004 in. (0.10 mm).


MEASURING CYLINDER LINER PROJECTION
1. S1589 Bolt with two 1S379 Washers. 2. Crossbar. 3. 1D4595 Bolt. 4. Spacer plate. 5. 3H465 Plates. 6. 1P2403 Dial Indicator. 7. 1P2394 Adapter Plate.

NOTE: If the liner projection changes from point to point around the liner, turn the liner to a new position in the bore. If the liner projection is still not to specifications, move the liner to a different bore.

6. When the cylinder liner projection is correct, put a temporary mark on the liner and the spacer plate so at final installation the liner can be installed in the correct position.

Cylinder liner projection can be adjusted by the removal of material from (machining) the contact face of the cylinder block with the use of 8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement. The instructions for the use of the tool group are in Special Instructions Form No. FM055228.

Adjustment Shims For Liner Projection

Cylinder Block

The bore in the block for main bearings can be checked with the main bearing caps installed without bearings. Tighten the nuts holding the caps to the torque shown in the SPECIFICATIONS. Alignment error in the bores must not be more than .003 in. (0.08 mm). Special Instruction Form No. GMG00503 gives instructions for the use of 1P4000 Line Boring Tool Group for making alignment in the main bearing bores. 1P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group can be used to check the size of the bores. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00981 is with the group.


1P3537 DIAL BORE GAUGE GROUP

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

Installing Ring Gear

Heat the ring gear to install it. Do not heat to more than 600°F (315°C). Install the ring gear so the chamfer on the gear teeth are next to the starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

8S2328 Dial Indicator Group.

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearances must be removed to get correct measurements.

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of the flywheel housing.


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

2. Put a force on the crankshaft toward the rear before reading the indicator at each point.

3. With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the indicator at locations (B), (C) and (D).


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

4. The difference between lower and higher measurements taken all four points must not be more than .012 in. (0.30 mm), which is the maximum permissible face run out (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel housing.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

1. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft up against the top bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This notation is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING

2. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).

3. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

4. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Add lines I & II by columns.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

8. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.

10. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable" the flywheel housing must be changed.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Put a force on the crankshaft the same way before the indicator is read to be sure the crankshaft end clearance (movement) is always removed.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH PILOT BEARING BORE

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed .005 in. (0.13 mm).

Vibration Damper

Damage to or failure of the damper will increase vibrations and result in damage to the crankshaft. It will cause more gear train noise at variable points in the speed range.

The rubber vibration damper has marks (1) on the hub and the ring. These marks give an indication of the condition of the vibration damper. If the marks are not in alignment, the rubber part (between the ring and the hub) of the vibration damper has had a separation from the ring and/or hub. If the marks are not in alignment, install a new vibration damper.


RUBBER VIBRATION DAMPER
1. Alignment marks.

Check the viscous damper for damage to the case. If the case has damage, make replacement of the viscous damper.

Electrical System

Most of the tests of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections must be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully charged. If the on the engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

The service manual TESTING AND ADJUSTING ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS, Form No. REG00636 has complete specifications and procedures for the components of the starting circuit and the charging circuit.

Battery

5P300 Electrical Tester.9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger Tester.5P957 or 5P3414 Coolant and Battery Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7006 and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit will result, if the connections, (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is charging. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage will damage, not only the charging unit but also the regulator and other electrical components.

------ WARNING! ------

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to personnel can be the result.

--------WARNING!------

Load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. To do this, put a resistance, across the main connections (terminals) of the battery. For a 6V battery, put a resistance of two times the ampere/hour rating. For a 12V battery, put a resistance of three times the ampere/hour rating. Let the resistance remove the charge (discharge) of the battery for 15 seconds and immediately test the battery voltage. A 6V battery in good condition will show 4.5V; a 12V battery in good condition will show 9V.

The Special Instruction (GEG00058) with the 9S1990 Battery Charger Tester gives the battery testing procedure.


9S1990 BATTERY CHARGER TESTER

Charging System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7006 and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system is operating correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is constantly in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (more than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 50 service hours).

Make a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator on the engine, when possible, using wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off the engine (bench) testing will give a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. After repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that the units are repaired to their original operating condition.

Before starting the on engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked as given in the Steps below.

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.240 Sp. Gr.) full charged and held tightly in place. The battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Lead, junctions, switches and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give correct circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and have the ability to operate the charging unit.

Delco-Remy Alternator; Pulley Nut Tightening

Tighten nut holding the pulley to a torque of 75 ± 5 lb. ft. (100 ± 7 N·m) with the tools shown.


ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION
1. 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). 2. 8S1590 Socket (5/16" with 3/8" drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group. 8H8555 Socket (15/16" with 1/2" drive) not shown.

Alternator Regulator Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

Set Screw Type

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to the charging rate of the alternator. Remove the hollow head screw (1) from the alternator and use a screwdriver to turn the adjustment screw. Turn the adjustment screw one or two notches to increase or decrease the charging rate of the alternator.


LOCATION OF ADJUSTMENT SCREW FOR THE ALTERNATOR REGULATOR
1. Hollow head screw. 2. Connector.

Cap Type


ALTERNATOR REGULATOR ADJUSTMENT
1. Voltage adjustment cap.

When the alternator is either charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to the alternator charging rate. To make an adjustment to the voltage output, remove the voltage adjustment cap (1) from the alternator, turn the cap 90°, and install it again into the alternator. The voltage adjustment cap has four positions: HI, LO, and two positions between the high and the low setting.

Alternator Regulator (Prestolite)


ALTERNATOR REGULATOR
1. Adjustment screw with washer. 2. High output position. 3. Green wire to field terminal of the alternator (F). 4. Orange wire to battery. 5. Black wire to ground.

The regulator components are sealed in an insulation of epoxy. The regulator is an electronic component with no moving parts (solid state) and has an adjustment screw (1) on the back. This voltage adjustment screw is used to meet different operating needs at different times of the year. An increase or decrease by .5 volts from the normal (N) setting is made by removing the regulator and changing the position of the adjustment screw and washer. An increase to the voltage will be made by moving the screw and washer to the "H" position (2).

Starting System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7006 and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

Use a D.C. Voltmeter to find starting system components which do not function.

Move the starting control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel. The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one wire of the voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Connect the other wire to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for more testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or of an adjustment to be made to starter pinion clearance.

If the solenoid for the starting motor will not operate, current from the battery may not be getting to the solenoid. Fasten one wire of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Connect the other wire to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a break in the circuit from the battery. More testing is necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter.

Now make a test by fastening one voltmeter wire to the connector (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other wire to a ground. Look at the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the starter switch or wiring. Fasten one wire of the voltmeter to the battery wire connection of the starter switch and the other wire to a ground. A voltmeter reading shows a failure in the switch.

A starting motor that operates too slowly can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starting motor can also be caused by shorts, loose connections and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)


CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.

Whenever the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starting motor removed.

1. Install the solenoid without connector (1) from the MOTOR connection (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.

3. Connect the other side of battery to ground terminal (3).


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked MOTOR to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.

5. Push the pinion toward commutator end to remove free movement.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be .36 in. (9.1 mm).

7. Pinion clearance adjustment is made by removing plug and turning nut (4).

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Prestolite)

There are two adjustments on this type motor. They are end play for the armature and pinion clearance.

End Play For The Armature

The correct end play for the armature is .005 to .030 in. (0.13 to 0.76 mm). The adjustment is made by adding or removing thrust washers on the commutator end of the armature shaft.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment


CONNECTIONS FOR ADJUSTMENT OF THE PINION CLEARANCE
1. Stud.

1. To adjust the pinion distance, connect the solenoid to a 12 volt battery as shown. For a short moment, connect a wire from the "motor" stud of the solenoid to the stud at (1) in the commutator end. This moves the solenoid and drive into the cranking position.

Disconnect the wire.

NOTE: The drive is in the cranking position until the battery is disconnected.

2. Push the drive toward the commutator end of the motor to eliminate any slack movement in the linkage and measure the distance between the outside edge of the drive sleeve and the thrust washer. The distance (3) must be .02 to .05 in. (0.51 to 1.27 mm).


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
2. Adjusting nut. 3. Distance.

3. Remove the plug. Turn the adjusting nut (2) in or out as necessary to get this distance.

4. Install the plug.

Shutoff Solenoid


ACTIVATE TO RUN
1. Shutoff Solenoid. 2. 9L6588 Spring. 3. 3N2835 Shaft.

Two checks must be made on the engine to give proof that the solenoid adjustment is correct.

1. The adjustment must give the piston enough travel to move the sleeve control shaft to the shutoff position.
2. The adjustment must give the piston enough travel to cause only the "hold in" windings of the 4N3889 or 4N3890 Solenoid to be activated when the sleeve control shaft is held in the fuel closed position. Use a thirty ampere ammeter to make sure the plunger is in the "hold in" position. Current needed must be less than one ampere.


ACTIVATE TO SHUTOFF
1. Shutoff solenoid. 4. Distance from face of piston to inside face of shaft (5). 5. 3N2836 Shaft.

Caterpillar Information System:

3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Systems Operation
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Shutoff Solenoid
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Series Parallel Switches<BR> 9L4590 12V (Delco-Remy Number 1119845)
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Starter Magnetic Switches<BR> 5L5886 12V (Delco-Remy Number 0001486)
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Starter Solenoid<BR> 9S7976 24V (Prestolite Number SAT-4103)
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Starter Solenoids
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Starter Motors
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Starter Motors<BR> 9L3597 12V (Delco-Remy Number 1114129), 7G9132 12V (Delco-Remy Number 1114773)
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Alternator Regulator
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Alternators
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Flywheel Housing Bore
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Flywheel Housing Runout
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Introduction To The Troubleshooting Guide
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Primary Engine Test For Low Power
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Low Power Troubleshooting - (Diagnosis with Chassis Dynamometer)
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Primary Engine Test For High Fuel Consumption
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE High Fuel Consumption Troubleshooting - (Diagnosis with Chassis Dynamometer)
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Problem With Vehicle Or Vehicle Operation
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Misfiring And Running Rough
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Too Much Exhaust Smoke - Black or Gray
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Too Much Exhaust Smoke - White Smoke; Blue Smoke
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Difficult Starting - Engine Crankshaft Turns Freely
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Difficult Starting - Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn; Engine Crankshaft Turns Too Slowly
3306 DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Cooling System
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