3408 & 3408B DIESEL TRUCK ENGINE Caterpillar


Testing and Adjusting

Usage:



Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system.

Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by a bad fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by one or more of the reasons that follow:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.
b. An overload at high altitude.
c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber.
d. Not enough compression.

Fuel System Inspection

A problem with the components that send fuel to the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease engine performance.

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a bad bend.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter.

4. To remove air from the fuel system, use the procedure that follows:

PC Engines:

a. Use the priming pump to remove air from the low pressure side of the fuel system.

b. Loosen (one at a time) the fuel injection line nut one-half turn at the valve cover base adapter. Use the priming pump until fuel without air flows from the loose connections, then tighten the nut. Repeat the procedure for each fuel injection line.

DI Engines:

a. Use the priming pump to remove air from the low pressure side of the fuel system.

b. Loosen one-half turn the fuel injection line nuts at each adapter in the valve cover base. Move governor control shaft to LOW IDLE position. Use the starter motor to turn the engine until fuel without air flows from the loose connections. Tighten the nuts.

NOTE: Because of the check assemblies in the injection pump outlets for the DI engine, the priming pump will not give enough pressure to remove air from the fuel injection lines.

5. Inspect the fuel bypass valve to see that there is no restriction to good operation.

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that runs rough (misfires) and causes black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test, before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine performance, test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an indication of the condition of a fuel injection valve. Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication of an injection valve with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by an injection valve with a defect.

The most common defects found with the fuel injection valves are:

1. Steel wire brushing of nozzle tip.
2. Orifice wear.

Testing Capsule-Type Fuel Injection Nozzles

5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group
5P4720 Fitting5P8744 Adapter or5P4717 Adapter
8S2270 Fuel CollectorFT1384 Extension8S2245 Cleaning Kit6V6068 Calibration Fluid 19 liters (5 U.S. gal.) or6V6067 Calibration Fluid 208 liters (55 U.S. gal.)


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration Fluid when tests are made. Dirty test fluid will damage components of fuel injection nozzles. The temperature of the test fluid must be 18 to 24°C (65 to 75°F) for good test results.


NOTE: For more information on the 5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group see, Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7292.


5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group
(A) 5P4721 Tube. (B) 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 6900 kPa (0 to 1000 psi) used to test PC capsule-type nozzles. (C) 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi) used to test DI capsule-type nozzles and pencil-type nozzles. (D) Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge (B). (E) Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge (C). (F) On-off valve. (G) Pump isolator valve. (H) 5P4720 Fitting. (J) 5P8744 Adapter for capsule-type nozzles. (K) 5P4244 Adapter for pencil-type nozzles.


Extra Valve
(L) Gauge protector valve (must be in open position at all times).

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Test fluid comes from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The test fluid can pierce (go through) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension.

--------WARNING!------

The test procedures that follow will give an indication of nozzle condition. A nozzle that has a defect is not always the only cause for a specific engine problem.

Nozzle Tester Preparation

Find an old capsule-type fuel nozzle and weld the orifice closed. Keep this fuel nozzle with the tester group for use in the future.

NOTE: Do not weld the fuel nozzles that are to be tested.


Illustration I
(1) Test nozzle (welded orifice). (2) Bottom part of 5P8744 Adapter (J). (J) 5P8744 Adapter. (M) FT1384 Extension. (N) 8S2270 Collector.

Illustration I shows the latest 5P8744 Adapter. Illustration II shows the former 5P4717 Adapter. Unless some indication is made, the procedure is the same for use of either adapter.


Illustration II
(1) Test nozzle (welded orifice). (2) Bottom part of 5P4717 Adapter (J). (J) 5P4717 Adapter.

1. Install the top part of adapter (J) that holds the capsule nozzle.

2. Put test nozzle (1) (with welded orifice) in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J) that holds the capsule nozzle. Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).

3. Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G). Open gauge protector valve (E).

4. Operate the tester pump until a pressure of 24 000 kPa (3500 psi) is read on 2P2324 Gauge (C). Now, close pump isolator valve (G).

5. Check all connections for leaks. Tighten connections to stop any leaks that are found.

6. Open on-off valve (F) and remove test (welded) fuel nozzle (1).

------ WARNING! ------

Do not loosen the bottom half of the adapter to remove fuel nozzle until on-off valve is opened and no pressure is read on the gauge. Unless high pressure is released in the pump, the fluid discharge from the adapter can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------

NOTE: To prevent fluid leakage, the top surface of the test (welded) nozzle, and all other nozzles that are to be tested, must be free of scratches or burrs (sharp edges).

The procedure for Nozzle Tester Preparation must be done each time any of the conditions that follow exist:

a. The complete 5P8744 or 5P4717 Adapter is removed and installed again.
b. Before and after a series of tests.
c. There is an indication of a problem with the nozzle tester.

Test Sequence - Precombustion Chamber (PC) Fuel Nozzle

To test PC capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the sequence that follows:

Nozzle InstallationPressure Loss TestValve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test


NOTICE

Do not use a drill or reamer on the orifice of a nozzle. Do not use steel brush or wire wheel to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the valve can be damaged easily.


Nozzle Installation

1. Put one of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J). Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).


Air Removal From Tester
(2) Bottom part of adapter (J). (J) 5P8744 Adapter.

2. Close on-off valve (F). Open gauge protector valve (D) one-half turn. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.

3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows:

a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (J) one-half turn.

b. Operate the pump until clear test fluid (free of air bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of adapter (J).

NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may start to increase before there is an indication of clear test fluid. To correct this condition, do Step c.

c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adapter (J).

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and normally needs very little force when turned on bottom part (2) of the adapter.

Pressure Loss Test

1. Open gauge protector valve (D) an extra amount of one-half turn (the total amount is now one turn open).


Tester Nomenclature
(B) 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 6900 kPa (0 to 1000 psi). (D) Gauge protector valve. (F) On-off valve. (G) Pump isolator valve.

2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to 2050 kPa (300 psi), and close pump isolator valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (D) to adjust pressure again to 2050 kPa (300 psi).

3. After 30 seconds, take a pressure reading from the gauge. The pressure at this time must not be below 690 kPa (100 psi) reading on the dial face.


Pressure Loss Range For Good Nozzle

4. If the pressure loss is not in the 1380 kPa (200 psi) range as shown, stop the test sequence. Do not use the fuel nozzle again.

5. If nozzle is in specification range, see Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test.

Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test

1. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.

2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slowly until test fluid comes from the nozzle tip.

------ WARNING! ------

When a fuel injection nozzle is to be tested, keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the FT1384 Extension and 8S2270 Collector. Test fluid from the orifices in the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------


Tester Nomenclature
(B) 5P4146 Gauge, 0 to 6900 kPa (0 to 1000 psi). (D) Gauge protector valve. (F) On-off valve. (G) Pump isolator valve.

3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time must be in the pressure range as follows:


Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Range For Good Nozzle

4. If the valve opening pressure (VOP) is not in the 2750 to 5200 kPa (400 to 750 psi) range as shown, do not use the fuel nozzle again.

Test Sequence For Direct Injection (DI) Fuel Nozzle

To test DI capsule-type fuel nozzles, use the sequence that follows:

Nozzle InstallationPressure Loss TestValve Opening Pressure (VOP) TestFlush the Nozzle.Tip Leakage TestOrifice Restriction Test


NOTICE

Do not use a drill or reamer on the orifice of a nozzle. Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the tip of the nozzle. The orifice and the valve can be damaged easily.


Nozzle Installation

1. Put one of the nozzles to be tested in the bottom part (2) of adapter (J). Install and tighten bottom part (2) to top part of adapter (J).

2. Close on-off valve (F) and gauge protector valve (D). Open gauge protector valve (E) one-half turn. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.


Tester Nomenclature
(C) 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). (E) Gauge protector valve. (F) On-off valve. (G) Pump isolator valve.

3. Bleed (remove) air from the tester as follows:

a. Loosen bottom part (2) of adapter (J) one-half turn.

b. Operate the pump until clear test fluid (free of air bubbles) leaks past the threads at top of adapter (J).


Air Removal From Tester
(2) Bottom part of adapter (J). (J) 5P8744 Adapter.

NOTE: With some 5P8744 Adapters, pressure may start to increase before there is an indication of clear test fluid. To correct this condition, do Step c.

c. Tighten bottom part (2) of adapter (J).

NOTE: The 5P8744 Adapter makes its own seal, and normally needs very little force when turned on bottom part (2) of the adapter. It is possible, however, that it will be necessary to use a 1P2853 Spanner Wrench and a 1 1/8" open end wrench to tighten the adapter to prevent excessive leakage from some DI fuel nozzles.

Pressure Loss Test

1. Open gauge protector valve (E) an extra amount of one-half turn (the total amount is now one turn open).


Tester Nomenclature
(C) 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). (E) Gauge protector valve. (F) On-off valve. (G) Pump isolator valve.

2. Operate pump to increase pressure slowly to 15 200 kPa (2200 psi), and close pump isolator valve (G). Now turn gauge protector valve (E) to adjust pressure again to 15 200 kPa (2200 psi).

NOTE: It is possible that the pressure loss could be so rapid that the 15 200 kPa (2200 psi) pressure can not be adjusted. If this should happen, the nozzle is still good. Go on to the Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test.

3. After 30 seconds, take a pressure reading from the gauge. The pressure reading at this time must be 13 800 kPa (2000 psi) or less.

4. If the pressure loss is not within the range shown as GOOD [0 to 13 800 kPa (0 to 2000 psi)], stop the test sequence. Do not use the fuel nozzle again.

5. If nozzle is in the specification range, see VALVE OPENING PRESSURE (VOP) TEST.


Pressure Loss Range For A Good Nozzle

Valve Opening Pressure (VOP) Test

1. Open pump isolator valve (G) one-half turn.


Tester Nomenclature
(C) 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). (E) Gauge protector valve. (F) On-off valve. (G) Pump isolator valve.

------ WARNING! ------

When a fuel injection nozzle is to be tested, keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the FT1384 Extension and 8S2270 Collector. Test fluid from the orifices in the tip of the nozzle is under high pressure and can cause injury to the operator.

--------WARNING!------

2. Operate the pump to increase the pressure slowly until test fluid comes from the nozzle tip.

3. The pressure reading on the gauge at this time must be in the pressure range that follows:


VOP Range For A Good Nozzle

4. If the valve opening pressure (VOP) is not in the 16 500 to 21 390 kPa (2400 to 3100 psi) range shown as GOOD, do not use the fuel nozzle again.

5. If the fuel nozzle is within specification range, see subject FLUSH THE NOZZLE.

Flush the Nozzle

1. Close gauge protector valve (D) and (E). Close on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

NOTE: Make sure the nozzle tip extends inside and below the top of FT1384 Extension.

2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes.


Tester Nomenclature
(C) 2P2324 Gauge, 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). (E) Gauge protector valve. (F) On-off valve. (G) Pump isolator valve.

Tip Leakage Test

1. Remove all fluid from the nozzle tip and adapter with a cloth. Put a clean cloth around the lower part of the adapter to catch any outside leakage that may run down to the tip.

2. Open gauge protector valve (E). Be sure the nozzle tip is completely dry.

3. Make and hold for 30 seconds a pressure of 3450 to 6900 kPa (500 to 1000 psi).

4. If nozzle is not within specification, do not use the nozzle again.

5. If fuel injection nozzle is within specification, see subject ORIFICE RESTRICTION TEST.

Orifice Restriction Test

1. Close gauge protector valves (D), (E) and on-off valve (F). Open pump isolator valve (G).

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Collector and FT1384 Extension.

3. Make a rapid increase in pressure and look at the orifice discharge (shape of discharge) when fluid begins to flow from the nozzle tip. The discharge must be the same through all six orifices. Any change, either vertically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad nozzle.


Good Nozzle (Use Again)

4. Use the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush from 8S2245 Cleaning Kit to remove any loose carbon from the nozzle tip.


Typical Discharge For Orifice With A Restriction (Replacement Necessary)


Typical Discharge With Horizontal Distortion (Replacement Necessary)


Typical Discharge With Vertical Distortion (Replacement Necessary)


NOTICE

Do not use a steel brush or wire wheel to clean the nozzle body or the nozzle tip. Use of these tools can cause a small reduction of orifice size, and this will cause a large reduction in engine horsepower.


Testing 7000 Series Fuel Injection Nozzles

5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group.
5P4244 Adapter.
8S2270 Fuel Collector.FT1384 Extension.8S2245 Cleaning Kit.
8S2258 Brass Wire Brush.6V4979 Carbon Seal Installation Tool.
1F1153 Needle Nose Pliers.6V4980 Torque Driver.*FT1743 Line Assembly.6V6068 Calibration Fluid 19 liters (5 U.S. gal.)or6V6067 Calibration Fluid 208 liters (55 U.S. gal.)

NOTE: FT1743 is a standard fuel line used between the through head adapter and the nozzle. Bend the line to position nozzle in a vertical position in the extension and collector.


*

NOTE: For more information on the 5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group see, Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7292.


5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group
(1) Nozzle assembly. (A) FT1743 Line Assembly. (B) 5P4244 Adapter. (C) 5P4721 Tube Assembly. (D) 2P2324 Gauge 0 to 34 500 kPa (0 to 5000 psi). (E) 5P4146 Gauge 0 to 6900 kPa (0 to 1000 psi). (F) Gauge protector valve for 2P2324 Gauge. (G) FT1384 Extension and 8S2270 Fuel Collector. (H) Gauge protector valve for 5P4146 Gauge. (J) Gauge protector valve (must be in the open position at all times).


NOTICE

Be sure to use clean SAE J967 Calibration Fluid when tests are made. Dirty test fluid will damage components of fuel injection nozzles. The temperature of the test fluid must be 18 to 24°C (65 to 75°F) for good test results.


Nozzle Preparation For Test

Remove washer (3) and carbon dam (2) from the nozzle. Before fuel injection nozzle (1) can be tested, all loose carbon around the tip of the nozzle must be removed with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M).


Removing Carbon Dam
(1) Fuel injection nozzle. (2) Carbon dam. (3) Washer.


NOTICE

Do not use a steel brush or a wire wheel to clean the nozzle body or the nozzle tip. Use of these tools can cause a small reduction of orifice size, and this will cause a large reduction in engine horsepower. Too much use of the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush will also remove the coating that is on the nozzle for protection.



8S2245 Cleaning Kit
(M) 9S2258 Brass Wire Brush. (N) 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool. (P) 8S2250 Nozzle Holding Tool.

Clean the groove for carbon seal dam (2) and the body of the nozzle below the groove with the 8S2258 Brass Wire Brush (M). Remove the carbon, but be sure not to use the brush enough to cause damage to the body of the nozzle.

NOTE: A change in color in the area below the groove is normal and does not effect the body of the nozzle.


8N7007 Fuel Injection Nozzle
(4) Bleed screw and seal.

Remove bleed screw and seal (4) from the nozzle.

NOTE: The bleed screw and seal must be removed for all tests except the Bleed Screw Leakage Test.

Test Sequence

NOTE: It is necessary to have an accurate record of the test results for each nozzle that is tested. Make a record of the result for each nozzle test procedure on Form No. SEHS8144, Nozzle Test Record. These test sheets are available in a pad of 50 sheets, order one Form SEHS8144.

The fuel injection nozzle cannot be disassembled for cleaning or adjustments. Do the tests that follow to determine if the nozzle performance is acceptable.

Valve Opening Pressure Test.Flush the Nozzle.Tip Leakage Test.Orifice Restriction Test.Bleedscrew Leakage Test.

------ WARNING! ------

When fuel injection nozzles are tested, be sure to wear eye protection. Test fluid comes from the orifices in the nozzle tip with high pressure. The test fluid can pierce (go through) the skin and cause serious injury to the operator. Keep the tip of the nozzle pointed away from the operator and into the 8S2270 Collector and FT1384 Extension.

--------WARNING!------

Valve Opening Pressure Test (VOP)

1. Install 5P4721 Tube Assembly (C), 5P4244 Adapter (B) and FT1743 Line Assembly (A) on the tester.

2. Install the fuel injection nozzle on line assembly (A). Be sure the nozzle is inside FT1384 Extension (G) and 9S2270 Fuel Collector.


Nozzle Ready For Test
(F) Gauge protector valve. (K) Pump isolator valve. (L) On-off valve.


NOTICE

Put a shop towel around the upper part of the nozzle to take in any fuel leakage.


3. Close on-off valve (L). Open pump isolator valve (K).

4. Open gauge protector valve (F). Operate the pump to make a slow increase in pressure until the valve in the fuel injection nozzle just starts to open. Read the maximum gauge pressure at the instant fluid flows from the tip.

NOTE: It is possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to go down fast if the valve makes a noise (chatters) when it opens. It is also possible for the pressure reading of the gauge to be almost constant when the valve in the fuel injection nozzle opens.

NOTE: The valve in the fuel injection nozzle can be good and still not make noise (chatter), or not have a very fine vapor (spray) from the orifices in the tip of the fuel injection nozzle during Step 4.

If the opening pressure is not within specifications, do not use the fuel injection nozzle again.

Flush The Nozzle

1. Close gauge protector valve (F). Close on-off valve (L). Open pump isolator valve (K).

NOTE: Make sure nozzle extends inside and below the top of FT1384 Extension (G).

2. Operate the pump rapidly for three full strokes.

Tip Leakage Test

1. Remove all fuel from the nozzle tip and body with a clean cloth.

2. Put a clean cloth around the body of the nozzle to take in any leakage from the bleed screw hole and prevent any fuel leakage to drain down to the tip of the nozzle.


Nozzle Ready For Test
(F) Gauge protector valve. (K) Pump isolator valve. (L) On-off valve.

3. Open gauge protector valve (F). Close on-off valve (L). Open pump isolator valve (K).

4. Make and hold for 15 seconds a pressure of 1380 kPa (200 psi) less than the opening pressure measured in VOP Test and make a note of the number of drops that fall.

5. If the nozzle is not within specifications. DO NOT USE THE NOZZLE.

Orifice Restriction Test

1. Close gauge protector valve (F) and on-off valve (L). Open pump isolator valve (K).

2. Point the tip of the fuel injection nozzle into the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension (G).

3. Make a rapid increase in pressure and look at the orifice discharge (shape of discharge).

The discharge must be the same through all six orifices. Any change either vertically or horizontally, is an indication of a bad nozzle.


Good Nozzle (Use Again)


Typical Discharge For Orifice With A Restriction (Replacement Necessary)


Typical Discharge With Horizontal Distortion (Replacement Necessary)


Typical Discharge With Vertical Distortion (Replacement Necessary)

Bleed Screw Leakage Test

1. Install the seal (washer) and bleed screw (4) in the fuel injection nozzle. Tighten the bleed screw to a torque of 2.2 ± 0.8 N·m (20 ± 7 lb.in.) with the 6V4980 Torque Screwdriver.


NOTICE

Do not tighten the bleed screw more than the torque shown. The bleed screw or seal can be damaged.


2. Put the tip of the fuel injection nozzle down inside the 8S2270 Fuel Collector and FT1384 Extension (G).

3. Close on-off valve (L). Open gauge protector valve (F) and pump isolator valve (K).

4. Pump the tester until fuel injection nozzle is full of fluid and the pressure on the gauge is 20 700 kPa (3000 psi).

NOTE: 15 or 20 strokes of the pump can be necessary for the pressure to get to 20 700 kPa (3000 psi).

5. If there is leakage, replace the sealing washer. Inspect the washer face of the bleed screw for damage, install a new screw if necessary. Test the nozzle again. If there is still leakage, the fuel injection nozzle must be replaced.


Installing Carbon Dam
(2) Carbon dam. (3) Washer. (N) 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool.

6. If no fuel leakage is found, the fuel injection nozzle is acceptable. Put a new washer (3) on the nozzle. Install a new carbon dam (2) in nozzle groove with 6V4979 Carbon Seal Tool (N).

NOTE: Make sure the correct washer (3) is used when the nozzle assembly is installed.

Fuel Injection Service

Capsule-Type Nozzles

5P144 Socket5P5195 Fuel Line Wrench5P6229 Extractor

If a fuel injection nozzle has been removed from the adapter or precombustion chamber, test the nozzle before it is again installed in the adapter. See Testing Capsule-Type Fuel Injection Nozzles.

Make sure the contact surfaces of the nozzle and adapter or precombustion chamber are clean and smooth before installation of the nozzle. On earlier engines, tighten the nut that holds the nozzle in position to 75 ± 7 N·m (55 ± 5 lb.ft.).


NOTICE

The nut that holds the nozzle in position must have the correct torque. There will be damage to the nozzle if the nut is too tight. If the nut is not tight enough, the nozzle can leak.



Inner Fuel Injection Line
(1) Inner fuel injection line. (2) Adapter.

On later engines the nozzles are held in position by two clamps. Tighten the four clamp bolts as follows:

a. Tighten the bolts for the first clamp to a torque of 31 ± 7 N·m (23 ± 5 lb.ft.)

b. Tighten the bolts for the other clamp to a torque of 31 ± 7 N·m (23 ± 5 lb.ft.).

c. Again tighten the bolts for the first clamp to a torque of 31 ± 7 N·m (23 ± 5 lb.ft.).

Install the inner fuel injection line (1) to the valve cover base adapter (2) and to the nozzle. Tighten nuts of both ends to 40 ± 7 N·m (30 ± 5 lb.ft.). Use the 5P144 Socket to tighten the fuel line nut at the nozzle. Use 5P5195 Fuel Line Wrench to tighten fuel line nut at the adapter.

Removal of Injection Pump

6V6019 Timing Pin8T5287 Wrench8S2244 Extractor


Remove Plug
(1) Plug.

1. Remove plug (1) from the fuel injection pump housing.

2. Install 6V6019 Timing Pin (2) with the flat end down in the hole that the plug was removed from.


Put Rack At Zero Position
(2) 6V6019 Timing Pin.

3. Turn the governor control shaft toward HIGH IDLE and push down on timing pin (2) until it engages in the slot (groove) in the rack. The rack is now centered (at zero position). The fuel injection pumps can now be removed.

4. Disconnect the fuel lines from the injection pumps.

5. Use the 8T5287 Wrench to loosen the bushing that holds the fuel injection pump in the housing.

6. Install 8S2244 Extractor (6) on the threads of the injection pump. Pull the pump straight out of the bore.

When injection pumps and spacers are removed from the injection pump housing, keep the parts for each pump together so they can be installed back in their original location. Make reference to subject, Checking The Plunger And Lifter Washer On The Injection Pump.

Be careful when injection pumps are disassembled. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when the plunger is put in the bore of the barrel.

Installation of Injection Pump

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group. or6V9128 Rack Position Tool Group.6V6019 Timing Pin.8T5287 Wrench.8S2244 Extractor.


NOTICE

The fuel rack MUST BE IN THE CENTER POSITION before the correct installation of an injection pump is possible.


The procedure to center the fuel rack is shown in the subject, Removal Of Injection Pump.

To install a fuel injection pump back into the housing bore, use the procedure that follows:

1. Put 8S2244 Extractor (6) on threads of injection pump.

2. Put groove of barrel (5) in alignment with slot of gear segment (3) (slot is on opposite side of gear segment teeth).


Fuel Pump Installation
(3) Gear segment. (4) Bushing. (5) Barrel. (6) 8S2244 Extractor.

3. Look inside the bore of the injection pump housing to find the dowel. Put groove of the barrel in alignment with the dowel and put the injection pump straight down into the bore.

4. Push down on extractor (6) (hand force only) and install bushing (4) that holds the injection pump in the pump housing. If the pump is in the correct position, the bushing will turn into the threads of the injection pump housing with the fingers until it is even with the top of the housing (except for the pump that is in the position to fire). When bushing is installed correctly, tighten the bushing to 205 ± 14 N·m (150 ± 10 lb.ft.).


NOTICE

Damage to the housing will be the result if the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will have leakage.


5. Remove the 6V6019 Timing Pin from injection pump housing and install the plug back in the hole.

6. Move the governor control back to shut-off position. Check to be sure governor control moves freely between fuel-on and shut-off position.

Check for the correct installation of injection pump with the engine stopped. Rack travel from the center position in the fuel-on direction can be checked with governor installed, but the governor and governor piston must be removed to check for full rack travel. Use 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group and the chart that follows to check rack travel. Make reference to FUEL RACK SETTING for installation of 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group.

With the governor piston and valve removed, the total amount of fuel rack travel (from shut-off position to full load position) is approximately 20.32 mm (.800 in.). If the pump is installed wrong (center tooth of gear segment is not in correct notch of fuel rack) fuel rack travel will be less than 20.32 mm (.800 in.). The injection pump will have to be removed and then installed correctly.

------ WARNING! ------

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, it is possible for the engine to run out of control when started. When any of the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed with the fuel injection pump housing on the engine, take the precautions (steps) that follow to stop the engine if it starts to overspeed (run out of control).

--------WARNING!------

a. Remove the air cleaner so that turbocharger air inlet (7) is open as shown.


Turbocharger With Open Air Inlet
(7) Air inlet.

b. If a pump has been installed wrong and the engine does not run in a normal way, put a steel plate over the air inlet opening as shown to stop the engine.


Stopping The Engine (Typical Example)

Checking The Plunger And Lifter Washer On An Injection Pump

Check timing dimension for the fuel injection pumps. Make an adjustment if necessary, with the pump housing off the engine. When an adjustment to the timing dimension is done correctly, fuel injection in the cylinder will be at the correct time. If the timing dimension is too small, fuel injection will be early. If the timing dimension is too large, fuel injection will be late.

An injection pump can have a good fuel flow coming from it but not be a good pump because of slow timing that is caused by wear on the bottom end of the plunger. When making a test on a pump that has been used for a long time, use a micrometer and measure the length of the plunger. If the length of the plunger is shorter than the minimum length (worn) dimension given in the chart, install a new pump.

Look for wear at the top part of the plunger. Check the operation of the plunger according to the instructions for the Fuel Injection Test Bench.


Wear Between Lifter Washer And Plunger
Fig. A shows the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger and a new lifter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger and lifter washer have worn a large amount. Fig. C shows how the flat end of a new plunger makes bad contact with a worn lifter washer, causing rapid wear to both parts.

When there is too much wear on the pump plunger, the lifter washer may also be worn and there will not be good contact between the two parts. To stop fast wear on the end of a new plunger, install new lifters in the place of lifters that have washers with wear.

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.

Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and the 2P5494 Crowfoot Wrench to tighten the fuel line nuts to 40 ± 7 N·m (30 ± 5 lb. ft.).

Fuel Bypass Valve

The fuel bypass valve controls fuel pressure to the fuel injection pump at full speed to a pressure of 230 ± 35 kPa (33 ± 5 psi).

Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

9S9082 Engine Turning Tool.

NOTE: No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke is the starting point for all timing procedures.


Location For 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool

1. Remove the cover and bolts from the right or left front of the flywheel housing.

2. Install the 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool in the housing.


Locating Top Center (Left Side Of Engine)
(1) Timing bolt. (2) Timing bolt location. (3) Storage location.

3. The timing bolt (1) is kept in storage at location (3) and can be installed on either the left side of the engine at location (2) or the right side of the engine at location (4).


Locating Top Center (Right Side Of Engine)
(4) Timing bolt location.

4. Hold timing bolt (1) against the flywheel through the hole at location (2) or (4).

5. Use a 1/2" drive ratchet and 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool to turn the flywheel counterclockwise (as seen from the rear of the engine). Stop when the timing bolt goes into a threaded hole in the flywheel. If the timing bolt can be turned freely in the threaded hole in the flywheel, the No. 1 piston of the engine is on top center.

NOTE: If the hole in the flywheel is turned beyond the hole in the flywheel housing, turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a minimum of 30°. Do Step 5 again. This will prevent timing error caused by play in the timing gears.


Cylinder And Valve Location

6. Remove the left front valve cover. Look at the valves of No. 1 cylinder. The valves will be closed if No. 1 piston is on the compression stroke. You should be able to move the rocker arms up and down with your hand. If No. 1 piston is not on the compression stroke, do the steps that follow.

7. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel.

8. Turn the flywheel 360° counterclockwise and install the timing bolt.

NOTE: If the hole in the flywheel is turned beyond the hole in the flywheel housing, turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a minimum of 30°. Do Step 5 again. This will prevent timing error caused by play in the timing gears.

Checking Engine Timing And Automatic Timing Advance Unit With 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group And 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group

8T5300 Timing Indicator Group.8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group.


8T5300 Timing Indicator Group
(1) 8T5250 Engine Timing Indicator. (2) 5P7366 Cable Assembly. (3) 6V2197 Magnetic Transducer. (4) 5P7362 Cable. (5) 6V2199 & 6V3093 Transducer Adapters. (6) 8K4644 Fuse.

The 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group with an 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group, can be used to measure fuel injection timing for the engine.


8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group
(7) 5P7437 Adapter. (8) 6V2198 Cable. (9) 5P7436 Adapter. (10) 6V7910 Transducer. (11) 5P7435 Adapter. (12) 6V3016 Washer.

When checking the dynamic timing on an engine that has a mechanical advance, Caterpillar recommends that the serviceman calculate and plot the dynamic timing specifications first on a worksheet like Form No. SEHS8140. These worksheets are available in pads of 50 sheets, order one Form No. SEHS8140. See Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8580 for information required to calculate the timing curve. For the correct timing specifications to use, see the Engine Information Plate for the performance specification (OT) number and make reference to the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

NOTE: For more information on acceptable tolerances for dynamic fuel injection timing, see Service Magazines dated 4-1-85 and 10-28-85.

After the timing values are calculated and plotted, the dynamic timing should be checked with the 8T5300 Engine Timing Indicator Group. To do this, the serviceman must operate the engine from 1000 rpm (base rpm) to high idle and from high idle to 1000 rpm (base rpm). Unstable readings are often obtained below 1000 rpm. He must record the dynamic timing at each 100 rpm and at the specified speeds during both acceleration and deceleration. Then he should plot the results on the worksheet.

Inspection of the plotted values will show if the fuel injection timing is within specification and if it is advancing correctly.

1. Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8580 for complete instructions and calibration of the 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group.

------ WARNING! ------

The engine must be stopped before the timing indicator group is installed. A high pressure fuel line must be disconnected and a probe must be installed in the flywheel housing.

--------WARNING!------


Transducer In Position
(10) Injection transducer. (13) Fuel injection line for No. 1 cylinder.

2. Disconnect fuel injection line (13) for No. 1 cylinder. Slide the nut up and out of the way. Put 5P7436 Adapter (9) in its place and turn the adapter onto the fuel pump bonnet until the top of the bonnet threads are approximately even with the bottom of the "window" in 5P7436 Adapter (9).

3. Put 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11) on injection transducer (10) and put the end of 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11) in the "window" of 5P7436 Adapter (9).

4. Move the end of fuel line (13) down on top of 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11). Hold fuel line (13) in place with 5P7437 Adapter (7) and tighten to a torque of no more than 40 N·m (30 lb. ft.).

5. Remove plug (14) from timing hole in flywheel housing. Install transducer adapter (5) into the timing hole and tighten just a small amount more than finger tight.


Timing Hole Location (Typical Example)
(14) Plug.

6. Push magnetic transducer (3) into adapter (5) until it makes contact with the flywheel. Pull it back out 1.5 mm (.06 in.) and finger tighten the knurled locknut.


Transducer In Position
(3) Magnetic transducer.

7. Connect the cables from the transducer to engine timing indicator (1). Calibrate and make adjustments. For calibration procedure, refer to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8580.

8. Start the engine and let it reach operating temperature. Then run the engine at approximately one-half throttle for eight to ten minutes before measuring timing.

9. Run the engine at the speeds required to check low idle, timing advance and high idle. Record the engine timing indicator readings. If the engine timing is not correct, make reference to Fuel System Adjustments: On Engine, Fuel Injection Pump Timing (Timing Pin Method) for static adjustment of the fuel injection pump drive.

10. If the timing advance is still not correct, or if the operation of the advance is not smooth, make a repair or replacement of the automatic advance unit. There is no adjustment to the unit.

Fuel System Adjustments: On Engine

Camshaft Timing For The Fuel Injection Pump

6V6019 Timing Pin.

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on compression stroke. Make reference to FINDING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO. 1 PISTON.


Timing Pin Installed
(A) 6V6019 Timing Pin.

2. Remove the plug at the front end of the fuel injection pump housing. A 1P3566 9/16" Hex Bit cut to a length of 25 mm (1.0 in.) can be used.

NOTE: On earlier engines, remove the cover or the fuel ratio control (if so equipped).


Timing Pin Installed (Earlier Engine)

3. Install 6V6019 Timing Pin (A) [end with taper] through the hole in the injection pump housing.

4. If timing is correct, the timing pin will go into the notch in the camshaft and the timing bolt will turn into the threaded hole in the flywheel. If timing is NOT correct, the timing must be changed.

NOTE: If timing is correct, BE SURE TO REMOVE TIMING PIN AND TIMING BOLT.


Access Cover To Automatic Timing Advance Unit
(1) Cover.

If timing was NOT correct, remove timing pin and use the procedure that follows to change the timing.

a. Remove access cover (1) to the four bolts of the automatic timing advance unit.

b. BE SURE the timing pin is removed before you loosen the bolts. Loosen the four bolts (2) which hold automatic timing advance unit (3) on the fuel pump camshaft.


Automatic Timing Advance Unit
2. Bolts. 3. Automatic timing advance unit. 4. Retainer.

c. Tighten the bolts (2) with fingers until there is a small amount of friction (slight drag) between the retainer (4) and the timing advance unit (3). This friction will hold the unit against the timing gears. This prevents play (backlash) when gears are turned to the correct position.

d. Remove the timing bolt. Turn the flywheel until the timing pin will go into the groove in the injection pump camshaft.

e. With the timing pin installed, turn the flywheel clockwise (opposite the direction of engine rotation) a minimum of 30 degrees. The reason for this step is to be sure the play is removed from the timing gears when the engine is put on top center (TC).

f. Turn the flywheel in the direction of engine rotation until the No. 1 piston of the engine is on top center compression stroke. Then turn the timing bolt into the threaded hole in the flywheel.

g. Tighten bolts (2) to 25 N·m (20 lb. ft.). Then remove the timing pin from the injection pump housing.

h. Tighten bolts (2) to 135 ± 7 N·m (100 ± 5 lb. ft.). Then remove the timing bolt from the flywheel.

5. Turn the crankshaft two complete revolutions and check the timing again to see that timing pin will go into notch in camshaft with bolt in flywheel.

6. If timing is not correct, do the procedure of Steps b through h again.

NOTE: If timing is correct, BE SURE TO REMOVE TIMING PIN AND TIMING BOLT.

Flow Checking Method Fuel Injection Pump Timing

NOTE: This procedure cannot be used on later engines with 7000 Series Fuel Injection Nozzles.

1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group.6V2023 Adapter Group.8T5246 Engine Timing Indicator Group.
8T5340 Adapter.6V3075 Dial Indicator.5P4814 Collet.5P2393 Contact Point, 38.1 mm (1.50 in.) long.5P7261 Contact Point, 31.8 mm (1.25 in.) long.3S3264 Rod, 180.9 mm (7.12 in.) long.
6V6019 Timing Pin.


Measuring Piston Travel
(1) 5P4814 Collet. (2) 6V3075 or 9S215 Dial Indicator and Contact Point. (3) 8T5340 Adapter. (4) Injection nozzle adapter. (5) 3S3264 Rod. (6) Inlet port. (7) Piston.

See Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7083 for complete instructions for the fuel flow method of engine timing (injection sequence).

The timing dimension should be checked and changed if necessary, to correct any movement in the relation of the fuel injection pump camshaft to the automatic timing advance unit (drive gear) or to correct for worn timing gears.

To find the travel (movement) of piston (7), from the point that injection pump inlet port (6) closes (point fuel injection begins) to top center compression position, use the procedure that follows:

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston.


Timing Pin Installed
(A) 6V6019 Timing Pin.

2. Remove the plug at the front end of the fuel injection pump housing. On earlier engines, the fuel ratio control (if so equipped) must be removed.

3. Install 6V6019 Timing Pin (A) [end with taper] through the hole in the injection pump housing. The timing pin must fit into the notch in the fuel pump camshaft.

NOTE: If No. 1 piston is at top center of compression stroke, and 6V6019 Timing Pin (A) does not fit in the notch in the fuel pump camshaft, make reference to Fuel System Adjustments: On Engine, Camshaft Timing For The Fuel Injection Pump.

4. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel and the timing pin from the fuel injection pump housing.

5. Remove the fuel nozzle from the injection nozzle adapter for No. 1 cylinder.

6. Put a small amount of clean oil on 3S3264 Rod (5) and put the rod into adapter (3).

7. Put 8T5340 Adapter (3) in injection nozzle adapter (4) and tighten the adapter finger tight.


NOTICE

Do not use a wrench to tighten the adapter. There will be damage to the nozzle seat if the adapter is too tight.



Installing Adapter (Typical Example)
(3) 8T5340 Adapter. (5) 3S3264 Rod, 180.9 mm (7.12 in.) long.

8. Put the 5P7261 Contact Point and 5P4814 Collet (1) on 6V3075 Dial Indicator (2).

9. Put the assembled indicator into adapter (3). Position the dial indicator (up or down) until the pointers indicate zero and tighten collet (1).


NOTICE

Do not tighten collet too much or damage to the dial indicator can result.



Dial Indicator Installed
(1) 3P1565 Collet. (2) 6V3075 or 9S215 Dial Indicator.

10. Turn the crankshaft a minimum of 30° in the opposite direction of normal rotation.

11. Turn the crankshaft in the direction of normal rotation until the dial indicator gives an indication of maximum piston travel. Loosen collet (1) and adjust the dial indicator until it reads + 7.62 mm (+ .300 in.) (black numbers) and tighten collet (1). Zero the outer bezel of the dial indicator.

12. Make sure the No. 1 piston is at the Top Center Position as follows:

a. Slowly rotate the crankshaft in the same direction (normal rotation) until the dial indicator moves past + 7.1 mm (+ .280 in.). Now rotate the crankshaft in the opposite direction, moving the piston up, to + 7.1 mm (+ .280 in.). Temporarily mark an accessible rotating member (flywheel, vibration damper, or crankshaft pulley) in relation to a stationary pointer or mark.


NOTICE

Do not use a hammer or punch to mark the vibration damper (or any other marking method that could cause damage to the vibration damper).


b. Continue to rotate the crankshaft in the direction that is opposite of normal rotation, past the maximum reading and past + 7.1 mm (+ .280 in.). Now rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation, moving the piston up to + 7.1 mm (+ .280 in.). Make a second temporary mark on the desired rotating member.

c. Top Center Position is the middle point between the two temporary marks found in Steps a and b above. Turn the crankshaft to this middle point and make a mark to indicate Top Center Position.

13. Disconnect the fuel line and install 6V2023 Adapter Group on No. 1 injection pump with the procedure that follows:

NOTE: Pin (14) is for use only on direct injection engines that have reverse flow check valves. Do not use pin (14) when flow checking an engine that does not have reverse flow check valves.

a. Loosen adapter (12) and turn fitting (8) so that pin (14) is extended to a maximum of 5 mm (.2 in.) from the end of adapter (12).

b. Remove tube (13). Put the adapter group in position on No. 1 injection pump. Tighten nut (11) to 40 N·m (30 lb. ft.) maximum.


6V2023 Adapter Group
(8) Fitting. (9) Nut. (10) Washer. (11) Nut. (12) Adapter. (13) Tube. (14) Pin.


NOTICE

The 6V2018 Pin must not extend more than 5 mm (.2 in.) from the end of the 6V2020 Adapter. If the pin is extended too far before installation of the adapter group on to the pump, the reverse flow check valve will be pushed into contact with, and be broken by the pump plunger. The broken parts will then cause the plunger to seize.


c. Turn fitting (8) down until pin (14) makes contact with the reverse flow check valve.

d. Turn the fitting an additional 1/4 turn.

e. Push washer (10) against adapter (12). Tighten nut (9) finger tight. Install tube (13) on the adapter group.


1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group
(15) 5J4634 Hose Assembly. (16) Tank assembly.

14. Disconnect the fuel line at the fuel filter. Use an adapter to connect 5J4634 Hose Assembly (15) to the fuel line. Disconnect the fuel return line from the outlet elbow on the fuel manifold across the injection pump housing. Install a plug in the outlet elbow.

15. Turn the crankshaft approximately 45° in a clockwise direction (when seen from the flywheel end of the engine).

16. Put 4 liters (1 U.S. gal.) of clean fuel in the tank assembly (16). Move the governor lever to full "fuel-on" position. Put 105 kPa (15 psi) of air pressure in the tank by using the hand pump or shop air.


NOTICE

If shop air is used, be sure to make an adjustment to the regulator so there is only 105 kPa (15 psi) air pressure in the tank.


17. Hold a pan under the free end of tube (13) for the fuel that comes out.

18. Turn the crankshaft slowly in direction of normal rotation. Do this until the flow of fuel coming from the end of tube (13) is 6 to 12 drops per minute [point of closing inlet port (6)].

19. Stop rotation of the crankshaft when the flow of fuel is 6 to 12 drops per minute. Take a reading of the measurement on the dial indicator.

20. Subtract 7.62 mm (.300 in.) from the dial indicator reading. To check for correct timing of the fuel system, make a comparison of the measurement with the measurements in the Flow Timing Conversion Chart that follows:

21. If the injection pump timing is wrong, several cylinders can be checked. If they show different readings, remove the injection pump housing to check all lifter settings and plunger lengths, and to adjust as needed. See Setting The Injection Pump Timing Dimension: Off Engine, and Checking The Plunger And Lifter Washer Of An Injection Pump.

NOTE: On all cylinders, top center (TC) of each piston will have to be found by use of the dial indicator.

NOTE: The fuel system has a tolerance of ± 1°.

------ WARNING! ------

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been damaged (or seized in its bore) by incorrect adjustment of the 6V2023 Adapter Group, it is possible for the engine to run out of control when started. After flow checking the engine timing, take the precautions (steps) that follow to stop the engine if it starts to overspeed to prevent engine damage or injury to personnel caused by an engine running out of control.

--------WARNING!------

a. Disconnect the air cleaner from the turbocharger and leave air inlet open as shown.


Turbocharger With Open Air Inlet

b. If a pump plunger has seized in its bore and the engine does not run in a normal way, put a steel plate over the air inlet opening as shown to stop the engine.


Stopping The Engine (Typical Example)

Measuring Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension

6V7926 Indicator Group.
8S3158 Indicator.3P1565 Collet.5P4156 Base.5P4163 Contact Point, 120.7 mm (4.75 in.) long.5P4158 Gauge, 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) long.
6V6019 Timing Pin.8T5287 Wrench.8S2244 Extractor.

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston.

2. Remove the plug at the front end of the fuel injection pump housing. On earlier engines, remove the cover or fuel ratio control (if so equipped) from the top of the injection pump housing, in front of the governor.

3. Install 6V6019 Timing Pin (A) [end with taper] through the hole in the injection pump housing. The timing pin must fit into the notch in the fuel pump camshaft.


Timing Pin Installed
(A) 6V6019 Timing Pin.

NOTE: If No. 1 piston is at top center of compression stroke, and the 6V6019 Timing Pin does not fit in the notch in the pump camshaft, make reference to CAMSHAFT TIMING FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMP.

4. Before any fuel injection pump can be removed, the fuel racks must be put in the center position. Make reference to REMOVAL OF INJECTION PUMP.

5. Remove No. 1 fuel injection pump with 8T5287 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor. Put 5P4158 Gauge (4) into the bore in the fuel pump housing.

6. Put 3P1565 Collet (2) and 5P4156 Base (3) on 8S3158 Indicator (1). Put 5P4163 Contact Point (5) on the indicator.

7. To adjust (calibrate) the dial indicator for the lifter measurements, use the procedure that follows:

a. Put the 5P4157 Gauge [101.6 mm (4.00 in.)] on the 5P4159 Gauge Stand.

b. With contact point in gauge hole, put the dial indicator and base on top of 5P4157 Gauge.

c. Loosen the screw that locks the dial face. Move the dial face until large pointer is on zero and tighten the screw.

d. Make a record of the position of the small pointer. The dial indicator is now adjusted (calibrated).

NOTE: When measurement of the pump timing dimension is made, find the difference between the adjustment reading and the present reading on the dial face. A dimension of 101.6 mm (4.00 in.) must be added to the difference in indicator readings for the correct measurement.


Checking Timing Dimension (Typical Illustration)
(1) Dial indicator. (3) Base. (4) Gauge.

8. Install the indicator assembly through 5P4158 Gauge (4).

9. The correct timing dimension using dial indicator (1) is shown in the chart that follows:

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart, and the camshaft timing for the fuel injection pump is correct, remove the injection pump housing to check all lifter settings and plunger lengths, and to adjust as needed. Make reference to Fuel System Adjustments: Off Engine, and Checking The Plunger And Lifter Washer Of An Injection Pump.


Checking Timing Dimension
(1) 8S3158 Dial Indicator. (2) 3P1565 Collet. (3) 5P4156 Base. (4) 5P4158 Gauge - 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) long. (5) 5P4163 Contact Point, 120.7 mm (4.75 mm) long.

10. If the timing dimension is correct, install the No. 1 fuel injection pump into the bore in the pump housing. Make reference to Installation Of Injection Pump.

Fuel Rack Setting

6V9128 Rack Position Tool Group.
8T500 Circuit Tester.6V3075 Dial Indicator.9S8883 Contact Point, 12.7 mm (.50 in.) long.3P1565 Collet.
6V6019 Timing pin.5P7335 Rack Adjusting Tool.

1. Remove the plug from the right side near the rear of the injection pump housing. Install the 6V6019 Timing Pin with the round end down (end with taper will be up).

2. Disconnect the governor control linkage to let the governor control shaft move freely through its full travel.


Earlier Governor And Injection Pump Housing
(1) Brass terminal. (2) Shutoff solenoid. (3) Plug. (4) Governor cover.

3. Remove plug (3) from behind the injection pump housing.

4. Install 6V3075 Dial Indicator (7) with 9S8883 Contact Point and 3P1565 Collet Clamp (5) in place of plug (3). On earlier fuel injection pumps when there is a shutoff solenoid, installation and reading of the dial indicator will be easier if the shutoff solenoid is removed.


Tools To Put The Rack At Zero Position
(5) 3P1565 Collet Clamp. (6) 5P9697 Timing Pin. (7) 9S215 Dial Indicator (with 9S8883 Contact Point).

5. Turn the governor control shaft to the FUEL-ON position until the rack stops against timing pin (6). The rack is centered (at zero position). Hold the governor control shaft in this position, adjust indicator (7) to "0" (zero), then tighten the nut of collet clamp (5) to hold indicator at the zero position.

6. Remove timing pin (6).

7. Move the governor control shaft to the SHUT-OFF position.

8. Connect the clip end of the 8T500 Circuit Tester to brass terminal (1) on the governor housing. Put the other end of the tester to a good ground.

9. Turn the governor control shaft in the FUEL-ON direction until the light in the tester shows a maximum light output. Now move the governor lever toward the SHUT-OFF position until the test light goes out. Now slowly, turn the governor lever toward FUEL-ON until the test light has a minimum light output. In this position, rack stop collar (11) just starts to make a contact with the torque spring or stop bar.

10. Read the fuel rack setting dimension directly from the dial indicator. See the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche, or look at the Engine Information Plate installed on the engine, to find the correct measurement for rack setting.

11. If adjustment of the fuel rack setting is needed, remove the fuel ratio control (if so equipped) or cover from top of governor. Use tool (8) to loosen locknut (10) and turn the adjustment screw (9) as needed.

NOTE: To decrease the fuel rack setting, turn the adjustment screw clockwise.

12. Tighten locknut (10). Check the rack setting according to Steps 9 and 10.

13. When the fuel rack setting is correct, use tool (8) to hold screw (9) and tighten locknut (10) to 12 ± 4 N·m (9 ± 3 lb.ft.).

14. Install the fuel control on the governor. Connect the governor control linkage. Make reference to Fuel Ratio Control Adjustment.


Adjustment To The Rack Setting (Typical Example)
(8) 5P7335 Rack Adjusting Tool. (9) Adjustment screw. (10) Locknut. (11) Stop collar.

Fuel System Adjustments: Off Engine

Setting Fuel Injection Pump Dimension

6V4180 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group.
6V6019 Timing Pin.5P1768 Pointer.5P3601 Lifter Setting Adapter.1P7410 Plate.2S6160 Washer.S1617 Bolt, 5/16-18 NC, 19.1 mm (.75 in.) long.
2A762 Bolt, 1/4-20 NC, 15.7 mm (.62 in.) long.6V7926 Indicator Group.
8S3158 Indicator.3P1565 Collet.5P4156 Base.5P4163 Contact Point, 120.7 mm (4.75 in.) long.5P4158 Gauge, 50.8 mm (2.00 in.) long.
8T5287 Wrench.8S2244 Extractor.

The off engine setting makes an adjustment for wear of components in the injection pump housing. Adjustment of the fuel camshaft timing gives compensation for wear in the timing gears and on the camshaft of the injection pumps.

1. Use the 8T5287 Wrench and 8S2244 Extractor to remove the injection pumps.


6V4180 Off Engine Lifter Setting Tool Group
(1) 1P7410 Timing Plate. (2) 5P1768 Pointer Assembly. (3) 5P3601 Adapter. (4) 6V6019 Timing Pin. (5) 2S6160 Washer. (6) S1617 Bolt.

2. Fasten 5P1768 Pointer Assembly (2) to the pump housing with 2A762 Bolt (7).

3. Install 5P3601 Adapter (3) on the drive end of the injection pump camshaft.

4. Install 6V6019 Timing Pin (4) (end with taper) through the timing hole in the pump housing and into the notch in the camshaft.

5. Put 1P7410 Timing Plate (1) on 5P3601 Adapter (3) and install 2S6160 Washer (5) and S1617 Bolt (6). Do not tighten bolt.


Installation Of The 5P1768 Pointer
(2) 5P1768 Pointer. (3) 5P3601 Adapter. (7) 2A762 Bolt.

6. Turn 1P7410 Timing Plate (1) until the starting point degree mark on the 1P7410 Timing Plate (1) is in alignment with the pointer:

Starting point degree mark DI engines ... 14°

Starting point degree mark PC engines ... 5.5°

7. Tighten bolt (6) to a maximum of 25 N·m (20 lb. ft.).

NOTE: Be sure 1P7410 Timing Plate does not move from the starting point degree mark while the bolt is tightened.

8. Remove timing pin (4).

9. Make reference to the lifter setting chart for the timing plate degrees for the lifter being checked. To use the timing plate, turn it counterclockwise until the degree setting for the lifter being checked is in alignment with the pointer.

10. To adjust (calibrate) the dial indicator for the lifter measurements, use the procedure that follows:

a. Put the 5P4157 Gauge [101.6 mm (4.00 in.)] on the 5P4159 Gauge Stand.

b. With contact point in gauge hole, put the dial indicator and base on top of 5P4157 Gauge.

c. Loosen the screw that locks the dial face. Move the dial face until the large pointer is on zero and tighten the screw.

d. Make a record of the position of the small pointer. The dial indicator is now adjusted (calibrated).


Measuring Timing Dimension
(8) 8S3158 Indicator. (9) 3P1565 Collet. (10) 5P4156 Base. (11) 5P4158 Gauge - 50.8 mm (2.00 in.). (12) Spacer. (13) Timing dimension. (14) 5P4163 Contact Point - 120.7 mm (4.75 in.) long.

NOTE: When measurement of the pump timing dimension is made, find the difference between the adjustment reading and the present reading on the dial face. A dimension of 101.6 mm (4.00 in.) must be added to the difference in indicator readings for the correct measurement.

11. The off engine timing dimension for adjustment of the lifter, is shown in Lifter Setting Chart.

12. The spacer (12) of each injection pump must be changed to change the timing dimension of that injection pump. Make reference to the spacer chart for spacer thickness.

13. Make another check of all timing dimensions after all adjustments have been made.

14. Make reference to INSTALLATION OF INJECTION PUMP to install pumps in housing and to check for full travel of fuel racks.

15. After the fuel injection pump housing is again installed on the engine, make reference to CAMSHAFT TIMING FOR THE FUEL INJECTION PUMP.

Engine Speed Measurement

6V3121 Multitach Group or6V4950 Injection Line Speed Pickup Group.

The 6V3121 Multitach Group can measure engine speed from a tachometer drive on the engine. It also has the ability to measure engine speed from visual engine parts in rotation.


6V3121 Multitach Group
(1) Carrying case. (2) Power cable. (3) Tachometer generator. (4) Tachometer drive group. (5) Multitach.

Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7807 is with the 6V3121 Multitach Group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

The 6V4950 Injection Line Speed Pickup Group is another diagnostic tool accessory that can be used with the 6V2100 Multitach. It can be used on all Caterpillar Diesel Engines equipped with 6 mm (.25 in.) single wall fuel injection lines. With this pickup group, engine speed can be measured quickly, automatically and with an accuracy of ± 1 rpm.


6V4950 Injection Line Speed Pickup Group
(6) 6V6114 Pickup. (7) 6V6113 Amplifier.

Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8029 is with the group and gives instructions for use of the 6V4950 Injection Line Speed Pickup Group.

Governor Adjustments


NOTICE

A mechanic with training in governor adjustments is the only one to make the adjustment to the set point rpm.


Engine rpm must be checked with an accurate tachometer. Make reference to Engine Speed Measurement.

Low Idle Adjustment

NOTE: The correct LOW IDLE rpm is given in the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

Start the engine and run until the temperature of normal operation is reached. Check low idle rpm with no load on the engine. If an adjustment is necessary, use the procedure that follows:

1. Remove the sealed cover over the HIGH and LOW IDLE adjustment screws.


Idle Adjustment
(1) Adjustment screw for high idle. (2) Adjustment screw for low idle. (3) Tachometer drive.

2. To adjust the LOW IDLE rpm, move the governor control to LOW IDLE position and turn screw (2). Increase the engine speed and then return control back to LOW IDLE position to check the setting again.

3. When governor adjustment is correct, install the cover over the adjustment screws.

When the cover is installed on the governor, the idle adjustment screws fit into holes in the cover. The shape of the holes will not let the idle adjustment screws turn after the idle adjustment is done and the cover is installed.

4. Now install a new wire and seal to the cover bolt.

Checking Set Point (Balance Point)

The engine set point is an adjusted specification and is important to the correct operation of the engine. High idle rpm is NOT an adjusted specification. Set point (formerly balance point) is full load rpm plus an additional 20 rpm. Set point is the rpm at which the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring just start to make contact. At this rpm, the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring still have movement between them. When additional load is put on the engine, the fuel setting adjustment screw and stop or first torque spring will become stable against each other. Set point is controlled by the fuel setting and the high idle adjustment screw.

There is a new and more accurate method for checking the "set point," formerly called the balance point, of the engine. If the tools for the new method are not available, there is an alternate method for checking the "set point."

6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group.

The 6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group with the 6V2100 Multitach can be used to check the set point. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7931 gives instructions for installation and use of this tool group.


6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group

Alternate Method

8T500 Circuit Tester.6V3121 Multitach Group.

NOTE: Do not use the vehicle tachometer unless its accuracy is known to be within ± 1 rpm.

If the set point is correct and the high idle speed is within specifications, the fuel system operation of the engine is correct. The set point for the engine is:

A. At 20 rpm greater than full load speed.
B. The rpm where the fuel setting adjustment screw stop or first torque spring just make contact.

Use the procedure that follows to check the set point. Make reference to Techniques For Loading Engines in Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7050.

1. Connect a tachometer which has good accuracy to the tachometer drive.


Circuit Tester Installed
(1) Brass terminal screw. (2) 8T500 Circuit Tester.

2. Connect the clip end of the 8T500 Circuit Tester to the brass terminal screw (1) on the governor housing. Connect the other end of the tester to a place on the fuel system which is a good ground connection.

------ WARNING! ------

Work carefully around an engine that is running. Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.

--------WARNING!------

3. Start the engine.

4. With the engine at normal conditions for operation, run the engine at high idle.

5. Make a record of the speed of the engine at high idle.

6. Add load on the engine slowly until the circuit tester light just comes on (minimum light output). This is the set point.

7. Make a record of the speed (rpm) at the set point.

8. Repeat Step 6 several times to make sure that the reading is correct.

9. Stop the engine. Make a comparison of the records from Steps 5 and 7 with Full Load Speed from the Engine Information Plate. If the Engine Information Plate is not available, see the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. The tolerance for the set point is ± 10 rpm. The tolerance for the high idle rpm is ± 50 rpm in chassis and ± 30 rpm on a bare engine. If the readings from Steps 5 and 7 are within the tolerance, no adjustment is needed.

NOTE: Later model engines have the actual Dyno High Idle stamped on the Engine Information Plate. It is possible, in some applications that the high idle rpm will be less than the actual lower limit. This can be caused by high parasitic loads such as hydraulic pumps, compressors, etc.

Adjusting Set Point (Balance Point)

1. If the set point and the high idle rpm are within tolerance, no adjustment is to be made.

2. If the set point rpm is not correct, remove the sealed cover over the HIGH and LOW IDLE adjustment screws.


Set Point Adjustment
(1) Adjustment screw for high idle. (2) Adjustment screw for low idle. (3) Tachometer drive.

3. Turn adjustment screw (1) to adjust the set point to the midpoint of the tolerance.

4. When the set point is correct, check the high idle rpm. The high idle rpm must not be more than the high limit of the tolerance.

If the high idle rpm is more than the high limit of the tolerance, check the governor spring and flyweights. If the high idle rpm is less than the low limit of the tolerance, check for excess parasitic loads and then the governor spring and flyweights.

5. When governor adjustment is correct, install the cover over the adjustment screws.

When the cover is installed on the governor, the idle adjustment screws fit into holes in the cover. The shape of the holes will not let the idle adjustment screws turn after the idle adjustment is done and the cover is installed.

6. Now install a new wire and seal to the cover bolt.

Fuel Ratio Control And Governor Check

FT1906 Air Test Kit*Circuit Testing Flashlight

or 6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group6V9128 Rack Position Tool Group

or 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group4N5656 Cover


*Commercially available.


FT1906 Air Test Kit
(1) 8L6557 Connector. (2) 5P4405 Connector (two required). (3) 5P6011 Tube [7.3 m (24 ft.)]. (4) 5P4476 Connector. (5) 6K5741 Valve. (6) 5P4459 Elbow. (7) 7B192 Cross. (8) 3B6768 Bushing. (9) 9S8138 Gauge. (10) 6N3169 Hose Assembly. (11) 6V6757 Elbow. (12) **6.35 mm (.250 in.) I.D. Flexible Tubing [1.2 m (4 ft.) long]. (13) *Air pressure bulb.


*Baumamometer No. 1890 or equivalent. Available from medical supply store. Bulb must be equipped with valve.


**Available from medical supply store.

NOTE: The governor seals do not have to be cut or removed for the checking procedures that follow. For more information on the tooling and procedures see Video Tape Form No. SEVV9173 and Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8463 available on microfiche only.


Disconnect Air Line
(14) Air line.

1. Disconnect line (14) from the fuel ratio control and connect FT1906 Air Test Kit between the air inlet manifold and fuel ratio control.

2. Connect the 6V4060 Engine Set Point Indicator Group or a circuit testing flashlight to the continuity contact of the governor.


Check Diaphragm Leakage
(5) Valve.

3. Check fuel ratio control diaphragm leakage.

a. Turn tester valve (5) so manual air pressure can be applied.

b. With the engine shutoff, apply 70 kPa (10 psi) air pressure to the fuel ratio control.

c. Close the valve on air pressure bulb (13) and check the leak down rate. Leakage of 20 kPa (3 psi) in 30 seconds is acceptable.

d. If leakage is more than 20 kPa (3 psi) in 30 seconds, check for external leaks and repair. If necessary, install a new diaphragm in the fuel ratio control and repeat the above steps.

e. When air pressure leakage is acceptable, release all air pressure from the fuel ratio control and proceed to Step 4.

4. Check shutoff linkage and static full fuel rack travel.

a. Turn the ignition switch on, but do not start the engine or move the governor control linkage. Observe the shutoff level or shaft. Slowly advance the governor control linkage to the full fuel position. Interference exists if there is any movement of the shutoff lever. If there is interference, check shutoff lever adjustment and linkage alignment.

NOTE: Any contact between the governor control linkage and the shutoff linkage causes power and response problems at high boost when manifold pressure is greater than 381 mm (15 in.) Mercury (Hg) or 52 kPa (7.5 psi).

b. Move the tooling to the operator's station. Slowly move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position. The lug light or continuity light should come on before 1/2 full fuel position for most fuel system applications.

If the lug light or continuity light does not come on, check linkage travel for correct adjustment. Check shutoff solenoid adjustment. Check the operation of the governor circuit indicator. Look for any restrictions in the governor and linkage operation.

If the light turns on, proceed to Step 5.

5. Check dynamic full fuel rack travel. Zero air pressure to the fuel ratio control.

a. Start the engine. Move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position and release it. Repeat this sequence twice. The continuity light or lug light should come on.

b. If the light does not turn on, the fuel ratio control is activated too early. This can be caused by an incorrect adjustment. Do not adjust the fuel ratio control at this time. Continue to Step 7, because the control has already activated.

c. If the light turns on, proceed to Step 6.

6. Check activation of fuel ratio control.

a. Adjust the governor control linkage to maintain 900 plus or minus 100 rpm.

b. Turn tester valve (5) so that manual air pressure can be supplied and apply 35 kPa (5 psi) for 10 seconds and release all air pressure.

c. Move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position several times. The lug light should not be on. This simulates a low boost pressure that activates the fuel ratio control. If the light comes on apply 35 kPa (5 psi) again and hold this pressure for 10 seconds. With the 2W8449 Orifice installed or when excessive wear of the housing or seals exist additional time may be required to activate the fuel ratio control.

d. If the continuity or lug light turns on after Step c, check the continuity circuit to make sure it is operating correctly. Check the fuel ratio setting and adjust or repair the control as needed.

e. If the continuity or lug light does not turn on, the fuel ratio control is activated and acceptable. Proceed to Step 7.

7. Check full fuel position of the fuel ratio control.

a. Manually apply and hold 25 kPa (4 psi) on the fuel ratio control.

b. Move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position and release it.

c. Increase the air pressure 3.5 kPa (.5 psi) and again move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position and release it.

d. Repeat Step c until the continuity or lug light on the set point indicator turns on. Record this pressure reading. With controls adjusted to a less restrictive setting, full fuel and a continuity light indication can occur before 25 kPa (4 psi).

NOTE: When the light comes on, the fuel ratio control is extended and the fuel rack has moved to the full fuel position. The fuel ratio control has additional travel at higher boost pressures than this reading.

8. Load test to compare engine boost and fuel ratio control movement with the results from Step 7.

a. Turn the tester valve to allow manifold boost readings.

b. With engine speed at 1500 rpm and at low boost, 20 kPa (3 psi) or less, quickly load the engine with full load and full fuel. When the lug or continuity light turns on, record the boost pressure reading. Do this several times to get an accurate reading.

NOTE: An activated light indicates full rack travel. The engine must have a load that requires full fuel. Loads that require less than full fuel will not give consistent readings.

c. The boost reading should be within plus or minus 3.5 kPa (.5 psi) of the reading obtained in Step 7. Repeat this test sequence twice. If a full load test is possible, record the set point rpm, maximum boost, and also horsepower if on a dynamometer.

d. If erratic readings are obtained, either the fuel ratio control, governor or the checking procedure is not operating correctly.

9. Check governor response.

a. Turn the tester valve so that manual air pressure can be applied.

b. Apply 70 kPa (10 psi) or at least 14 kPa (2 psi) air pressure higher that what is recorded from the manual full fuel position check (Step 7). This moves the fuel ratio control away from the rack control position.

c. While under load, move the governor control linkage to its full fuel position. Make a note of how fast continuity is obtained.

d. If it takes more than 2 seconds to obtain continuity, governor response is not acceptable. Inspect external attachments on the governor for interference or, for excessive shutoff lever contact.

e. Stop the engine.

10. If Steps 3 through 9 show the fuel ratio control and governor operation is acceptable, the checking procedure is complete. If repair of the fuel ratio control or governor is indicated, do the steps that follow for additional troubleshooting.

NOTE: The above checks are used to verify response functions only. The procedures have not checked for correct adjustment of the fuel ratio control and governor fuel settings.

11. Install the fuel setting and measurement tools from the 6V9128 or 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group. Do not remove the fuel ratio control or shutoff solenoid.

a. Measure the static full load setting and compare it to the specification on the Engine Information Plate.

NOTE: If the static full load setting is incorrect, continue through Step 15 before any adjustments are made.

12. Measure the static fuel torque setting. Move the governor control linkage to its maximum fuel on position and record the full torque reading. At this point, the torque spring is compressed and internal governor clearances are at a minimum.

13. Measure the fuel rack setting with the fuel ratio control activated:

a. Start the engine and run it at 900 rpm.

b. Apply 35 kPa (5 psi) air pressure for 10 seconds to activate the fuel ratio control. Now, release all air pressure on the fuel ratio control.

c. Move the governor control linkage to the full fuel on position and release it. Record the dynamic fuel ratio control setting.

14. Check the dynamic full torque setting. (Engine running with no load).

a. Apply and hold 70 kPa (10 psi) air pressure to extend the fuel ratio control to a position beyond the full fuel position.

b. Move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position and release it. Record the dynamic full torque setting.

c. The dynamic full torque setting should be 0.41 to 0.61 mm (.016 to .024 in.) more than the static full torque setting measured in Step 12. This shows the amount of governor servo piston movement which must be 0.41 to 0.61 mm (.016 to .024 in.).

d. If the dynamic full torque setting is 0.36 mm (.014 in.) or less than the static full torque setting measured in Step 12, the fuel rack does not have full travel. This indicates there is interference between parts or there are internal governor problems. Also, the shutoff system can require inspection. Do Step e.

e. With 70 kPa (10 psi) air pressure still on the fuel ratio control, hold the fuel shutoff lever completely out of the way. Move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position and note the dynamic full torque setting. If the setting increases to the range given in Step c, then the shutoff lever linkage needs adjustment or repair. If the setting does not change continue to Step 15.

15. Check governor servo and shutoff circuit.

a. With the engine shutdown, remove the fuel ratio control. Install a 4N5656 Cover. Measure the static full torque setting and compare this setting with the setting measured in Step 12. The two settings must be the same or repair of the fuel ratio control is needed.

b. Start the engine. Move the governor control linkage to the full fuel position and release it. Record the dynamic full torque setting and compare the setting with the setting measured in Step 14b.

c. If the dynamic movement is the same as Step 14b, the fuel ratio control is working correctly. If there is more than 0.25 mm (.010 in.) difference, check for shutoff interference of internal governor linkage problems.

16. Make any fuel setting adjustments necessary.

NOTE: See Fuel Rack Setting for the correct procedure to install the tooling to make the adjustment.

17. If the governor gives slow response, check for restricted rack movement. Also, check for other governor problems. No specific repair procedures are available.

NOTE: Response is the engine's ability to accelerate, under load, to its rated horsepower. Low power is the engine's inability to produce rated horsepower.

Poor response can result from problems with the governor, the fuel ratio control or the shutoff system. Low power can result from problems with the fuel pump, the governor setting, the shutoff system or the other fuel flow components, or with the engine application.

Fuel Ratio Control Adjustment

1. The fuel rack setting must be correct before the adjustment for the fuel ratio control can be checked. Make reference to Fuel Rack Setting.

NOTE: The 9S215 Dial Indicator for fuel rack setting is used for the adjustment of fuel ratio control.

2. Remove cover (3) from the fuel ratio control.

------ WARNING! ------

To help prevent an accident caused by parts in rotation, work carefully around an engine that has been started.

--------WARNING!------

3. Start the engine.

4. Push the end of valve (1) in and hold it in for two or three seconds. This action will manually move the valve into its operating position.

5. Move the governor control lever in the FUEL ON direction, then return it to LOW IDLE. Do this several times to remove the air from the oil in the control. This will make the result of the test more accurate.

6. Rapidly move the governor control lever in the FUEL ON direction. Read the maximum measurement on the dial indicator. This is the dynamic fuel ratio control setting. See the Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche for the correct setting.

7. To make an adjustment to the fuel ratio control, turn valve (1) in a clockwise direction to increase the amount of fuel possible (more rack travel) at the limited rack position. Turn the valve counterclockwise to decrease the amount of fuel possible (less rack travel).

8. After an adjustment is made, do Step 6 again. When the adjustment is correct, put cover (3) on the control. Turn the cover as necessary to put it in alignment with the nearest bolt holes. Install the bolts.


Fuel Ratio Control
(1) Valve. (2) Pin. (3) Cover.

9. Stop the engine. After the oil pressure has gone out of the fuel ratio control, check the fuel rack setting again to make sure full rack travel is available.

Air Inlet and Exhaust System

Restriction of Air Inlet and Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction (negative pressure difference measurement between atmospheric air and air that has gone through air cleaner) of more than 635 mm (25 in.) of water.

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust at outlet elbow and atmospheric air) must not be more than 1016 mm (40 in.) of water.

Measurement of Pressure in Inlet Manifold

The efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a comparison of the pressure in the inlet manifold with the information given in the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE. This test is used when there is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given in the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE. Development of this information is done with these conditions:

a. 737 mm (29 in.) of mercury (DRY) barometric pressure.
b. 29°C (85°F) outside air temperature.
c. 35 API rated fuel.

On a turbocharged and aftercooled engine, a change in fuel rating will also change horsepower and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet manifold can be less than given in the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE. If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be more than given in the FUEL SETTING AND RELATED INFORMATION FICHE. BE SURE THAT THE AIR INLET AND EXHAUST DO NOT HAVE A RESTRICTION WHEN MAKING A CHECK OF PRESSURE IN THE INLET MANIFOLD.


Plugs For Pressure Test
(Parts Removed For Illustration)

Use the 1U5470 Engine Pressure Group to check the pressure in the inlet manifold.


1U5470 Engine Pressure Group

This tool group has a gauge to read pressure in the inlet manifold. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8524 is with the tool group and gives instructions for its use.

Turbocharger

Every 7200 hours or if any unusual sound or vibration in the turbocharger is noticed, a quick check of bearing condition can be made without disassembling the turbocharger. This can be done by removing the piping from the turbocharger and inspecting the compressor impeller, turbine wheel and compressor cover. Rotate the compressor and turbine wheel assembly by hand and observe by feeling excess end play. The rotating assembly should rotate freely with no rubbing or binding. If there is any indication of the impeller rubbing the compressor cover or the turbine wheel rubbing the turbine housing, recondition the turbocharger or replace with a new or rebuilt one.

End clearance is best checked with a dial indicator. Attach a dial indicator with the indicator point on the end of the shaft. Move the shaft from end to end making note of the total indicator reading.

End play for 4MF Turbochargers should be 0.08 to 0.15 mm (.003 to .006 in.).

End play for TV81 Turbochargers should be 0.08 to 0.25 mm (.003 to .010 in.). If end play is more than the maximum end play rebuild or replace the turbocharger. End play less than the minimum end play could indicate carbon build up on the turbine wheel and the turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning and inspection.


Checking Turbocharger Rotating Assembly End Play (Typical Example)

A more reliable check of bearing conditions can be made only when the turbocharger is disassembled and the bearings, shaft journal and housing bore diameters can actually be measured.

Exhaust Temperature


6V5000 Infrared Thermometer Group

Use the 6V5000 Infrared Thermometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8149 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure

Pistons or piston rings that have damage can be the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase. This condition will cause the engine to run rough. There will also be more than the normal amount of fumes coming from the crankcase breather. This crankcase pressure can also cause the element for the crankcase breather to have a restriction in a very short time. It can also be the cause of oil leakage at gaskets and seals that would not normally have leakage.

Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or have valves that need adjustment. Use the test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a cylinder that has low compression, or does not have good fuel combustion. Find the speed that the engine runs the roughest, and keep the engine at this rpm until the test is finished. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump to stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so the cylinder will have to be checked thoroughly. Removal of the head and inspection of the valves and valve seats is necessary to find those small defects that do not normally cause a problem. Repair of these problems is normally done when reconditioning the engine.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head has valve seat inserts, valve guides, and bridge dowels that can be removed when they are worn or have damage. Replacement of these components can be made with the tools that follow.

Valves

Valve removal and installation is easier with use of the 5S1330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly and 5S1322 Valve Keeper Inserter.

Valve Seat Inserts

Tools needed to remove and install valve seat inserts are in the 9S3080 Valve Insert Puller Group. Special Instruction Form No. GMGO2114 gives an explanation for this procedure. For easier installation, lower the temperature of the insert before it is installed in the head.

Valve Guides

Tools needed to install valve guides are the 5P2396 Driver Bushing and 7S8859 Driver. The counterbore in the driver bushing installs the guide to the correct height. Use a 1P7451 Valve Guide Honing Group to make a finished bore in the valve guide after installation of the guide in the head. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7526 gives an explanation for this procedure. Grind the valves after the new valve guides are installed.

Checking Valve Guide Bore

Use the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group to check the bore of the valve guides. Special Instruction Form No. GMGO2562 gives complete and detailed instructions for use of the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group.


5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group

Bridge Dowel

Use a 5P944 Dowel Puller Group with a 5P942 Extractor to remove the bridge dowels. Install a new bridge dowel with a 5P2406 Dowel Driver. This dowel driver installs the bridge dowel to the correct height.

Bridge Adjustment

When the head is disassembled, keep the bridges with their respective cylinders. Adjustment of the bridge will be necessary after the valves are ground or other reconditioning of the cylinder head is done. The bridge should be checked and/or adjusted each time the valves are adjusted. Use the procedure that follows to make an adjustment to the bridge.


Bridge Adjustment

NOTE: Valves must be fully closed.

1. Put engine oil on the bridge dowel in the cylinder head and in the bore in the bridge.

2. Install the bridge with the adjustment screw toward the exhaust manifold.

3. Loosen the locknut for the adjustment screw and loosen the adjustment screw several turns.

4. Put a force on the bridge with a finger to keep the bridge in contact with the valve stem opposite the adjustment screw.

5. Turn the adjustment screw clockwise until it just makes contact with the valve stem. Then turn the adjustment screw 30° more in a clockwise direction to make the bridge straight on the dowel, and to make compensation for the clearance in the threads of the adjustment screw.

6. Hold the adjustment screw in this position and tighten the locknut to 28 ± 4 N·m (22 ± 3 lb. ft.).

7. Put engine oil at the point where the rocker arm makes contact with the bridge.

Valve Clearance Setting

NOTE: Valve clearance is measured between the rocker arm and the bridge for the valves.

NOTE: When the valve lash (clearance) is checked, adjustment is NOT NECESSARY if the measurement is in the range given in the chart for Valve Clearance Check: Engine Stopped. If the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is necessary. See the chart for Valve Clearance Setting: Engine Stopped, and make the setting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this chart.


Valve Clearance

NOTE: Intake and exhaust valve lash adjustments should be made at the first recommended oil change.

To make an adjustment to the valve clearance, turn the adjustment screw in the rocker arm. Valve clearance adjustments can be made by using the procedure that follows:


Valve Adjustment (Typical Illustration)

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston.

2. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valves for cylinders 1, 2, 5 and 7. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 1, 3, 4, and 8.

3. After each adjustment, tighten the nut for valve adjustment screw to 28 ± 4 N·m (22 ± 3 lb. ft.), and check the adjustment again.

4. Remove the timing bolt and turn the flywheel 360° in the direction of engine rotation. This will put No. 6 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Install the timing bolt in the flywheel.

5. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the intake valves for cylinders 3, 4, 6 and 8. Make an adjustment to the valve clearance on the exhaust valves for cylinders 2, 5, 6 and 7.

6. After each adjustment, tighten the nut for valve adjustment screw 28 ± 4 N·m (22 ± 3 lb. ft.), and check the adjustment again.

7. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel when all valve clearances are correct.


Cylinder And Valve Location

Lubrication System

One of the problems in the list that follows will generally be an indication of a problem in the lubrication system for the engine.

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Pressure Is Low

Oil Pressure Is High

Too Much Bearing Wear

Increased Oil Temperature

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Leakage on Outside of Engine

Check for leakage of the seals at each end of the crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil comes out of the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket and seal leakage.

Oil Leakage Into Combustion Area of Cylinders

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are four possible ways for oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders:

1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve stems.

2. Worn or damaged piston rings, or dirty oil return holes.

3. Compression ring and/or intermediate ring not installed correctly.

4. Oil leakage past the seal rings in the impeller end of the turbocharger shaft.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result if oil with the wrong viscosity is used. Oil with a thin viscosity can be caused by fuel leakage into the crankcase, or by increased engine temperature.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

1U5470 Engine Pressure Group.

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect can give an indication of low oil pressure.

The 1U5470 Engine Pressure Group can be used to check engine oil pressure.


1U5470 Engine Pressure Group

This tool group has a gauge to read oil pressure in the engine. Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8524 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with SAE 10W-30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the information in the Engine Oil Pressure Graph does not apply.

2. Connect the 1U5470 Engine Pressure Group to the main oil manifold at location (1).

3. Operate the engine to get it up to normal operating temperature.


Oil Manifold
(1) Pressure test location.

4. Keep the oil temperature constant with the engine at its rated rpm, and read the pressure gauge.

NOTE: Make sure engine oil temperature does not go above 115° C (239°F).

5. On the Engine Oil Pressure Graph, find the point that the lines for engine rpm and oil pressure intersect (connect).


Engine Oil Pressure Graph

6. If the results do not fall within the "Acceptable" pressure range given in the graph, find the cause and correct it. Engine failure or a reduction in engine life can be the result if engine operation is continued with oil manifold pressure outside this range.

NOTE: A record of engine oil pressure, kept at regular intervals, can be used as an indication of possible engine problems or damage. If there is a sudden increase or decrease of 70 kPa (10 psi) in oil pressure, even though the pressure is in the "Acceptable" range on the graph, the engine should be inspected and the problem corrected.

Oil Pressure Is Low

Crankcase Oil Level

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far below the oil pump supply tube. This will cause the oil pump to not have the ability to supply enough lubrication to the engine components.

Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the oil pump can have a restriction. This will cause cavitation (low pressure bubbles suddenly made in liquids by mechanical forces) and a loss of oil pressure. Air leakage in the supply side of the oil pump will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If the bypass valve for the oil pump is held in the open (unseated) position, the lubrication system can not get to maximum pressure. Oil pump gears that have too much wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure.

Oil Filter Bypass Valves

If the bypass valve for the oil filter is held in the open position (unseated) because the oil filter has a restriction, a reduction in oil pressure can result. To correct this problem, remove and clean the bypass valve and bypass valve bore. Install a new Caterpillar oil filter to be sure that no more debris makes the bypass valve stay open.

Too Much Clearance At Engine Bearings Or Open Lubrication System (Broken Or Disconnected Oil Line Or Passage)

Components that are worn and have too much bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected.

Piston Cooling Tubes (Jets)

When engine is operated, cooling jets direct oil toward the bottom of the piston to lower piston and ring temperatures. If there is a failure of one of the jets, or it is bent in the wrong direction, seizure of the piston will be caused in a very short time.

Use the 5P8709 Piston Tool Group to check and adjust the alignment of piston cooling jets.

Oil Pressure Is High

Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the oil pump can not move from the closed position.

Too Much Bearing Wear

When some components of the engine show bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in an oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the cause.

If the gauge for oil pressure shows enough oil pressure, but a component is worn because it can not get enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil supply to the component. A restriction in a supply passage will not let enough lubrication get to a component, and this will cause early wear.

Increased Oil Temperature

Look for a restriction in the oil and coolant passages of the oil cooler. If the oil cooler has a restriction, the oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is operated. The oil pressure of the engine will not get low just because the oil cooler has a restriction.

Also check the oil cooler bypass valve to see if it is held in the open position (unseated). This condition will let the oil through the valve instead of the oil cooler, and oil temperature will increase.

Cooling System

This engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can have safe operation at a temperature that is higher than the normal boiling (steam) point of water. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (low pressure bubbles suddenly made in liquids by mechanical forces) in the water pump. With this type system, it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to be made in the cooling system.

The cause for increased engine temperature is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not made. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before a test is made with test equipment.

Visual Inspection To The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

NOTE: Water pump seals. A small amount of coolant leakage across the surface of the "face-type" seals is normal, and required, to provide lubrication for this type of seal. A hole is provided in the water pump housing to allow this coolant/seal lubricant to drain from the pump housing. Intermittent leakage of small amounts of coolant from this hole is not an indication of water pump seal failure. Replace the water pump seals only if a large amount of leakage, or a constant flow of coolant is observed draining from the water pump housing.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive belts for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the filler cap and the surface that seals the cap. This surface must be clean.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When a diagnosis is made of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and height above sea level on the boiling (steam) point of water.

Test Tools For Cooling System

8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group.8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group.6V3121 Multitach Group.9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

The 8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine hotter than normal) or overcooling (engine cooler than normal) problems. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of the cooling system. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8446.


8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group

The 8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group is used to check air flow through the radiator core. The test procedure is in Special Instruction, Form No. SEHS8712.


8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group

The 6V3121 Multitach Group is used to check the fan speed. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7807.


6V3121 Multitach Group

Checking Pressure Cap

9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing
Pump Group

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a bad seal on the radiator pressure cap.

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

After the engine is cool, loosen the pressure cap and let the pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the pressure cap.


Typical Schematic of Pressure Cap
(A) Sealing surface of cap and radiator.

Inspect the pressure cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or to the surface that seals. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, seal or surface that seals, must be removed.

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

To check the pressure cap for the pressure that makes the pressure cap open, use the procedure that follows:

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

2. Put the pressure cap on the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

3. Look at the gauge for the exact pressure that makes the pressure cap open.

4. Make a comparison of the reading on the gauge with the correct pressure at which the pressure cap must open.

NOTE: The correct pressure that makes the pressure cap open is on the pressure cap and is also in the SPECIFICATIONS SECTION.

5. If the pressure cap is bad, install a new pressure cap.

Testing Radiator and Cooling System for Leaks

9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing
Pump Group

To test the radiator and cooling system for leaks, use the procedure that follows:

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

1. Remove the pressure cap from the radiator.

2. Make sure the coolant is over the top of the radiator core.


9S8140 Pressurizing Pump Group Installed

3. Put the 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group on the radiator.

4. Operate the pump group and get a pressure reading on the gauge that is 20 kPa (3 psi) more than the pressure marked on the pressure cap.

5. Check the radiator for outside leakage.

6. Check all connections and hoses for the cooling system for outside leakage.

7. If you do not see any outside leakage and the pressure reading on the gauge is still the same after 5 minutes, the radiator and cooling system does not have leakage. If the reading on the gauge goes down and you do not see any outside leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the cooling system. Make repairs as necessary.


9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group
(A) Release valve. (B) Adapter. (C) Hose.

------ WARNING! ------

If a pressure indication is shown on the gauge, to avoid personal injury push release valve (A) to release all pressure in the system before removal of hose (C) from radiator.

--------WARNING!------

Gauge For Water Temperature

8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

or 2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing.


2F7112 Thermometer Installed

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system could be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage. If a place cannot be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the gauge for water temperature. A temperature gauge of known accuracy can be connected to the engine to make this check. Also, the 8T470 Thermistor Thermometer Group or the 2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing can be used.

------ WARNING! ------

Work carefully around an engine that is running. Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.

--------WARNING!------

Start the engine and run it until the temperature is at the desired range according to the test gauge or thermometer. If necessary, put a cover over part of the radiator or cause a restriction of the coolant flow. The reading on the gauge for water temperature must be the same as the test gauge or thermometer within the tolerance range of the gauge.

Water Temperature Regulators

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is 92°C (197°F). Move the water around in the pan to make it all the same temperature.

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for ten minutes.

5. After ten minutes, remove the regulator and immediately measure the distance the regulator has opened. The distance must be a minimum of 9.53 mm (.375 in.).

6. If the distance is less than 9.53 mm (.375 in.), make a replacement of the regulator.

V-Belt Tension Chart

Basic Block

Piston Rings

This engine has piston grooves and rings of the KEYSTONE (taper) design. The 8T3150 Keystone Piston Ring Groove Gauge Group is available to check the top two ring grooves in the piston. For correct use of the gauge group see the instruction card that is with the gauge group.


Instructions For 8T3150 Keystone Piston Ring Groove Gauge Group

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use the 7M3978 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use the 5P3526 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder block.

Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the step sequence that follows:

1. Put 2P2506 Thread Lubricant on bolt threads and contact surfaces of nut and cap.

2. Tighten all bolts to 80 ± 8 N·m (60 ± 6 lb.ft.).

3. Put a mark on each nut and end of bolt.

4. Tighten each nut 120° from the mark.

The connecting rod bearings fit tightly in the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are worn (fretted), check bore size. This can be an indication of wear because of a loose fit.

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Connecting rod bearings are available with 0.64 mm (.025 in.) and 1.27 mm (.050 in.) smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than the original size).

Main bearings are available with a larger outside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger than the original size). The size available is 0.64 mm (.025 in.) larger outside diameter than the original size bearings.

Cylinder Block

The bore in the block for main bearings can be checked with the main bearing caps installed without bearings. Tighten the nuts that hold the caps to the torque shown in the SPECIFICATIONS. Alignment error in the bores must not be more than 0.08 mm (.003 in.). Special Instruction, Form No. SMHS7606 gives instructions for the use of 1P4000 Line Boring Tool Group for alignment of the main bearing bores. The 1P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group can be used to check the size of the bores. Special Instruction Form No. GMG00981 is with the group.


1P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group

Projection of Cylinder Liner

8B7548 Push-Puller
Three 3H465 Plates
1P2396 Puller PlateTwo 3/4 in. 16 NF Bolts, 177.8 mm (7 in.) long.Four 3/4 in. 16 NF Bolts, 76.2 mm (3 in.) long.Eight 2F126 Seals (Copper Washers).8T455 Liner Projection Tool Group8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement

Check liner projection above top plate as follows:

1. Make certain that top plate (4) and the cylinder liner flange are clean. Install a new top plate gasket, but do not install liner seals when this check is made.


Holding Top Plate To Cylinder Block (Typical Example)
(1) 3H465 Plate. (2) 1P2396 Puller Plate. (3) 2F126 Seals (copper washers). (4) Top plate.

2. Use 3/4-16 NF bolts, 76.2 mm (3 in.) long, with two 2F126 Seals (3) on each bolt to hold the top plate (4) to the cylinder block. Install two bolts with seals (3) on each side of the cylinder liner. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 14 N·m (10 lb.ft.), 35 N·m (25 lb.ft.), 70 N·m (50 lb.ft.) and then to 95 N·m (70 lb.ft.).

NOTE: To keep installation and removal of bolts and washers to a minimum as each liner is checked, install two bolts with washers on each side of each cylinder liner along the complete length of the top plate.

3. Use a 1P2396 Puller Plate (2), three 3H465 Plates (1), 8B7548 Push-Puller (6), and two 3/4-16 NF bolts, 177.8 mm (7 in.) long to hold the liner down.

4. Tighten the bolts evenly in four steps; 7 N·m (5 lb.ft.), 20 N·m (15 lb.ft.), 35 N·m (25 lb.ft.) and then to 70 N·m (50 lb.ft.). Distance from bottom edge of 8B7548 Push-Puller (6) to top plate must be the same on both sides of cylinder liner.

5. Use a 8T455 Liner Projection Tool Group to measure liner projection. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS7727 gives more information for the measurement procedures.

6. To zero dial indicator (5), use the back of 1P5507 Gauge with dial indicator (5) mounted in 1P2402 Gauge Body (7).

7. Liner projection must be 0.03 to 0.15 mm (.001 to .006 in.). (Make the measurement to the top of the liner flange, not the inner ring). The maximum differential between high and low measurements made at four places around each liner is 0.05 mm (.002 in.). The average projection of liners next to each other must not be more than 0.05 mm (.002 in.). The maximum difference in the average projection of the cylinder liners under one cylinder head must not be more than 0.10 mm (.004 in.).


Measuring Liner Height Projection (Typical Example)
(5) Dial indicator. (6) 8B7548 Push-Puller. (7) 1P2402 Gauge Body.

NOTE: If liner projection changes from point to point around the liner, turn the liner to a new position within the bore. If still not within specifications move liner to a different bore.

NOTE: When liner projection is correct, put a temporary mark on the liner and top plate so when seals and band are installed, the liner can be installed in the correct position.

The contact face of the cylinder block can be machined with use of the 8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement to adjust liner projection. Special Instruction Form No. FM055228 is part of the cylinder block counterboring tool arrangement and gives information to use the tooling.

2W3815 and 5N93 Stainless Steel Inserts are available for use after the cylinder block has been counterbored. Special Instruction Form No. SMHS8222 has the correct installation procedure for the inserts.

Flywheel and Flywheel Housing

8T5096 Dial Indicator Group

Heat the ring gear to install it. Do not heat to more than 315°C (600°F). Install the ring gear so the chamfer on the gear teeth are next to the starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.

Face Run Out (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearance must be removed to get correct measurements.


8T5096 Dial Indicator Group Installed


Checking Face Runout of the Flywheel Housing
(A) Bottom. (B) Right side. (C) Top. (D) Left side.

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of the flywheel housing.

2. Put a force on the crankshaft toward the rear before the indicator is read at each point.

3. With dial indicator set at 0.0 mm (.000 in.) at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the indicator at locations (B), (C) and (D).

4. The difference between lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than 0.38 mm (.015 in.), which is the maximum permissible face run out (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel housing.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing


8T5096 Dial Indicator Group Installed

1. Fasten the dial indicator as shown so the anvil of the indicator will touch the bore of the flywheel housing.

2. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft up against the top of the bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C) in the CHART FOR DIAL INDICATOR MEASUREMENTS.

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This notation is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

3. Divide the measurement from Step 2 by 2. Write this number on line I in columns (B) & (D).

4. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurements in the chart.


Checking Bore Runout of the Flywheel Housing

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

8. Add lines I and II by columns

9. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal eccentricity (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.

10. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.

11. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the ranged marked "Not Acceptable" the flywheel housing must be changed.


Graph for Total Eccentricity

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Always put a force on the crankshaft in the same direction before the indicator is read so the crankshaft end clearance (movement) is always removed.


Checking Face Runout of the Flywheel

2. Set the dial indicator to read 0.0 mm (.000 in.).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than 0.15 mm (.006 in.), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.


Checking Bore Runout of the Flywheel
(1) 7H1945 Holding Rod. (2) 7H1645 Holding Rod. (3) 7H1942 Indicator. (4) 7H1940 Universal Attachment.

2. Set the dial indicator to read 0.0 mm (.000 in.).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than:

Flywheel without BrakeSaver ... 0.15 mm (.006 in.)

Flywheel with BrakeSaver ... 0.25 mm (.010 in.)

This is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed:

Flywheel without BrakeSaver ... 0.13 mm (.005 in.)

Flywheel with BrakeSaver ... 0.25 mm (.010 in.)


Checking Flywheel Clutch Pilot Bearing Bore

Vibration Damper

Damage to or failure of the damper will increase vibrations and result in damage to the crankshaft. It will cause more gear train noise at variable points in the speed range.

The vibration damper has marks (1) on the hub and the ring. These marks give an indication of the condition of the vibration damper. If the marks are not in alignment, the rubber part (between the ring and the hub) of the vibration damper has had a separation from the ring and/or hub. If the marks are not in alignment, install a new vibration damper.


Vibration Damper
(1) Alignment marks.

A used vibration damper can have a visual wobble (movement to the front and then to the rear when in rotation) on the outer ring and still not need replacement, because some wobble of the outer ring is normal. To see if the amount of wobble is acceptable, or replacement is necessary, check the damper with the procedure that follows:

1. Install a dial indicator, contact point and other parts as necessary to hold the dial indicator stationary. The contact point must be perpendicular (at 90° angle) to the face of the outer ring of the damper, and must make contact approximately at the center of the outer ring.

2. Push on the front end of the crankshaft so the end play (free movement on the centerline) is removed. Keep the crankshaft pushed back until the measurements are done.

3. Adjust the dial indicator to zero.

4. Turn the crankshaft 360° and watch the dial indicator. A total indicator reading of 0.00 to 2.03 mm (.000 to .080 in.) is acceptable.

Electrical System

Test Tools for Electrical System

6V4930 Battery Load Tester8T900 AC/DC Clamp-On Ammeter6V7070 Heavy-Duty Digital Multimeter

or 6V7800 Regular-Duity Digital Multimeter

Most of the tests of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections must be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully charged. If the on-engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

The service manual TESTING AND ADJUSTING ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS, Form No. REG00636 has complete specifications and procedures for the components of the starting circuit and the charging circuit.


6V4930 Battery Load Tester

The 6V4930 Battery Load Tester is a portable unit in a metal case for use under field conditions and high temperatures. It can be used to load test all 6, 8 and 12 Volt batteries. This tester has two heavy-duty load cables that can easily be fastened to the battery terminals, and a load adjustment knob on the front panel permits a current range up to a maximum of 700 amperes. The tester also has a thermometer to show when the safe operating temperature limit of the unit has been reached.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8268 for more complete information for use of the 6V4930 Battery Load Tester.


8T900 AC/DC Clamp-On Ammeter

The 8T900 AC/DC Clamp-On Ammeter is a completely portable, self-contained instrument that allows electrical current measurements to be made without breaking the circuit or disturbing the insulation on conductors. A digital display is located on the ammeter for reading current directly in a range from 1 to 1200 amperes. If an optional 6V6014 Cable is connected between this ammeter and one of the digital multimeters, current readings of less than 1 ampere can then be read directly from the display of the multimeter.

A lever is used to open the jaws over the conductor [up to a diameter of 19 mm (.75 in.)], and the spring loaded jaws are then closed around the conductor for current measurement. A trigger switch that can be locked in the ON or OFF position is used to turn on the ammeter. When the turn-on trigger is released, the last current reading is held on the display for 5 seconds. This allows accurate measurements to be taken in limited access areas where the digital display is not visible to the operator. A zero control is provided for DC operation, and power for the ammeter is supplied by batteries located inside the handle.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8420 for more complete information for use of the 8T900 Clamp-On Ammeter.


6V7070 Heavy-Duty Digital Multimeter

The 6V7070 Heavy-Duty Digital Multimeter is a completely portable, hand held instrument with a digital display. This multimeter is built with extra protection against damage in field applications, and is equipped with seven functions and 29 ranges. The 6V7070 Multimeter has an instant ohms indicator that permits continuity checks for fast circuit inspection. It also can be used for troubleshooting small value capacitors.

The 6V7800 Regular-Duty Digital Multimeter (a low cost option to the Heavy-Duty Multimeter) is also available; however, the 6V7800 Multimeter does not have the 10A range or the instant ohms feature of the 6V7070 Multimeter.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction Form No. SEHS7734 for more complete information for use of the 6V7070 and 6V7800 Multimeters

Battery

------ WARNING! ------

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to personnel can be the result.

--------WARNING!------

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit can result if the connections (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is in operation. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage can damage, not only the charging unit, but also the regulator and other electrical components.

Use the 6V4930 Battery Load Tester, the 8T900 Clamp-On Ammeter and the 6V7070 Multimeter to load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. See Special Instruction Form No. SEHS8268 for the correct procedure and specifications to use.

Charging System

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system operates correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is constantly in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (more than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 100 service hours).

When it is possible, make a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator on the engine, and use wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off-engine (bench) testing will give a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. After repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that the units are repaired to their original condition of operation.

Before the start of on-engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked as shown in the Steps that follow:

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.225 Sp.Gr.) fully charged and held tightly in place. The Battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches, and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give correct circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and have the ability to operate the charging unit.

Alternator Regulator Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, the charging rate of the alternator should be checked. Make reference to the SPECIFICATIONS section to find all testing specifications for the alternators and regulators.


3T7070 & 9L5938 Alternator
(1) Pulley nut. (2) Ground terminal.

No adjustment can be made to change the rate of charge on the alternator regulators. If rate of change is not correct, a replacement of the regulator is necessary.

Alternator Pulley Nut Tightening (Delco-Remy)

Tighten nut that holds the pulley to a torque of 100 ± 10 N·m (75 ± 5 lb.ft.) with the tools shown.


Tools To Tighten Alternator Pulley Nut
(1) 8T9293 Torque Wrench. (2) 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). (3) 2P8267 Socket Assembly. (4) 8H8517 Combination Wrench (1-1/8"). (5) 8T5314 Socket.

Starting System

Use the multimeter in the DCV range to find starting system components which do not function.

Move the start control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.

If the solenoid for the starter motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery did not get to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the multimeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. A zero reading is an indication that there is a broken circuit from the battery. More testing is necessary when there is a voltage reading on the multimeter.

The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the multimeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the multimeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. A zero reading on the multimeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance.

Make a test with one multimeter lead fastened to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the multimeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltage reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. A zero reading is an indication that the problem is in the start switch or the wires for the start switch.

Fasten one multimeter lead to the start switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. A zero reading indicates a broken circuit from the battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and wiring. If there is a voltage reading, the problem is in the start switch or in the wires for the start switch.

A starter motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starter motor can also be caused by a short circuit, loose connections and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

When the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starter motor removed.


Connection for Checking Pinion Clearance
(1) Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. (2) SW terminal. (3) Ground terminal.

1. With the solenoid installed on the starter motor, remove connector (1).

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.

3. Connect the other side of the battery to ground terminal (3).

4. Connect for a moment a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked MOTOR to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.


Pinion Clearance Adjustment
(4) Shaft nut. (5) Pinion. (6) Pinion clearance.

5. Push the pinion toward the commutator end to remove free movement.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be 8.3 to 9.9 mm (.33 to .39 in.).

7. To adjust pinion clearance, remove plug and turn nut (4).

8. After the adjustment is completed, install the plug over adjustment nut (4) and install connector (1) between the MOTOR terminal on the solenoid and the starter motor.

Rack Shutoff Solenoid

6V9128 Rack Position Tool Group.
6V3075 Dial Indicator.9S8883 Contact Point, 12.7 mm (.50 in.) long.3P1565 Collet Clamp.


Rack Solenoid (Earlier)
(1) Travel 15.7 mm (.62 in.). (2) Distance between shaft and plate 35.3 mm (1.39 in.). (3) Starting position of plunger plate from mounting flange is 11.2 mm (.44 in.) to measure travel of plunger.


Rack Solenoid (Later)
(1) Travel 15.7 mm (.62 in.). (2) Distance between shaft and plate 24.4 mm (.96 in.). (3) Start position of plunger plate from mounting flange 11.2 mm (.44 in.) to measure travel of plunger.

Two checks must be made on the engine to give proof that the solenoid adjustment is correct. Make sure distance (2) is the correct dimension before these checks are made.

1. The adjustment must give the plunger enough travel to move the rack to the fuel shutoff position. Use the 9S240 Rack Position Tool Group to make sure the rack goes to the fuel shutoff position.

2. The adjustment must give the plunger enough travel to cause only the "hold-in" windings of the solenoid to be activated when the rack is held in the fuel shutoff position. Use a thirty ampere ammeter to make sure the plunger is in the "hold-in" position. Current needed must be less than two amperes.

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