SYSTEM OPERATION AND PROGRAMMING GUIDES FOR DIGITAL GOVERNOR Caterpillar


Systems Operation

Usage:



1. General Remarks

Heinzmann digital governors with control unit DC 162-01, DC 302-01 and DC 402-01 constitute speed governors offering a medium range of functions.

In addition to speed regulation, the following functions are available:

a) Starting Fuel Flow Adjustment

When setting starting fuel flow, starting minimum fuel flow or starting maximum fuel flow are available as alternatives. Furthermore, variable starting fuel flow can be provided, by which starting fuel flow is increased automatically during start-up.

b) Speed Ramp

For applications in which speed is not supposed to respond as fast as possible to changes of setpoint values (e.g., locomotive operation), a speed ramp is available which according to requirements may be programmed separately for increasing or decreasing speed.

c) Fixed Fuel Limitation

For the stop-position and the maximum fuelling position "electric catches" can be provided. This will prevent the governor's thrust from affecting the terminal stops of the injection pump, etc.

d) Speed Dependent Fuel Limitation

For variable speed governors, there is provided an option of programming speed dependent limit curves. Thus, for any speed, torque can be reduced as is permissible for the engine or desired by the user.

e) Boost Pressure Dependent Fuel Limitation

For turbocharged engines, fuelling can be reduced to achieve smokeless operation in case of missing boost pressure (e.g., starting or load change). The respective limit curves can be programmed accordingly.

f) Idling and Maximum Speed Control

For vehicle application, the governor can be made to operate as an idling and maximum speed controller. In addition, one fixed intermediate speed is available, e.g., for an application combining driving and stationary mode (e.g., generator at take-off). If necessary, a change-over switching of the droop can be provided, i.e., during stationary operation also droop zero is possible.

g) Temperature Dependent Idling Speed

For low temperatures, the engine can be run at some higher idling speed. With the engine warming up, idling speed is reduced to its normal value.

h) Velocity Limitation

For vehicles velocity limitations may be provided.

i) Velocity Regulation

For vehicles velocity regulation can be provided, by which the vehicle is made to maintain some preset velocity.

j) Oil Pressure Monitoring

For the purpose of oil pressure monitoring, speed/pressure dependent limit curves can be provided. If oil pressure is too low, an alarm is given; if oil pressure continues to drop, the engine is shut down.

k) Load Regulation System

For diesel-electric locomotive operation, a load regulation system can be provided, by which generator output is regulated in dependence on speed resp. load.

l) Anti Stick Slip Device

For locomotive operation, an anti stick slip device can be provided.

m) Accessories

Accessories such as synchronizing units, load measuring units, disturbance variable compensation units can be connected via a CAN-bus within the control unit. The CAN-bus may also be used to implement load distribution by equal fuelling (e.g., two engines on one gear).

n) Output signals

For speed and actuator travel, proportional signals are available in the range of 4-20 mA. They can be used for purposes of display or for further processing (e.g., switches). Furthermore, if errors occur at the sensors or within the control system, an alarm is given.

o) Operating Data Storage

On request, operating data storage can be provided, by which in cases of disturbances and failures the causes may be traced back even at some later time.

2. Mode Of Operation

The actual speed of the engine is read by a pulse pickup from a cog wheel, preferably from the starter gear. The microprocessor (CPU) of the control unit compares the actual speed with the preset value. If differences are stated, the new actuator signal is calculated by the CPU and transmitted to the actuator via the output stage. Feedback from the actuator indicates the current position of the output shaft thus allowing optimum signal adjustment by the CPU.

As the governor comprises an I-fraction and as for any load level the speed is permanently compared with a fixed preset value, speed can be kept constant also in steady state, i.e., droop is zero.

Foe applications requiring droop, the speed related to the respective fuelling is calculated by the CPU and entered as correction of the setpoint value.

During standstill, a particular circuit ensures that only the current of the control unit is received by the governor, but no current flows to the actuator motor.

3. Block Diagram of the Digital Governor DG 162-01 up to DG 402-01



Fig. 1: Block Diagram DG 162-01 up to DG 402-01

4. Pickup IA...

4.1 Specification

4.2 Installation

The installation of the pickup has to be arranged in such a way as to obtain a frequency as high as possible. Normally, The HEINZMANN governors DG 162-01, DG 302-01 and DG 402-01 are designed for a maximum frequency of 12000 Hz. Frequency (by Hz) is calculated according to the formula

NB: It should be taken care that the speed can be measured by the pulse pickup without any bias. For best results therefore, the speed pickup should take the engine speed from the crankshaft. A suitable position for this is, e.g., the starter gear (but not the injection pump wheel).

The pickup gear must consist of magnetic material (e.g., steel, cast iron).

4.3 Tooth Profile

Any tooth profile is admissible. The top width of the tooth should be 2.5 mm minimum, the gap and the depth of the gap at least 4 mm. For index plates the same dimensions are valid.

Due to tolerances, a radial arrangement of the magnetic pickup is preferable.

4.4 Clearance Of Magnetic Pickup

The distance between the magnetic pulse pickup and the tooth top should range from 0.5 and 0.8 mm. (It is possible to screw in the magnetic pickup till it touches the tooth and then unscrew it for about half a turn.)


Fig. 2: Clearance Of Magnetic Pickup

4.5 Mounting Measurements


Fig. 3: Measurements Of Pickup

Ordering specification, e.g., IA 02-76

4.6 Redundant Speed Signal

If precautions are to be taken with regard to failures of the pulse pickup, a second pulse pickup can be connected to the control unit. In case that an electric generator with terminal W is available, this signal may be used for emergency operation as well as any other signal of a tachogenerator.

In case of a failure on puls pickup, the governor automatically switches over to the redundant speed signal and gives an alarm.

5. Speed Setpoint Adjusters and Sensors

Dependent on particular applications, a series of setpoint adjusters are available for the HEINZMANN Digital Controls.

5.1 Speed Setpoint Potentiometer SW 01-1-B (1 turn with Limitation Resistors) (EDV-No.: 600 00 041 01)


Fig. 4: Potentiometer SW 01-1

5.2 Speed Setpoint Potentiometer SW 02-10-B (10 turns with Limitation Resistors) (EDV-No.: 600 00 042 01)

On request, the potentiometers, as specified under 5.1 and 5.2, can be supplied with analogue adjustment knob with lock in place of the standard rotating knob. In this case, ordering specification is SW..-..-m.

Equally, instead of the knob a clamping fixture can be installed. Ordering specification is SW..-..-k.

5.3 Setpoint Value Adjustment by Current Signal

For the speed setpoint value a current signal of 4-20 mA can be directly connected to the control unit. If the signal fails, the governor will set the speed to a programmable substitute value.

5.4 Setpoint Value Adjustment by Pedal

This unit is basically an angular position transducer that translates a foot pedal into a proportional current or voltage for 0-45° rotation. The resulting output can be used for speed setting. For more information refer to manual E 83 005-e.

5.5 Pressure Sensors

For pneumatic setpoint adjustment are pressure sensors available as follows:

As boost pressure sensor for a range up to 2 bar the pressure sensor DSG 03 (EDV-No.: 604 00 024 02) is available.

5.6 Temperature Sensor TS-2000 F for Measuring Fluid Temperatures (EDV-No.: 600 00 034 00)


Fig. 6: Temperature Sensor TS-2000 F

PT 1000- types can be used alternatively.

For measuring gas temperatures PT 1000- types must be used.

6. Control Unit DC 162-01, DC 302-01 and DC 402-01

6.1 Specification

Remark

The control unit is available with terminal strip (DC...2-01-00) or with plug-in connectors (DC...2-01-55) alternatively. At delivery of the control unit the exact governor type together with identification of housing, software version and serial number is printed on the type plate.

Example: DC 162-01-55-12700

6.2 Measurements

Control Unit with plug-in connectors (DC...2-01-55)


Fig. 7: Housing of DC 162-01-55 up to DC 402-01-55

Control Unit with plug-in connectors (DC...2-01-00)


Fig. 8: Housing of DC 162-01-00 up to DC 402-01-00

7. Actuators

7.1 Design And Mode Of Operation


Fig. 9: Sectional Drawing Of Actuator

The actuator torque is generated by a DC disk armature motor and transmitted to the governor output shaft by the way of a gearbox.

The use of special materials and long-time lubricants assures maintenance-free operation and long working life of the actuators.

A feedback cam is mounted on the governor output shaft which is scanned contactlessly by a probe, thus transmitting the precise position of the output shaft to the control unit.

If the actuator strikes against a stop, as may occur, e.g., under parallel mains operation or may be caused by engine overload or cylinder failure, the current limitation will take effect after approx. 20 seconds; by this the current to the actuator is reduced to a value that cannot harm the motor.

Altogether this type of actuator provides the following advantages:

- High regulation power working in both directions.
- Extremely low current consumption during steady state and relatively low current consumption on change of load.
- Indifference to slow voltage changes of the supply; abrupt voltage changes governor disturbances.

7.2 Installation

The actuator must be mounted firmly on the engine by means of reinforced brackets. Unstable arrangements, as caused by weak bracket material or missing stiffenings, have to be avoided by all means; they are bound to intensify vibration, which will lead to premature wear of the actuator and the connecting linkage!

7.3 Specification

7.4 Measurements


Fig. 10: Actuators StG 16-01, StG 30-01 and StG 40-01

8. Regulating Linkage

8.1 Length Of Regulating Rack

The length of the regulating rack is determined in such a way that approx. 90% of the governor output shaft adjustment angle can be used. Based on this, the rack length L of governors with 42° adjustment angle is calculated as L=1.5a, "a" being the travel distance of the injection pump or the carburetor.

8.2 Connecting Linkage

The connecting linkage from the governor to the injection pump or the carburetor should be length-adjustable and have a (pressure or tension) elastic link. If possible, joint rod heads in accordance with DIN 648 should be used as connecting links. The linkage must operate easily and without clearance.

In case of friction or backlash in the linkage connecting actuator and injection pump resp. throttle valve no optimal control is possible.

8.3 Linkage Adjustment for Diesel Engines

The length of the connecting linkage is adjusted in such a way that with the governor in stop position the injection pump is set to 0-2 fuel marks. (Travel of the injection pump control rack is limited by the governor.)


Fig. 11: Linkage for Diesel Engines

The resistance of the pressure elastic link is overcome when the control rack has reached the full load stop and the speed continues to decrease (overload). Furthermore, the elastic link is overcome when stopping via the emergency switch.

8.4 Linkage Adjustment for Carburetor Engines

For carburetor or gas engines, the length of the connecting linkage is adjusted in such a way that the governor in full load position the throttle valve is completely open. In idling speed position, the elastic link must be slightly overcome. This allows adjustment of the idle screw without changing the governor adjustment.


Fig. 12: Linkage for Gas Engines

If carburetor or injection pump are to the right of the governor as opposed to their position on the drawings, then the direction of motion of the elastic link must also be reversed.

9. Electric Connection

9.1 Connection of Shielding

To avoid electromagnetic influences it is necessary to connect cable shields at both ends. This includes shielding from control housing to sensors, from control housing to potentiometers, from control housing to actuator and from control housing to accessory units. If there is potential difference between the control housing and any of these other components, to avoid current via the shielding it is necessary to run a separate wire from the control housing to each of these components.


Fig. 13: Connection of Separate Wire

At cable ends without plugs (e.g., terminal strip or pins) the shielding must be connected at the housing near the contacts.


Fig. 14: Shield Connection without Plug

In case of a plug connection the shielding is jammed in the strain relief of the plug.


Fig. 15: Shield Connection in the Plug

9.2 Example of Connection for Generator Set

(Parallel-and mains operation with digital accessories)


Fig. 16: Connections with Plugs (IP 55) for Genset with Digital Accessories


Fig. 17: Connections with Terminal Strip (IP 00) for Genset with Digital Accessories

9.3 Example of Connection for Generator Set

(Parallel-and mains operation with analogue accessories)


Fig. 18: Connections with Plugs (IP 55) for Genset with Analogue Accessories


Fig. 19: Connections with Terminal Strip (IP 00) for Genset with Analogue Accessories

9.4 Example of Connection for Vehicle Operation


Fig. 20: Connections with Plugs (IP 55) for Vehicle Operation


Fig. 21: Connections with Terminal Strip (IP 00) for Vehicle Operation

9.5 Example of Connection for Locomotive Operation

(16 speed levels)


Fig. 22: Connections with Plugs (IP 55) for Locomotive with Speed Steps


Fig. 23: Connections with Terminal Strip (IP 00) for Locomotive with Speed Steps

9.6 Example of Connection for Locomotive Operation

(Speed adjustment by current signal)


Fig. 24: Connections with Plugs (IP 55) for Locomotive with Current Input


Fig. 25: Connections with Terminal Strip (IP 00) for Locomotive with Current Input

9.7 Example of Connection for Marine Operation

(Twin operation: 2 engines with 1 propeller)


Fig. 26: Connections with Plugs (IP 55) for Marine Twin Operation


Fig. 27: Connections with Terminal Strip (IP 00) for Marine Twin Operation

9.8 Example of Connection for Marine Operation

(Single Engines)


Fig. 28: Connections with Plugs (IP 55) for Marine Single Operation


Fig. 29: Connections with Terminal Strip (IP 00) for Marine Single Operation

10. Programming Possibilities

Programming the Heinzmann Digital Governor can be performed according to the possibilities described below:

10.1 Programming by the Manufacturer

During final inspection by the manufacturer, the functionability of the governor is checked by means of a test program. If the operational data for the governor are available, the test program is executed using those data. On the engine, only the dynamic values and, if necessary, the actuator position limits and sensors have to be adjusted.

10.2 Programming with the Hand-Held Programmer 2

The entire programming can be performed using the Hand-Held Programmer 2. This handy device may be conveniently used for development and for serial adjustment as well as for service purposes.

10.3 Programming by PC

Programming can also be performed using the PC. In comparison with the hand-held programmer, this method offers advantages with respect to the possibilities of having characteristic curves readily displayed on the screen and easily varied; the same holds for the time diagrams when putting the governor into operation on the engine. Furthermore, the PC offers a better overview, as the PC program presents a menu structure and is able to continuously display several parameters at a time.

The PC program also permits to save and load governor data to and from diskettes.

10.4 Programming with User Masks

Principally, programming may be performed with the help of user masks that have been provided by HEINZMANN or may conveniently be created by the user himself. Within a user mask, only those parameters are accessible that are actually needed.

10.5. Transferring Data Sets

Once programming with respect to a specific engine type and its application has been completed, the data set can be stored (in the hand-held programmer or on diskette). For future cases of similar applications, the data set may be downloaded into the new governors.

10.6. Assembly Line End Programming

This method of programming is applied by the engine manufacturer during the final bench tests of the engine. On this occasion, the governor is programmed with regard to operation requirements and to ordering specifications.

11. Starting The Engine-Brief Instructions

11.1 Adjust clearance of magnetic pulse pickup.

11.2 Check program with respect to relevant parameters: number of teeth, speed, etc.

11.3 Set point potentiometer in mid-position:

If the dynamic values have already been determined for an installation, they can be programmed directly at this point.

11.4 Start engine and run it up to nominal speed using the set point potentiometer.

11.5 Increase gain (P-fraction) up to instability and reduce until stability is attained. Increase stability (I-fraction) up to instability and reduce until stability is attained. Increase derivative (D-fraction) up to instability and reduce until stability is attained.

With these values set, engine speed is to be disturbed briefly (e.g., by shortly pressing the stop switch), and the transient oscillations are to be observed.

11.6 Check over the entire speed range.

If for maximum and minimum speed other values than the programmed ones should result, this will be due to tolerances of the set point potentiometer. If the speed derivation is not acceptable, it will be necessary to measure the setpoint source.

11.7 Gain-correction (P-correction) for gas engines resp. for variable speed governors with larger speed ranges; adjust map if necessary.

11.8 Checking the remaining program items, e.g., starting fuel injection, ramp time, etc.

12. Ordering Specifications

12.1 General Information

Every data as

are noted in the manual "Order Information Digital Speed Governors" No. DG96012-e and should be transferred to HEINZMANN.

12.2 Harness


Fig. 30: Harness With Cable Numbers

12.3 Plug Connections


Fig. 31: Plugs with Designation

12.4 Table of possible In- and Outputs

12.5 Cable Lengths

It is of advantage to obtain the harness together with the governor.

The necessary cable lengths have to be registered here and transferred to HEINZMANN.

Please note: It is not possible to use all signals simultaneous because some inputs and outputs of the governor have various options depending on the application.

a) L1 = Control unit-battery

b) L2 = Control unit-actuator

c) L3 = Control unit-setpoint adjusting unit

d) L4 = Control unit-pickup

e) L5 = Control unit-sensor inputs

f) L6 = Control unit-digital inputs

g) L7 = Control unit-overspeed protection

h) L8 = Control unit-controlled current output

i) L9 = Control unit-status indicator

j) L10 = Control unit-analogue outputs

k) L11 = Control unit-frequency input

l) L12 = Control unit-PWM input

m) L13 = Control unit-Communication

13. Order Specifications for Manuals

There is no charge for our technical manuals in reasonable quantities.

Order necessary manuals on our speed governors from your nearest HEINZMANN location. (Please see the list of our subsidiaries and agents in the world on the following pages.)

Please include the following information:

* your name.
* the name and address of your company (you can simply include your business card),
* The address where you want the manuals sent (if different from above),
* The number(s) (as on front page bottom right) and title(s) of the desired manual(s),
* or the technical data of your HEINZMANN equipment,
* the quantity you want.

You can directly use the following fax-form for ordering on or several manuals.

We solicit comments about the content and the presentation of our publications. Please, send your comments to:

HEINZMANN GmbH
Marketing Abteilung
Am Haselbach 1
D-79677 Schonau
Germany

1. General Information

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls of the HELENOS and PRIAMOS series have been conceived as general purpose controls for diesel engines, gas engines, and other prime movers. In addition to their primary purpose of controlling speed, these governors are capable of performing a variety of other tasks and functions.

The centerpiece of the control unit consists of a very fast and powerful microprocessor (CPU). The controller program itself based on which the microprocessor will operate is permanently stored in a so-called flash-ROM. On powering up the control, this program is copied into the controls working memory (RAM) which will permit fast execution of any required parameter changes.

In addition to the main processor, the HEINZMANN control units of the HELENOS and PRIAMOS series are equipped with an auxiliary processor (CPU2) that is supposed to perform two monitoring functions. On the one hand, the auxiliary processor will monitor engine speed for over speeding independently of the main processor, on the other hand, it will supervise the operatability of the main processor itself. For HELENOS series this auxiliary processor is optional.

If the auxiliary processor detects overspeed or if the main processor is at fault the auxiliary processor will execute an emergency engine shutdown.

Actual engine speed is measured by a magnetic pickup in the starter gear. For the sake of safety redundancy, either an additional speed pickup can be provided, or the generator signal from terminal W can be used by the control as a substitute for the speed signal so that there will be no interruption of operation if the first pickup should happen to fail.

Engine speed is set by one or more setpoint adjusters. These adjusters can be designed to be analog or digital ones. Further digital inputs permit to switch on functions or to change over to other functions.

Furthermore, there are various sensors that will feed the control with the data it needs to adjust the engine's operating state.

The actuator regulating fuel supply to the engine is driven by a PWM signal. By this, both two-quadrant actuators (working electrically one way) and four-quadrant actuators (working electrically both ways) can be driven.

The control will generate analog and digital signals that can be used to indicate the engines operating states or that will serve other purposes and functions. Communication with other units is established via a serial interface and a CAN bus.

1.1 Basic Circuit Diagrams

The following basic circuit diagrams show the internal architecture of the control units of the PRIAMOS and HELENOS series.



Fig. 1: Basic Circuit Diagrams Priamos



Fig. 2: Basic Circuit Diagrams Helenos

1.2 Functional Block Diagrams

The functional bock diagram gives a simplified view of the control structure of the HEINZMANN Digital Control. It exhibits its basic functions as well as the signal flow for various important functions.



Fig. 3: Functional Block Diagram

1.3 Conventions

Throughout this manual the following typographic conventions have been adopted:

1.4 Parameter Lists

In developing the HEINZMANN Digital Controls top priority was given to realizing a combination of universal applicability and high grade functionability. As several adjustable parameters had to be provided for each individual function, some system was needed to conveniently organize the great multitude of parameter that would inevitably result from the numerous functions to be implemented. So for the sake of clarity and easy access, the parameters have been grouped into four lists.

1. Parameters Parameters used for adjusting the control and the engine (parameter numbers 1..1999)
2. Measurements Parameters (measuring or monitor values) destined for displaying the actual states of the control and the engine (parameter numbers 2000..3999)
3. Functions Parameters used for activating and switching over functions (parameter numbers 4000..5999)
14. Curves Parameters used for programming characteristic curves and characteristic maps (parameter numbers 6000..7999)

Each parameter has been assigned a number and an abbreviation. The parameter number indicates which list the parameter belongs to. Within these lists the parameters are arranged by groups to facilitate reference for more detailed information.

The following overview is repeated in the chapter
Parameter Description. There it will be followed by another survey that has been extended to include each single parameter.

1.5 Parameter Value Ranges

Each parameter is assigned a certain value range. As there is quite many parameters and functions, there also exists a great number of value ranges. In the chapter
Parameter Description, the value ranges are listed for each individual parameter. Furthermore, the parameter value ranges can be viewed by means of the PC or the Hand-Held Programmer (
Programming Possibilities).

For speed parameters, however, a common value range is provided. As a standard, it is set to 0..4095 rpm which allows to run engines up to maximum speeds of approx. 3500-3600 rpm. (There must exist some reserve for
Thrust Operation and
Overspeed Monitoring).

For high speed engines, a speed range of 0..8198 rpm is available, and for operating a turbine using the control, a special speed range of 0..32767 rpm can be provided. Please, specify the desired speed range when ordering the Digital Control; otherwise, it will be shipped with the value range set to the standard 0..4095 rpm.

Throughout this manual the value range of 0..4095 rpm is used as a standard for speed parameters. Note that selection of any other value range will imply changes of the range limits. These changes are explained in the chapter
Parameter Description and should be carefully taken account of.

For certain parameters of the value ranges cannot be specified explicitly in advance, but must be communicated to the control by the user. This applies to any parameter indicating physical measurements such as measurements from pressure or temperature sensors (
Measuring Ranges of Sensors).

Some parameters are assigned a value range that is capable of two states only, viz. 0 or 1. Parameters of this type are used to activate or switch over particular functions or to indicate states of errors or of external switches, etc. Parameters having this value range are confined to lists 2 (Measurements) and 3 (Functions), see
Parameter Lists. List 3 comprises exclusively parameters with value range 0.1.

In that case, state "1" signifies that the respective function is active or that the respective error has occurred, whereas state "0" signals the function to be inactive resp. that no error has occurred.

As for change-over switches, the signification of their states is explained in the parameter description.

1.6 Levels

As it is the Digital Controls primary function to control the operational behavior of the engine in regard to speed, power, etc., programming should remain entrusted exclusively to the engine manufactured. However, to let the ultimate customer, too, participate in the advantages of the Digital Control, the parameters of the HEINZMANN Digital Control have been grouped according to a hierarchy of seven levels.

* Level 1: Level for the ultimate customer

On this level, it is possible to have the basic operational values, (e.g., set values and current values of speed and actuator position) and errors displayed. This level, however, does not allow any manipulations of the control data or the engine data.

* Level 2: Level for the device manufacturer

The device manufacturer can set speeds within the permissible ranges. Besides, the control's dynamic parameters and dynamic mapping may be modified and power output reduced.

* Level 3: Level for the service

With the exception of the most relevant engine specific parameters, such as engine output and boundaries of various characteristic diagrams, all types of modifications are permitted on this level.

* Level 4: Level for the engine manufacturer

On this level, the entire program needed to program the control is accessible. Furthermore, user masks can be created on this level.

* Level 5: Level for engine manufacturers with user specific software

This level is required if a customer wishes to create control software of his own. User software will eventually allow to modify functions of the Digital Control and to define user-specific functions.

* Level 6: Level for the control manufacturer

On this level, control functions may be manipulated directly. Therefore, access remains reserved for HEINZMANN.

* Level 7: Level for development

This level remains reserved for the HEINZMANN development department.

As will have become evident from this survey any superior level is a proper superset of the previous level, providing upward compatibility.

The chapter
Parameter Description offers a list of all parameters together with their respective levels.

The maximum level is determined by means of the diagnostics device used (PC or hand Held Programmer) cannot be changed. There exists, however, the option of reducing the currently valid level by means of a special menu item of the PC-program or via the parameter 1800. Reducing the level is, however, bound to affect the number of parameters and functions that can be accessed.

1.7 Programming Possibilities

There exists different ways of programming the HEINZMANN Digital Controls:

* Programming by HEINZMANN

During final inspection at the factory, the functionability of the control is checked by means of a test program. If the customer specific operational data is available, the test program is executed using those data. When mounted on the engine, only the dynamic values and, if necessary, the actuator position limits and sensors remain to be calibrated.

* Programming with the Hand Held Programmer

Depending on the level, any programming can be performed using the Hand-Held Programmer. This convenient device may be used for development and for serial tuning as well as for servicing purposes.

* Programming by PC

The PC offers the possibility to have several parameters that are accessible on the level currently chosen continuously displayed and to modify them. Besides, the PC-program is capable of graphically displaying limitation curves, characteristics, etc., and of adjusting them easily and quickly. The control data can be stored by the PC or downloaded from the PC to the control. Furthermore, the PC program has the advantage of visualizing measured values (such as speed, actuator travel) as functions of time or as functions of each other (e.g., actuator travel versus speed).

* Programming with User Masks

Programming can generally be performed with user masks that are provided by HEINZMANN or that the user may conveniently created by himself. User masks are intended to display only those parameters that are actually needed.

* Transferring Data Sets

Once programming is complete for a specific engine type and its application, the data set can be stored by the Hand Held Programmer or on diskette. For future applications of the same type, these data sets can then be downloaded to the new controls.

* Check-out Programming

This type of programming is performed by the engine manufacturer during the final bench tests of the engine. By this procedure, the control is tuned to engine requirements and to ordering specifications.

1.8 Description of Functions: Explanatory Remarks

The following chapters describe the functions of the HEINZMANN Digital Controls and their adjustment. Some functions will work only in conjunction with others (e.g.,
Torque Limit with
Speed Dependent Fuel Limitation) or are affected by other functions (e.g.,
Variable Starting Fuel Adjustment by
Starting Procedure with Speed Ramp Enabled). When adjusting and optimizing any such function it will in most cases be advisable to de-activate other functions so that the impact of the function in question can be checked by itself. For instructions of how to adjust these functions refer to the respective chapters.

1.8.1 Activation of Functions

With regard to the activation of functions, the following alternatives are provided:

* permanently active:

These functions cannot be turned off (e.g.,
Speed Limit Line,
Overspeed Monitoring).

* parameters:

Parameters contained in list 3 (
Parameter Lists enable functions that are being selected by the user will remain permanently active (e.g.,
Speed Dependent Fuel Limitation).

* external switches:

By external switches (
Digital Inputs the control can be given instructions concerning requested operational states that are subject to frequent changes during operation (e.g., change-over
Droop, change-over
Speed Dependent Fuel Limitation,
Torque Limit). The states of the external switches can be viewed by the parameters that have been assigned numbers from 2800 onward.

NOTE: The Digital Controls of the PRIAMOS series are equipped with 10 switch inputs, those of the HELENOS series with at most 8 (
Digital Inputs). The number of functions that can be activated by external switches is, however, considerably larger than the number of inputs. Therefore, depending on the device version and on customer demands, the digital inputs can be assigned to different functions. In the following chapters, it is presumed that with regard to any function that is to be activated or switched over by external switches, the respective switch has been accordingly implemented resp. assigned.

1.8.2 Programming Examples

For each function a programming example will be given. These examples will take account of all parameters that are required by the function being described. The values adduced in these descriptions, however, may vary with different engine types and applications, and should be understood so serve as illustration only. Therefore, in adjusting a function, the values eventually entered must be reasonable and suited to the engine and to the application.

1.8.3 Reset

A reset tantamount to powering down the control and starting it again. This is achieved by shortly turning off the current supply or by pressing the reset button.

A reset will clear any data that has not been saved in the controls permanent memory (flash-ROM). It is, therefore, imperative that before executing a reset all data be transferred to the controls permanent memory if it is to be preserved.

Certain functions of the Digital Control can be activated only by reset. The majority of these functions serve the purpose to put the control into some other operating state (e.g., activation of magnetic pickup 2), whereas, for safety reasons, the parameters in question cannot be modified under current operation (e.g., number of teeth).

NOTE: As during reset the control is de-energized for a short time, a reset may be executed only with the engine at a standstill.

1.9 Further Information

The present manual describes the functions and adjustments of the HEINZMANN Digital Controls. For further information such as, e.g., programming Digital Controls by PC or Hand Held Programmer, description of sensors, setpoint adjusters, actuators and cabling please refer to the following manuals:

The above manuals can be ordered from HEINZMANN using the ordering from in the appendix.

2. Starting the Engine

On first commissioning the control on the engine, the below instructions should be strictly followed. This is the only way to ensure that later on the engine can be started without any problems.

These instructions can, however, give only some brief information on how to commission the governor. For more detailed information you are requested to refer to the respective chapters or manuals.

The instructions will discuss all parameters that must be adjusted before the engine is started. The parameter values, however, are intended to serve as examples only. For actual operation they will have to be set in a way to reasonably suit the engine and the specific application.

1. Adjust distance of speed pickup.

The distance between the pickup and the tip of the teeth should be approx. 0.5 to 0.8 mm. For detailed information see the manuals for the basis systems.

2. Check linkage.

The linkage must operate smoothly and easily, and it must be capable of moving to the stop and maximum fuel positions.

3. Check cabling.

-Digital inputs: (see also
Digital Inputs). On turning any switch, the respective monitoring parameter must display the change.

Example: When operating the engine stop switch, the value of parameter 2810 SwitchEngineStop must change accordingly.

Check all switches in like manner.

-Analog Inputs: (see also
Analog Inputs). On commissioning for the first time, it is only the setpoint adjusters that are needed because the functions operating based on signals from the analog inputs (such as boost pressure dependent fuel limitation, speed dependent oil pressure monitoring, etc.) may not yet be activated. Nevertheless, all analog inputs should be checked.

Example: Let us assume that setpoint adjuster 1 has been connected to analog input 1. When altering the set value, the parameter 3511 ADC1Value is expected to change accordingly. If there is no change, the cabling of the setpoint adjuster must be at fault. Along with 3511 ADC1Value, also the parameter 3510 ADC1 and the specific setpoint adjuster parameter 2901 Setpoint1 are bound to change from 0% to 100% when the setpoint adjuster is turned from minimum to maximum position. If this is not the case, the input needs to be normalized (
Calibration of Analog Inputs).

-Adjust and check the actuator (
Calibration of Actuator). Calibration of he actuator can be performed with the aid of the PC program of the Hand Held Programmer
Programming Possibilities), or when using a control of the PRIAMOS series, by means of the
Turn Switch.

Automatic calibration of the actuator is to be carried out with the linkage removed from the governor and the injection pump resp. the gas mixer to make sure that the actuator is capable of traveling to its minimum and maximum positions. To check the actuator, the
Positioner Mode can be enabled by setting the parameter 5700 PositionerOn=1. By this procedure, the actuator position can be preset directly by 1700 PositionerSetPoint and then checked by having the actual actuator position displayed by parameter 2300 ActPos. Again, the actuator should be able to move across its total displacement range from 1% to 100%. The amplifiers of any of the three actuators is switched on by the function 5900 AmplifierOn=1. This check cannot be performed if any speed signal is coming in, i.e., positioning is not possible unless the engine is at a standstill.

4. Programming the most significant parameters.

- Begin by programming number of teeth, minimum and maximum speeds, and overspeeds (
Speeds):

- Preset PID-values (
Adjustment of PID-Parameters):

- Program the absolute limits of actuator travel and the speed limit line (
Limitation of Actuator travel,
Speed Limit Line):

- Adjust starting actuator position (type 1) (
Fixed Starting Fuel; Adjustment):

- Save values in flash-ROM and reset governor by a
Reset.

5. Check speed pickup and determine starter speed.

- Turn engine stop switch to OFF so that the engine cannot be started.

Operate starter and check the measured speed as indicated by 2000 Speed. At this point, the parameter should indicate cranking speed. Speed as measured by the control should be verified, if possible, by a separate speedometer to ensure that the number of teeth has been entered correctly.

- Check on the speed above which the control recognizes the engine to have started (256 StartSpeed2). This speed must be above cranking speed.

6. Start the engine and adjust control circuit stability (
Adjustment of PID-Parameters).

- Turn engine stop switch back to ON.

- Start the engine and run it up to rated speed using the setpoint adjuster.

- Optimize the PID-values.

Increase gain (P-factor) 100 Gain till the engine becomes unstable and then reduce till stability is restored.

Increase stability (I-factor) 101 Stability till the engine becomes unstable and then reduce till stability is restored.

Increase derivative (D-factor) 102 Derivative till the engine becomes unstable and then reduce till stability is restored.

With this adjustment, disturb engine speed briefly and observe the transient response.

7. Perform this checking procedure for the entire speed range. If for minimum and maximum speeds this checking procedure results in values differing from the programmed ones, the setpoint adjuster needs to be calibrated.

(
Calibration of Analog Inputs). The parameter 2031 SpeedSetpoint1 will indicate whether the value has been set correctly.

8. Perform speed and/or fuel dependent correction of PID parameters for gas engines resp. for variable speed controls with larger speed ranges

(
Optimizing Control Circuit Stability).

9. Adjust the remaining functions, such as speed ramps, speed dependent fuel limitation, etc.
10. Save the data determined by this procedure by storing it in the control.

3. Starting Fuel Adjustment

To start properly, naturally aspirated diesel engines and engines with low pressure charging need to be fed an excess quantity of fuel; in other words, for start-up a larger amount of fuel must be injected than for full load.

Diesel engines fitted with more powerful turbochargers will operate during start-up by a reduced starting fuel quantity to prevent smoke bursts.

With smaller gas engines, the throttle valve is to be opened only partially to ensure successful starting, whereas for larger gas engines with priming the throttle valve must be completely opened.

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls comply with these stipulations by de-activating the controls limiting functions during start-up. This allows to program starting fuel adjustment appropriately. To do so, three options are available that can be selected by the parameter 250 StartType as follows:

The different phases of the starting procedure and of the speed control are indicated by parameter 3830 Phase (
Indication of Operating Mode):

3.1 Fixed Starting Fuel Adjustment

On reaching speed as set by 255 StartSpeed1, the control recognizes that the engine is being cranked, and it will release the amount needed for cranking (starting actuator position) 260 Start1ActPos. For special cases, a standstill feeding position of the actuator can be enabled by a switch contact (
2822 SwitchStart). By this, the starting fuel amount will be already set when cranking begins.

On reaching speed as set by 256 StartSpeed2, the control recognizes that the engine is running. At this point, the actual starting actuator position is retained for a period defined by 251 LimitsDelay. After that, the control passes over to using the normal limiting functions. For the duration of the delay time as set by 251 LimitsDelay, actuator travel is limited by 260 Start1ActPos.



Fig. 4: Fixed Starting Fuel Adjustment

3.2 Variable Starting Fuel Adjustment

Variable starting fuel adjustment is mainly used for diesel engines with little or medium output. In these cases, two starting fuel amounts are provided. The first amount 260 Start1ActPos is set to the value with which the warm engine will start properly, whilst the second 261 Start1ActPos is set to the value by which the cold engine is sure to start even at extremely low temperatures.

If within the time defined by 265 Start1Duration the engine should not start with starting fuel set to 260 Start1ActPos, the control will increase the fuel amount to 261 Start2ActPos for the time 266 Start2Duration. This fuel amount is maintained until the engine starts off or the starting sequence is aborted.

On reaching 255 StartSpeed1 the control will, as before, recognize that the engine is being cranked, and on reaching 256 StartSpeed2 that the engine is running. It will then retain the starting fuel adjustment as actuator travel limitation for the time of 251 LimitsDelay.

During 251 LimitsDelay, actuator travel limitation will correspond to the actuator position at which the engine started running.



Fig. 5: Variable Starting Fuel Adjustment

Programming Example:

3.3 Temperature Dependent Starting Fuel Adjustment

For this mode of starting fuel adjustment, the starting actuator position is set in dependence of temperature. By means of a temperature sensor the engine temperature (
2560 TempCoolWater) is measured and used by the control to determine the starting actuator position that is best suited for this temperature.



Fig. 6: Dependence of Starting Fuel from Temperature

As long as the cold engine's temperature is below 271 StartTempCold the starting fuel 261 Start2ActPos is released. With the engine temperature rising, starting fuel is reduced until with temperature at 270 StartTempWarm the actuator position 260 Start1ActPos is attained.

On attaining 255 StartSpeed1 the control will, as before, recognize that the engine is being cranked, and on reaching 256 StartSpeed2 that the engine is running; it will then retain the starting fuel adjustment for the time as set by 251 LimitsDelay.

During the time defined by 251 LimitsDelay, actuator travel limitation will correspond to the actuator position, at which the engine started off.



Fig. 7: Temperature Dependent Starting Fuel Adjustment

Programming Example:

3.4 Starting Performance Using Speed Ramp

When the starting speed ramp function 4235 StartRampOn is enabled, The Digital Control will start the engine with rated speed set to 257 StartSpeed3. On attaining this value, it will then make the speed setpoint ramp up by the rate given by 235 StartRampUp until the preset value is reached. The starting speed ramp is independent of the normal
Speed Ramp. It is only used to start the engine. If both the starting speed and the normal speed ramp are enabled, the normal set speed ramp will remain inactive after engine start the rated speed has been reached via the starting speed ramp.

NOTE: Starting speed 257 StartSpeed3 for the starting speed ramp may range below minimum speed.



Fig. 8: Starting Procedure with Starting Speed Ramp Enabled

Programming Example:

In addition to any of the preceding examples, the following parameters are to be programmed (rpmps=rotations per minute per second)

4. Speeds

4.1 Speed Values

The following parameters are provided for indication of speeds:

NOTE: The speed measured is weakly filtered to eliminate engine speed variations due to the coefficient of cyclic variation (speed droop).

4.2 Speed Measuring

To enhance safety, an independent second speed pickup can be connected to the HEINZMANN Digital Controls to take over sensing engine speed in case the first pickup should fail. Speed pickup 1 is always the one to be used in normal operation whereas the second serves as a safety pickup only.

Whenever possible, the pickup should be mounted to the starter gear. The alternator signal (terminal W) can also serve as a redundant speed sensing signal in place of a second pickup. For further information on how to connect the pickups one should refer to the manuals of the basis systems.

When programming, the number of teeth the respective pickup sees during one complete revolution of the engine is to be entered. Analogously, the frequency is to be entered for the signal from terminal W.

Programming Example:

NOTE: The second speed pickup must be activated separately. All of these parameters are enabled only following a
Reset.

4.3 Speed Pickup Monitoring

There have been separate monitoring functions included for either speed pickup. Pickup monitoring commences after engine start as soon as the speed signal attains a certain level which will depend on the number of teeth. This speed, however, will have to be set to a value by at least 50 rpm below the lesser of the two minimum speeds (10 SpeedMin1 or 11 SpeedMin2).

If the control has been missing the speed signal for a certain length of time it will report an error and cause suitable measures to be taken.

Example: Suppose the engine has a starter gear with 160 teeth. If at a speed of 2000 rpm the pickup suddenly stops transmitting signals, the control will recognize failure of the pickup half a revolution later.

If only one speed pickup is connected, an emergency engine shutdown will immediately be executed. With two pickups connected, speed sensing will continue by means of the healthy pickup. The following parameter provides information on the active by which the control is currently operating:

As a reaction to pickup failure, the admissible maximum speed may be reduced which in turn will lead to restrictions of emergency operation.

On pickup failure, maximum speed is reduced by parameter 26 SpeedMaxReduction. As this parameter relates to the currently valid maximum speed, it must be specified by per cent.

Programming Example:

Let us suppose that for normal operation maximum speed 2010 SpeedMax has been set to 2100 rpm. On pickup failure, emergency operation is to be carried on at a maximum speed 1800 rpm. This is equivalent to a reduction of maximum speed by 14.3%.

4.4 Determination of Speed Setpoints

The adjustment of setpoints can be achieved either by analog setpoint adjusters (potentiometer, gas pedal, current signal, etc.) or by external switches for fixed speed values. As the control may see several signals coming in at the same time, the signal sources have been assigned different priorities. Arranged by descending priority, the control unit offers the following possibilities to adjust setpoints:

Strictly speaking, the function "Engine stop" (zero speed) does not represent any setpoint adjustment; it is, however, assigned higher priority than any other functions. Adjusting setpoints by analog adjusters is possible only if none of the switches for fixed speed values has been actuated. Otherwise the control will operate based on switch priority by one of the speed setpoints 10 SpeedMin1, 11 SpeedMin2, 17 SpeedFix1, or18 SpeedSet2. The fixed speeds 17 SpeedFix1 and 18 SpeedFix2 must be within the speed range defined by the minimum and maximum speeds.

As an adaptation to the engines operating modes, two different speed ranges can be provided, e.g., one for driving and one for stationary operation. For driving operation the speed range is normally defined with regard to the requirements of the prime mover, and for stationary operation with regard to those of the working machine.

These speed ranges are programmed by the following parameters:

Programming Example:

Speed range is assumed to be from 700 rpm to 2100 rpm for driving operation, and from 1000 rpm to 1800 rpm for stationary operation. Besides, there are fixed speeds to be provided for stationary operation at 1200 and at 1500 rpm.

The speed range by which the control is supposed to operate is selected by the speed range switch; switch position is indicated by the parameter.

The speed range selected can be viewed by the parameters 2010 SpeedMin and 2012 SpeedMax. If there is no selector switch the control will operate using speed range 1.

NOTE: Minimum speed and maximum speed may be subject to increases by
Droop.

For variable operating conditions, it is possible to make use of two different setpoint adjusters which in their turn are selected by a switch. Their values are indicated by the parameters

The following parameters indicate which setpoint adjuster is currently active:

If there is no selector switch the current set point is obtained by adding the two setpoints. In this event, the two parameters 2827 SwitchSetPoint1 and 2828 SwitchSetPoint2 will both indicate the value 1.

NOTE: In applications using but one setpoint adjuster, both parameters are set to 1; the control, however, will operate by one setpoint only.

With regard to specific applications, it is possible to freeze the current speed setpoint by means of a switch and to continue operation using this set value. Freezing is indicated by the parameters

When the currently set value exceeds the frozen value, operation will continue based on the larger one. The frozen setpoint will, however, be abandoned only when the switch is opened.

The set speed value that will eventually result from this procedure of determining the set speed value can be checked by the parameter 2034.

The following figure provides an overview of what will be the further steps in determining the speed setpoint. The set speed value resulting from setpoint determination by switches and setpoint adjusters is modified through the
Setpoint Jump Generator and then delayed by the
Speed Ramp. Once the delayed set speed value has been increased by
Droop., it will constitute the definite speed setpoint for the speed control. The intermediary values resulting from the different stages of speed setpoint determination are indicated by the parameters 2031 through 2034.



Fig. 9: Determination of Speed Setpoints

4.5 Overspeed Monitoring

Overspeed is set by parameter 21 SpeedOver. This value will be valid for speed pickup 1 as soon as well as for speed pickup 2 through their speed signals are monitored independently of each other. In addition, the auxiliary processor is employed for overspeed monitoring of both speed pickups.

NOTE: It is only in the PRIAMOS series of digital governors that auxiliary processors are provided by standard.

In case the main processor should be at fault the auxiliary processor will stop the engine as soon as it runs up to the speed given by 22 SpeedOverCPU2. This overspeed value for the auxiliary processor should be chosen by at least 50 rpm higher than the one for the main processor. As on detecting overspeed the auxiliary processor will immediately stop the engine and as the engine can then be restarted only by a
Reset of the control, the difference between the overspeed values will constitute a certain safeguard against unintended engine stops (e.g., in case of overspeed due to thrust operation which will be detected by the main processor and be appropriately reacted to).

NOTE: The auxiliary processor overspeed parameter 22 SpeedOverCPU2 is reinstalled only following a
Reset.

Overspeed monitoring cannot be disabled, neither for a single processor nor for both. The response of the main processor to detecting overspeed may, however, vary and can be modified by specified parameters.

4.5.1 Emergency Shutdown

In normal cases, overspeeding is a fatal error and will cause an immediate emergency engine shutdown. The control will set the error flag 3006 ErrSpeedOver (thus activating the common error output) and de-energized the overspeed output. This overspeed output can be used to activate an external overspeed protection (
Digital Outputs). In addition, the actuators are positioned to zero, and the output stages of actuators equipped with powerful pull-back springs are switched off.

Programming:

4.5.2 Emergency Shutdown with Automatic Reset

The governor is going to react as described above but it will continue to operate as soon as speed has fallen again below the overspeed limit as set by 21 SpeedOver-100 rpm. In this event, the error is cleared, and the overspeed output is energized again.

Programming:

4.5.3 Thrust Operation

Especially in vehicle or marine operation, it may be desirable to exceed overspeed without provoking an emergency shutdown. To take account of this, overspeed monitoring can be disabled during thrust operation by setting 5313 ThrustOn=1. If current actuator position falls below the safety distance as given by 310 ActPosSecureMin plus 5% actuator travel, the control will interpret this to be thrust operation and will continue to operate normally regardless of overspeeding. In this event, the parameter 5006 EcySpeedOver will have no influence nor will there be any error indication.

Programming:

4.6 Temperature Dependent Idling Speed

When the engine is cold idling speed can be increased in dependence of temperature. Engine temperature (
2560 TempCoolWater) is determined by a temperature sensor. If engine temperature falls below 561 TempColdHigh, idling speed is increased linearly until, with the engine at temperature 560 TempCold Low, it reaches the value 60 SpeedMinCold. The actual minimum speed by which the control is currently operating is indicated by the parameter 2010 SpeedMin.



Fig. 10: Temperature Dependent Idling Speed

Programming Example:

NOTE: The temperatures for the cold engine 560 TempColdLow and 561 TempColdHigh are also used for
Temperature Dependent Correction of Stability.

4.7 Speed Ramp

For prime movers of ships, locomotives and certain types of vehicles, it is frequently desirable to have the speed not change abruptly when the set value is altered, but to make it attain the new setpoint smoothly.

For this purpose, the control provides ramps to retard acceleration. The delay rate in increasing or decreasing the set value can be adjusted separately for either direction:

The unit of these parameters is defined by increase resp. decrease of speed per second (revolutions per minute per second=rpmps). Both ramps are enabled through the parameter 4230 SpeedRampOn. If ramping is desired in one direction only, the maximum value (65535 rpmps) is to be entered for the other direction.

The speed setpoint as delayed by the ramp is indicated by the parameter 2032 SpeedSetPoint2. The parameter 2033 SpeedSetpoint3 represents the set speed value that the ramp is supposed to arrive at (see also
Determination of Speed Setpoints). This speed ramp cannot be enabled unless the control is operating in variable speed mode. For idling/maximum speed operation, there exists an
Actuator Travel Ramp to accomplish smooth load changes for this mode of operation, too.

Programming Example:

Speed is supposed to rise from 1000 rpm to 1500 rpm in the course of 20 seconds. This is equivalent to an increase of speed of 500 rpm within 20 seconds or of 25 rpm per second. Deceleration is to function without ramp.

NOTE: When starting the engine, it is possible to modify
Starting Performance by using a speed ramp.

4.7.1 Sectional Speed Ramp

If it is intended to use ramps only to prevent excessive under- and overshooting that may result from abrupt changes of set values, it is recommended to make use of sectional speed ramps.



Fig. 11: Sectional Speed Ramp

In this case, the ramp function is activated only after a certain difference in speed has been attained. Up to this point, the governor will operate without ramps thus achieving both faster engine response as well as reduction or even complete elimination of under-overshooting.

The speed difference above which the sectional speed rap becomes active may again be set separately for upward and downward ramps.

The sectional speed ramp has to be enabled independently of the normal
Speed Ramp by the parameter 4240 SectionalRampOn. The parameters 240 SectionalRampUp and 241 SectionalRampDown will then define the amplitude (slope) of the sectional speed ramp.

Programming Example:

The speed jump from 1000 rpm to 1500 rpm of the previous example is to be performed as fast as possible, but without any overshoot. Speed reduction is to be performed without using a ramp.

5. Optimizing Control Circuit Stability

Once the engine is running, the first thing to do should be to optimize control circuit stability. With diesel engines operating permanently at constant speeds (e.g., generator set operation), the basic adjustment of the PID parameters will do. For other applications, it may prove necessary to correct the PID parameters in dependence of speed or fuel amount. Gas engines will usually require fuel dependent correction whereas, in particular, engines with large ranges of speed control will in their turn require speed and fuel dependent adaptation. Adjustment of the PID parameters as well as speed and fuel dependent correction of the PID values will be described in the following chapters.

5.1 Adjustment of PID Parameters

The adjustment of the PID-Parameters will always be the first step to be taken. The values defined at this stage will serve as a basis for all subsequent corrections.

When optimizing the PID Parameters, the initial values are to be set as follows:

With these values set, the engine is started and run up to the working point for which the adjustment is to be made. As a rule, this working point will be at rated speed and off-load. For optimization of the PID parameters, proceed by the following steps:

* Increase the P-factor 100 Gain till the engine becomes unstable. Then, decrease the P-factor again till the speed oscillations disappear or are reduced to a moderate rate.
* Increase the I-factor 101 Stability till the engine passes over to long-wave oscillations.
* Increase the D-factor 102 Derivative till the speed oscillations disappear. If the oscillations cannot be eliminated by the D-factor, the I-factor will have to be reduced.

With theses values set, disturb engine speed for a short moment (e.g., by shortly operating the engine stop switch or by means of the
Setpoint Jump Generator) and observe the transient response. Continue to modify the PID-parameters until the transient response is satisfactory.

Parameter 115 PID_Adaption offers the option of jointly reducing all PID parameters by the same percentage relative to their original settings. The standard and maximum value of this parameter is 100% and signifies that there will be no modification of the PID parameters. By reducing this value, it is possible to bring about a joint reduction of all PID values. If it is intended to also increase the PID values, the value of 115 PID_Adaption must have been set to some smaller value (e.g., 80%) before setting about to optimize the individual values.

NOTE: If there be need for speed and/or fuel dependent correction of the PID parameters, 115 PID_Adaption should be set to 100% and reduction performed using the stability characteristics or the stability map.

5.2 Setpoint Jump Generator

For observing and optimizing the transient response, the governor provides a setpoint jump generator which produces a jump of the speed setpoint every three seconds. The width (amplitude) of this setpoint step can be adjusted as follows:

Programming Example:

The set speed value as modified by the setpoint jump generator is indicated by parameter 2033 SpeedSetpoint3 (
Determination of Speed Setpoints). As a means of optimization this setpoint jump generator will be active only as long as the governor is turned on. Its activation cannot be stored as a parameter.

5.3 Correction of PID Parameters

As speed goes up, the engines kinetic energy is equally bound to increase. With regard to the governor, this implies that its dynamic characteristic values (PID) may also have to be increased. When the engine takes on load, the remaining free engine acceleration is reduced which in turn may admit of another increase of the dynamic parameters. Normally, the PID parameters are set at rated speed and off-load. This implies a reduction of the PID values for minimum speed and an increase of the PID values for load. The PID parameters are set for rated speed and off-load (
Adjustment of PID Parameters) will serve as a basis for correction. If the correction value is set to 100% of the PID-parameters will remain unaltered. With this value serving as a basis, upward corrections (maximum 400%, which will be equivalent to increasing the PID-parameters four times) and downward corrections are possible (the minimum is 0%, but there should be a value entered less than 10%).

In many cases, it will suffice to perform a correction in dependence of either speed or load.

The values for the stability map are located at the following parameter numbers:

To perform speed dependent and load dependent corrections 10 supporting points are available for either type. This means that there is a maximum of 100 correction values. Each single supporting point consists of a speed value, an actuator position value, and an associated correction value. For adjacent correction values the intermediary values are interpolated by the control. If PID correction is performed in dependence either of speed alone or fuel alone, any unused values are to be set to zero. If the current working point of the engine is outside the map as specified by the mapping parameters, the control will calculate the value which is located on the border of the map and use this as the associated correction value.

The actual correction value that is used to correct the PID parameters with regard to the currently working point is indicated by the parameter 2100 PID_Corr. There is an easy way to determine the parameter number where the correction value for a speed/fuel pair is to be entered: The parameters are assigned the numbers 6200 and higher. With a pair of speed and fuel values given, taking the index of the fuel value as the tens digit and the index of speed value as the units digit, one gets the parameter number for the associated value.

When programming the stability map, the following instructions should be obeyed.

* The speed and fuel values must always begin with index 0.
* The speed and fuel values must be sorted by ascending order.
* Each speed and fuel value may occur only once.
* The speed and fuel values of unused supporting points must be set to 0.
* If correction is to be performed in dependence of speed only, the value 0 has to be entered for all of the fuel values; in this case, it will be the parameter numbers 620x that are to be used as correction values.
* If correction is to be performed in dependence of fuel only, the value 0 has to be entered for all of the speed values; in this case, it will be the parameter numbers 62x0 that are to be used as correction values.
* before activation, the correction values are to be preset to 100%.
* The stability map is activated by the parameter 4100 PID_MapOn=1.

In the examples below, correction of PID parameters will be explained using two correction values for each case resp. four values for the characteristic map.

5.4 Speed Dependent Correction of PID Parameters for Static Operation

When running engines with small load flywheel effects, load changes may result in considerable speed drops resp. speed rises. This is caused mainly by the fact that the governors P-factor (gain) that is required for the engine to run smoothly in static operation is rather small. As a countermeasure, the HEINZMANN Digital Controls offer the option to reduce the PID values for statis (steady-state) operation.

By this, it can be accomplished that the engine will run properly on attaining steady-state operation and that the governor will nevertheless be able to react quickly to load changes.

If speed deviation remains within the range of 111 StaticCorrRange the PID parameters will be corrected by the value given by 110 StaticCorrFacto. Outside twice this range, the normal parameters will be valid. If speed deviation is somewhere in between, there will be interpolation to insure smooth transition. This function is enabled by parameter 4110 StaticCorrectionOn=1. The value of 110 StaticCorrFactor should be set to 40-70%.



Fig. 12: Speed Dependent Correction (Static)

Programming Example:

5.5 Speed Dependent Correction of PID Parameters



Fig. 13: Speed Dependent Correction

The PID valued are entered for maximum speed, and on setting the engine into operation off-load they are accordingly adjusted. For minimum speed, a downward correction is entered and suitably adjusted on the engine.

Programming Example:

5.6 Load Dependent Correction of PID Parameters

5.6.1 Diesel Engine



Fig. 14: Load Dependent Correction for Diesel Engines

Entering the values and adjusting them with the engine running is to be done off-load. For full-load, however, an upward correction is to be entered. Normally, setting the actuator position values to 20% for off-load and to 80% for full-load will prove sufficiently accurate.

Programming Example:

5.6.2 Gas Engine



Fig. 15: Performance Graph of Gas Engine in Dependence of Throttle Valve Position

As to gas engines, it is of particular importance that PID correction be carried out in dependence of load. The foregoing diagram depicts the performance curve versus throttle valve position. The lower domain is characterized by a fast increase of power output, while the upper domain there is only a modest rise. For optimum control, these facts must by all means be taken account of.



Fig. 16: Load Dependent Correction for Gas Engines

As explained in the previous section, adjustment of PID values is done off-load and correction full-load. For a majority of applications, the kink points for actuator travel can be set to 35% and 60%. It may, however, prove necessary to readjust these values with regard to specific requirements.

Programming Example:

5.7 Stability Map

When setting the PID parameters for the map, the parameters are to be modified depending on both speed and load. This procedure may prove necessary, e.g., for diesel engines with a wide range of speed variation.



Fig. 17: Stability Map

The basic setting is done at rated speed and off-load (point 1). Then the first correction (point 2) is made at minimum speed and off-load. The next correction (point 3) is carried out at rated speed and full load, and finally the last correction (point 4) is performed at minimum speed and with the respective load. Normally, setting the actuator position values to 20% for off-load and to 80% for full-load will prove sufficiently accurate.

Programming Example:

5.8 Temperature Dependent Correction of Stability

While the engine is still cold, it may show a tendency for speed oscillations regardless of the stability map. In this event, the stability map can be corrected with respect to temperature. Depending on the engine, the map is corrected in upward or downward direction.



Fig. 18: Temperature Dependent Correction of Stability

Engine temperature (
2560 TempCoolWater) is measured by a temperature sensor. If engine temperature falls below the high value for the cold engine 561 TempColdHigh the entire characteristic map is corrected by the value that the control will have calculated in accordance with the above figure. If engine temperature falls below the low value for the cold engine 560 TempColdLow the characteristic map is corrected by the value given by 160 PID_ColdCorr. This function is enabled by the parameter 4160 PID_MapTempOn.

Programming Example:

NOTE: The cold engine temperatures 560 TempColdLow and 561 TempColdHigh are also made use of for
Temperature Dependent Idling Speed.

5.9 Minimum Fuel Characteristic

The minimum fuel characteristic is used to determine the actuator position required by the engine when off-load in dependence of speed. If on reducing speed there are excessive undershoots, the minimum fuel characteristic can be recorded and programmed.



Fig. 19: Minimum Fuel Characteristic

Whenever during operation actuator travel is below the minimum fuel characteristic the control will reduce the I-factor and by this achieve a better transient response towards the new value.

It is also possible to enter a substitute value. It must be below the minimum fuel characteristic throughout the entire speed range.

The values for the minimum fuel characteristic are stored under the following parameter numbers:

For programming the characteristic curve, there are up to 30 pairs of values available. Each pair of values consists of one speed value and fuel value, both with the same index. The control will interpolate the intermediary values between any two adjacent pairs of values.

When programming the characteristic, the following instructions must be observed:

* The characteristic must always begin with the pair if values indexed 0.
* The speed values must be sorted in ascending order.
* Each speed value may occur only once.
* The speed values of unused pairs must be put to 0.
* The characteristic is enabled by setting the parameter 4900 MinCurveOn=1

If current speed is below the first or above the last of the programmed speed values, the control will use the fuel values associated with the first resp. the last speed value.

When programming the minimum fuel characteristic, one should bear in mind that during operation the characteristic can be subject to shifting due to the leakage losses within the injection system that may vary in the course of time. Therefore, the programmed minimum fuel characteristic should in general lie approx. 5% below the recorded minimum fuel characteristic. The current value at the minimum fuel characteristic is indicated by parameter 2310 ActPosMin.

NOTE: Gas engine have no minimum fuel characteristic. Hence the minimum fuel characteristic must be disabled for gas engines.

Programming Example:

The minimum fuel characteristic is recorded by moving slowly across the entire speed range. In doing so, the actuator positions (fuel values) are to be registered. The characteristic thus recorded is approximated by several pairs of values and then according programmed. The programmed fuel values are to be set to 5% below the actual ones.

If a default characteristic is to be programmed as a substitute for the minimum fuel characteristic, it will suffice to program one single pair of values (viz. the one with index 0). The speed value must be chosen unequal zero, its exact amount, however, is of no significance. The fuel value must be chosen smaller than the actual minimum fuel characteristic.

6. Droop (Proportional Band or P-Band)

The droop (proportional band) of an engine is defined as the permanent speed droop when the engine is operating on-load.

It is desirable that this droop resp. this speed drop be zero (isochronous operation). It may, however, prove necessary to provide droop for specific applications such as, e.g., the following:

* Vehicle operation
* Isolated parallel operation and mains parallel operation of generator sets when no HEINZMANN accessory units are being used.
* Specific load sharing tasks, such as parallel operation with mechanical governors.

Normally, the HEINZMANN Digital Controls provide the option of switching between droop 1 and droop 2 to enable the installation to be operated in accordance with the particular demands.

Therefore, a special droop switch is provided to decide by which droop the governor is to operate. The respective selection is indicated by:

Droop is activated by parameter 4120 DroopOn=1. The presently selected droop as related to current speed is indicated by the parameter 2120 DroopPresent.

NOTE: Activation of droop (4120 DroopOn) and indication of the presently valid P-band (2120 DroopPresent) are available only for the governor models ALEXANDROS and MENELAOS.

The following section is confined to explaining the adjustment of droop 1. Adjustment of droop 2 is performed in the same way.

The following relation holds:

Example:

For accurate programming, it is necessary that the full-load reference position 122 Droop1RefHigh and the zero-load reference position 121 Droop1RefLow (resp. 126 Droop2RefHigh and 127 Droop2RefLow for droop 2) of the actuator be known.



Fig. 20: Droop

Programming Example:

When programming, one has to bear in mind that the speed range is limited in upward direction by the
Speed Limit Line. This speed limit line must be above the droop line throughout the whole range.

7. Limiting Functions

For optimum engine performance, it is necessary that the control provide various boundaries. The following figure gives an overview of the most relevant limiting functions.



Fig. 21: Important Limiting Functions

If different limiting functions are operable the one setting the least fuel value (actuator travel) will override all others.

For adaptation to engine operating modes, two different limiting functions can be provided as alternatives, e.g., one for driving operation and one for stationary operation. For driving operation limitation is normally defined with regard to the requirements of the prime mover, for stationary operation, however, with regard to those of the working machine.

A switch for limiting functions is used to select which limiting functions the control is to operate by. The currently active function is indicated by:

A change-over will at the same time affect the following limiting functions:

* speed limit line
* speed dependent fuel limitation (full-load characteristic)
* boost pressure dependent fuel limitation.

It should be remembered that full-load limitation and boost pressure dependent limitation must have been activated separately in advance.

NOTE: During start-up the speed and boost pressure dependent fuel limitations are disabled (
Starting Fuel Adjustment).

The minimum and maximum actuator positions that are admissible with regard to the current operating conditions (speed, boost pressure) are indicated by the parameters 2310 ActPosMin and 2312 ActPosMax.

7.1 Actuator Travel Limitation

To protect the actuator against mechanical and thermal overload it is necessary that absolute limits be provided for actuator travel. These limits are to serve as safety distances from the mechanical actuator stops. Minimum actuator position is limited by the parameter 310 ActPosSecuremin. This value should be below the
Minimum Fuel Characteristic. The parameter 312 ActProSecureMax provides a limit for the maximum position of actuator travel and should therefore range above any other limit. Generally, the following values are being used for these two parameters:

The following section is confined to explaining adjustment of the limiting functions denoted by "1" Adjustment of the limiting functions denoted by "2" is done analogously.

7.2 Speed Limit Line

One of the governors main tasks consists in limiting final speed. The governor has to guarantee that the engine will not exceed permissible maximum speed as provided by the manufacturer. For this reason, the speed limit line cannot be turned off but must remain active all the time.

The speed limit line is defined by two points, viz. by the speeds 720 Speed1LimitLow for 100% actuator travel and by 721 Speed1LimitHigh for 0% actuator travel (resp. 730 Speed2LimitLow and 731 Speed2LimitHigh for speed limit line 2).



Fig. 22: Speed Limit Line

Programming Example:

7.3 Speed Dependent Fuel Limitation

The full-load limiting characteristic determines the maximum admissible amount of fuel (actuator travel, and by this torque) which the engine may be fed for a certain speed.



Fig. 23: Speed Dependent Fuel Limitation

The values defining the full-load characteristics are stores at the following parameter positions:

For programming one full-load characteristic, up to 30 pairs of values are available. Each pair of values consists of one speed value and one fuel (position) value, both with the same index. The intermediary values between any two adjacent pairs of values will be computed by the control.

When programming the characteristic, the following instructions must be observed:

* The characteristic must always begin with the pair of values with index 0.
* The speed values must be sorted in ascending order.
* Each speed value may occur only once.
* The speed values of unused pairs must be put to 0.
* The characteristics are enabled by setting the parameter 4700 MaxCurveOn=1.

Programming Example:

A full-load characteristic consisting of pairs of values is to be programmed:

For speeds below the first of the programmed values, the control will limit actuator travel to the first of the programmed fuel values. Thus in the above example, actuator travel is limited to 60% for the range from 0 to 500 rpm. Likewise, for speeds beyond the last of the programmed speed values (in the above example 2500 rpm) actuator travel will remain limited to the last programmed fuel value (in the above example 75%). In the diagram, these ranges are represented by dashed lines. If this is not desirable, an additional pair of values is to be programmed and its fuel (position) value to be set to 0%:

7.3.1 Fine Adjustment of the Full-Load Characteristic

Due to series production, the data of the individual engines will vary even for the same model. It may, therefore, prove necessary to adjust the full-load characteristic for each single engine. To do so, the characteristic as recorded is adjusted to the individual engine by parallel translation of the characteristic across its full range. At a certain working point of the engine (e.g., maximum power output) the complete characteristic is raised or lowered by modifying the parameter 700 TorqueAdjust (absolute actuator travel) so that at this working point the condition will be the same for all products from the series.

Programming Example:



Fig. 24: Fine Adjustment of the Full-Load Characteristic

7.3.2 Temperature Dependent Decrease of the Full-Load Characteristic

To protect the engine against possible damages from high temperatures the full-load characteristic can be decreased in dependence of temperature.



Fig. 25: Temperature Dependent Decrease of the Full-Load Characteristic

A temperature sensor is used to determine engine temperature (
2560 TempCoolWater). If engine temperature rises above the value 562 TempHotLow the complete full-load characteristic is decreased by the value 570 MaxCurveTempDec (absolute actuator travel).

This function is activated by parameter 4570 MaxCurveTempOn.

Programming Example:

7.4 Boost Pressure Dependent Fuel Limitation

The boost pressure dependent limit characteristic (LDA curve, boost curve) defines the maximum admissible amount of fuel (actuator position, and by this torque) which is supplied to the engine when a certain boost pressure has been attained. Current (absolute) boost pressure (
2520 Boost) is determined by a boost pressure sensor and the respective maximum fuel calculated by means of the characteristic.



Fig. 26: Boost Pressure Dependent Fuel Limitation of Actuator Travel

The values defining the characteristic are stored under the following parameter positions:

For programming one boost pressure dependent limit characteristic, there are up to 10 pairs of values available. Each pair of values consists of one boost pressure value and one actuator position, both with the same index. The control will interpolate the intermediary values between two adjacent pairs of values.

When programming the characteristic, be sure to observe the following instructions:

* The characteristic must always begin with the pair of values with index 0.
* The boost pressure values must be sorted in ascending order.
* Each boost pressure value may figure only once.
* The boost pressure values of unused pairs must be put to minimum value.
* The characteristic is activated by setting the parameter 4520 BoostOn=1.

Programming Example:

A boost pressure dependent limit characteristic supported by 3 pairs of values is to be programmed:

For boost pressures below the first of the programmed values, the control will limit actuator travel to the first of the programmed actuator positions. Thus in the above example, actuator travel is limited to 50% for the range from 0 to 1 bar. Likewise, for boost pressure values higher than the last programmed one (in the above example 3 bar) actuator travel will remain limited to the last programmed value (in the above example 90%). In the above diagram, these ranges are again represented by dashed lines. If this is not desirable, an additional pair of values is to be programmed with the actuator position set to 100%:

7.4.1 Fine Adjustment of Boost Pressure Dependent Limitation

In the same was a speed dependent fuel limitation, boost pressure dependent limitation can also be adjusted to the varying data of series engine by parallel translation of the complete characteristic. By means of parameter 520 BoostCurveAdjust (absolute boost pressure), the boost pressure dependent limit characteristic can be raised or lowered so that consistent operating conditions are obtained for all products of the series. The value range of parameter 520 BoostCurveAdjust is specified in per cent and relates to the value range of the boost pressure sensor.

Programming Example:

7.4.2 Adjustment of the Slope of the Boost Pressure Dependent Limit

It is also possible to modify the slope of the boost dependent limit in order to compensate for variations of the turbochargers as may be due to series production.



Fig. 27: Slope of the Boost Pressure Dependent Characteristic

The slope of the boost pressure dependent characteristic can be increased or decreased through the parameter 521 BoostFactor (relative actuator travel). The starting point for this procedure will be the basic fuel amount (first pair of programmed values with index 0). The difference between this and the current limitation of actuator travel as defined by the boost pressure dependent characteristic is increased by 521 BoostFactor and, if necessary, shifted by 520 BoostCurveAdjust. It will then constitute the final limitation value.

Programming Example:

7.5 Torque Limitation

In addition to full-load limitation, boost pressure dependent limitation and speed limit line, actuator travel can be restricted to some smaller value by means of a switch. This value depends on maximum actuator travel of the actual full-load characteristic and is determined by the parameter of torque limitation (maximum fuel flow) 701 TorqueLimit (relative actuator position).



Fig. 28: Torque Limitation

If for reasons of actual operating conditions (speed, boost pressure) actuator travel is to be limited to some smaller value than given by torque limitation, actuator travel will be limited to the speed or boost pressure dependent value.

Programming Example:

For a maximum actuator position of the full-load characteristic of 86% and a torque limitation of TorqueLimit=10%, actuator travel will be limited to 77.4%.

The following parameter tells whether torque limitation is active or not:

NOTE: The control will calculate the maximum value of the speed dependent fuel limitation only after a
Reset. So when programming this function, one should strictly adhere to the following order:

1. First, program the full-load characteristics.
2. Save parameters by storing them in control.
3. Restart governor by
Reset.
4. Program torque limitation 701 TorqueLimit.
5. Enable the function by the respective switch.
6. Check on the function by 2813 SwitchTorqueLimit.

8. Idling/Maximum Speed Control

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls can also be employed as idling/maximum speed governors, i.e., they offer the possibility of changing over between the operating states of variable speed control and idling/maximum speed control (e.g., for steady-state operation and for driving operation). At idling and at maximum speeds, the governor's performance is the same as that of the variable speed governor. Between idling speed and absolute maximum speed (speed limit line) the actuator travel setpoint is determined by the actual setpoint adjuster. The actuator travel setpoint for idling/Maximum speed control is indicated by parameter 2420 IM_ActPosSetpoint.

The control may be operated by standard as an idling/maximum speed governor. This mode of operation is selected by the following parameter:

This parameter is to be used if idling/maximum speed operation is exclusively required or if operation at fixed intermediary speeds such as idling, fixed speed 1 or fixed speed 2 is envisaged.

If there is to be a change-over between idling/maximum speed operation and variable speed operation (e.g., any means of a gas pedal), an external switch must be used. The state of this switch is indicated by the parameter 2831 SwitchGovernorMode. The governor will operate as an idling/maximum speed control only if there is no need for intermediary speeds.

Information about the governor's actual operating mode can be obtained from the parameter 2400 ActualGovernorMode. There are three parameters that relate to governor mode: 4400 GovernorMode, 2400 ActualGoverMode, and 2831 SwitchGovernorMode. For all of them the following states are valid:

8.1 Idling and Maximum Speed Control

For operation as an idling/maximum speed control, idling speed is determined by the parameters 10 SpeedMin1 or 11 SpeedMin2 (Determination of Set Speed Values). With low temperatures, this value can be increased by Temperature Dependent Idling Speed. Maximum speed is analogously determined by the parameters 12 SpeedMax1 and 13SpeedMax2.



Fig. 29: Idling/Maximum Speed Control

Independently of the Droop for the variable speed governor, there exists a separate droop for the idling/maximum speed control. Droop for idling speed control is given by 465 IdleDroop and for maximum speed limitation by 466 MaximumDroop. The reference points for zero-load and full-load are to be entered in the parameters 467 IM_DroopRefLow and 468 IM_DroopRefHigh. The speed reference point is in each case given by the minimum speed resp. maximum speed.

As for rest, the adjustment instructions are the same as for those for
Droop with variable speed control. To make the engine run steadily, droop for idling speed control 465 IdleDroop should be set to at least 20%.

Programming Example:

8.2 On-Load Idling Speed

When the governor is operating in idling/maximum speed control mode, it will in the majority of cases not be desirable to keep idling speed constant. Instead, with the setpoints being set to higher values idling speed is expected to increase too. This can be achieved through the parameter 460 IM_SpeedIncrease, which indicates the relative increase of idling speed for 100% actuator travel.

Programming Example:

8.3 Actuator Travel Ramp

When operating in idling/maximum speed control mode, it may be necessary that the increase of actuator travel be delayed, e.g., in order to reduce free acceleration. This can be achieved by activating an actuator travel ramp.

The rate of delay can be adjusted for setpoint increase and setpoint decrease independently of one another.

The unit for these parameters is increase resp. decrease of actuator travel per second. Both ramps are enabled by the parameter 4430 IM_RampOn. If ramping is to be selected for one direction only, the maximum value (6553.5%/s) must be entered for the other direction.

The actuator travel setpoint as delayed by the ramp can be read from the parameter 2420 IM_ActPosSetpoint. Parameter 2421 IM_ActPosSetpoint2 represents the actuator position setpoint which the ramp is to arrive at.

Programming Example:

This actuator travel ramp may be used only when the governor is operating in idling/maximum speed control mode. For variable speed control mode, a
Speed Ramp is provided to achieve smooth speed changes for this mode of operation, too.

9. Speed Dependent Oil Pressure Monitoring

With rising speed the engine will need higher oil pressure. For monitoring pressure, two characteristics are available. Actual oil pressure (
2500 OilPressure) is checked by a pressure sensor.

After starting the engine, a certain time will pass before oil pressure builds up. This can be taken account of by delaying the beginning of oil pressure monitoring after engine start by means of the parameter 510 OilStartDelay.

If oil pressure falls below the oil pressure warning characteristic for a time longer than given by 511 OilWarnDelay, a warning will be output by the parameter 3009 ErroilWarn=1. This oil pressure warning is automatically cleared as soon as oil pressure is back again above the oil pressure warning characteristic.

If oil pressure is below the emergency stop characteristic for a time longer than given by 512 OilEcyDelay an engine emergency shutdown will be executed and indicated by the parameter 3010 ErrOilEcy=1.

Once the engine has stopped, the errors are cleared with a time delay of approximately one second to enable the engine to be restarted. In case that after restarting the engine oil pressure should again drop below its normal working range, another warning will be output if necessary or another emergency shutdown executed.

The messages issued by the control are displayed by the following parameters:



Fig. 30: Oil Pressure Characteristics

The values for the oil pressure characteristics are stored at these parameter positions:

To program the characteristics there are up to 10 pairs of values for each. A pair of values comprises one speed value and one oil pressure value, both of the same index. The intermediary values between two adjacent pairs will be computed by the control.

When programming the characteristics, the following instructions must be strictly observed:

* The characteristic must always begin with the pair of values indexed 0.
* The speed values must be sorted in ascending order.
* Each speed value may figure only occur only once for each of the characteristics.
* The speed values of unused pairs must be put to 0.
* The characteristics are activated by setting the parameters.

Programming Example:

The oil pressure warning characteristic and the oil pressure emergency stop characteristic are to be programmed using 4 pairs of values for each. Below minimum speed, no monitoring is envisaged. This is achieved by setting the first values of both characteristics to 0 bar. For values beyond the last programmed speed value (in this example index 4) the oil pressure value associated with this last value will be retained. Oil pressure monitoring is supposed to become active after a time delay of 45 seconds. When pressure has been below the oil warning characteristic for more than 45 seconds a warning is to be output. If pressure falls below the oil pressure emergency stop characteristic, an emergency shutdown is to be executed.

10. Applications

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls can be configured for a wide variety of different applications. As one of many benefits of these configurations, certain functions can be made available that are required by some specific application only. The following applications are presently provided:

The application number is to be entered for parameter 1802 OperationMode. Selecting dual fuel operation will at the same time activate the functions that are specific of generator operation.

NOTE: Governor operation based on more than one actuator as will be necessary for dual fuel operation or dual actuator operation can be selected only when using the PRIAMOS Digital Control. Furthermore, a special control unit is required for dual fuel operation. This mode of operation is described in an additional manual.

10.1 Vehicle Operation

In vehicle operation, it may be admissible to exceed overspeed during thrust operation. For such cases a special procedure is provided. For a detailed description see the chapter
Overspeed monitoring.

10.1.1 Speed Limitation and Speed Control

For speed limitation and speed control, a signal is needed that is proportional to velocity. Both frequency signals and PWM signals will serve this purpose. Which one is to be used is determined by the parameter 5312 VelocimeterMode:

NOTE: This parameter is activated only after a
Reset.

To inform the control about the relation between pulse frequency and velocity, the number of pulses at 100 k.p.h. must be entered for parameter 1315 VelocityImpulseRef. The number of measured pulses is indicated by the parameter 3315 VelocityImpulse. Pulses of less than 1 Hz will be ignored.

Current Velocity can be read from parameter 3310 Velocity. Velocity limitation is activated through parameter 5310 VelocityLimitOn. Maximum admissible velocity can be set by means of the parameter 1311 VelocityMax. When using the PRIAMOS Digital Control, maximum velocity can also be set by the respective
Turn Switch, Selection is made by

As regards turn switch position, it is always the position on
Reset that will be decisive. Furthermore, it is only the positions 2 through F that are of relevance for velocity limitation; with the switch in positions 0 and 1, there will be no velocity limitation.

Velocity limitation (cruise control) is enabled through an external switch. The state of the switch is indicated by the parameter

When cruise control is enabled the current velocity is frozen and used as a velocity setpoint. This set velocity value is indicated and controlled by the parameter 3320 VelocitySetpoint. Cruise control will, however, be active only above a certain velocity level which is defined by parameter 1310 VelocityMin. The set velocity value can be overridden by the actual setpoint adjuster (
Determination of Speed Setpoints) so that also velocities higher than the one pre-defined by cruise control are possible. Nevertheless, cruise control will stay enabled and continue to regulate the velocity setpoint when there is a value from the setpoint adjuster that is smaller than the one for the velocity originally set.

Both velocity control and velocity limitation operate as a proportional control (P controller). The size of the proportional factor (gain) is to be entered under parameter 1316 VelocityGain.

Programming Example:

Maximum velocity is supposed to be 60 k.p.h. and cruise control to be active from 10 k.p.h. on. At 50 k.p.h., the tachometer is transmitting a PWM signal of 290 pulses, so the reference value for 100 k.p.h. must be set to twice this number.

10.2 Railroad Operation

10.2.1 Speed Stage Switches

In railroad operation, setpoints can be defined by means of the analog setpoint adjuster 1 or by using digital stage switches. The respective mode of operation is set by the parameter

For speed stage switches there must be four
Digital Inputs available. The states of the speed stage switches are indicated by the following parameters:

With four velocity stage switches available, 16 velocity stages can be set. The current speed stage is indicated via parameter 3350 Stage. The following table explains which speed stage is selected by the respective switch positions.

The values for the velocity stages must be entered in the parameters.

Selection will depend on the governors mode of operation. When in idling/maximum speed control mode, the actuator positions are used as values for the selected velocity stage whereas in variable speed control mode the speed values will serve this purpose. The indexes of either parameter sequence correspond to the selected speed stage.

10.2.2 Side Protection

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls include an integrated slide (anti-spin) protection. On detecting that the wheels are skidding, it will continuously reduce the set values for speed or actuator position until the wheels give a firm grip again. A separate electronic unit is needed to detect sliding of the wheels and to transmit a specific signal to the control. The state of the slide signal is indicated by the parameter

On detecting sliding, the control will decrease the set speed value by the amount of 1350 SlideSpedDec when in variable speed control mode, or reduce the set actuator value by 1353 SlideActPosDec when in idling/maximum speed control mode. This setpoint is retained for the time defined by 1355 SlideDuration. If after that there is still a slide signal coming in, the set value will be reduced once again. Reduction will be repeated until the slide signals stop coming in, i.e., until the wheels are gripping again. After that, the previous setpoint is restored and is slowly run up to via the speed ramp.



Fig. 31: Slide Protection Variable Speed Control



Fig. 32: Slide Protection Idling/Maximum Speed Control

10.3 Operation by Two Synchronized Actuators (Dual Actuator)

To avoid complicated linkages on Vee engines it is possible to provide individual actuators for each cylinder bank. Once the linkages have been adjusted properly, operation of the two actuators will be absolutely uniform.

This mode of operation requires using the HEINZMANN Digital Control PRIAMOS which is capable of controlling two actuators of identical functionality.

In this mode, the actuators denoted internally by 2 and 3 are to be used and must be driven by additional hardware for dual actuator operation. Accordingly, the feedback parameters and error parameters denoted by "2" or "3" will have to be utilized for the respective actuators (e.g., 3960 Feedback2 and 3970 Feedback3 for measured feedback values). This function is enabled by parameter 5470 DualActuatorOn.

NOTE: This parameter will be active only following a
Reset.

10.4 Generator Operation

Parallel operation of generators will require additional equipment to take care of synchronization, or restrictive load distribution in isolated parallel operation, or resistive load control in mains parallel operation.

Synchronization can be carried out either in analog mode by using the HEINZMANN Synchronization Unit or digitally by pre-defining synchronization values.

10.4.1 Digital Synchronization

With digital setpoint modification selected, two external switches are used to decide whether the setpoint is to be increased or decreased. The states of the switches are indicated by the parameters

Setpoint modification will take place only if these two parameters read opposite values, i.e., if only one of the two external switches is closed. The rate of setpoint modification can be set through the parameter 1210 SynchroStep; it is specified by speed change per second.

The preset speed value will be modified according to the given step width and direction until maximum resp. minimum speed is attained or until both switches have the same value (0 or 1).

Programming Example:

Setpoint modification is to be carried out in digital ode and at a rate of 20 rpm per second.

10.4.2 Analog Synchronization

For analog synchronization the control receives the current output value of the HEINZMANN Synchronization Unit as an analog input

From comparison of this input value with a reference value

the direction of adjustment is deduced. In addition, the difference value is multiplied by a factor that can be entered as a parameter

and is then applied to the set speed value.

10.4.3 Load Control, Load Adjustment

The Digital Control can either perform load control based on a speed setpoint from the HEINZMANN Load Measuring Unit or execute load adjustment by pre-defining a speed setpoint by means of a potentiometer resp. by limiting actuator travel.

To enter the speed setpoint an analog input is used. In this case, it is to be decided by the parameter

whether subsequent computation will be based upon the measuring value

that is coming in via an analog input or upon output of the HEINZMANN Load Measuring Unit that is also coming in via an analog input

Depending on 5230 LoadAdjustMode this input value is interpreted either as a speed setpoint or as actuator travel limitation.

10.4.4 Load Adjustment by Actuator Travel Limitation

Adjustment of maximum actuator position will be based on the correct value of the above mentioned analog input. The governor will take account of the mechanically possible maximum actuator position and prevent it from being exceeded. Depending on which range has been currently switched to, one of the two maximum speeds is selected as a speed setpoint.

10.4.5 Load Control by HEINZMANN Load Measuring Unit

Analogously to synchronization by the HEINZMANN Synchronization Unit, it is again the measuring value

that is being compared with a reference value

to obtain the direction of adjustment. The difference value will then be multiplied by the factor that can be parameterized by

and applied to the speed setpoint.

By using the HEINZMANN Load Measuring Unit true power control can be accomplished. The reference value 1231 LMG_Reference relates to the unnormalized value.

If, e.g., the Load Measuring Unit is connected to analog input 3 the value of 3531 ADC3Value should be used. For the Load Measuring Unit, the reference values for the analog input must then be programmed to 0 and 65545 (e.g., 1530=0; 1531=65535).

NOTE: When using the HEINZMANN units SyG 02 and LMG 03, the governor is to be operated with zero droop.

10.4.6 Load Adjustment By Setpoint

In this case, load adjustment is achieved by transmitting a percentage of maximum actuator travel, i.e., the actual value coming in via the analog input

is interpreted within its limits as a percentage ranging from 0 to 100%. Based on this value, on
Droop (as preset) and on rated speed a new speed setpoint is obtained. Due to droop, there will be adjustment to different loads.

NOTE: For load distribution and load adjustment it is necessary to provide droop (approx. 2-4%).In insolated parallel operation, droop must be the same for all installations.

With this method of load adjustment, it is imperative that governor mode be set to "Mains operation active" via a digital input. This is done by means of the switch 834 FuncBus. The state of this switch can be read from the monitor parameter 2834 SwitchBus.

Programming Example:

Synchronization and load distribution resp. load control are to be carried out using the HEINZMANN Synchronization and Load Measuring Units.

10.5 Power Control

For the purpose of controlling other installations a power characteristic can be entered based on which the digital control will compute a correction value depending on correct speed and actuator position. This correction value is transmitted via an analog output and is used to control the external application.

This mode of power control can be utilized, e.g. for the control of controllable pitch propellers in marine operation or for generator excitation in diesel-electric locomotive operation. The values for the power characteristic are stored by these parameters:

For programming the characteristic, there are up to 15 pairs of values available. Each pair of values comprises one speed value and one actuator position, both of the same index. Intermediary values between any two adjacent pairs of values will be interpolated by the control.

When programming the characteristic, the following instructions must be observed:

* The characteristic must always begin with the pair of values indexed 0.
* The speed values must be sorted in ascending order.
* Each speed value may figure only once.
* The speed values of unused pairs must be put to 0.
* The characteristic is activated by setting the parameters 4600 PowerCtrlCurveOn=1.

If the correct speed ranges below the first resp. above the last of the programmed speed values the governor resorts to the actuator positions associated with respective extremum. The governor will compute the correction value according to the following formula:

This means that the speed dependent characteristic value is subtracted from correct actuator position 2300 ActPos and that the difference is multiplied by the weighting factor 601 PowerControlFactor, and that finally by adding the reference value 601 PowerControlRef the power control correction value 2600 PowerControlCorr is obtained. If current actuator position coincides with the power characteristic it is only the reference value that will take effect. As the weighting factor may be both positive and negative, it can be used to decide whether some larger or smaller value than the reference value is to be output when current actuator position is above the value of the characteristic, a negative weighting factor will cause a value to be output that is smaller than the reference value, whereas under the same circumstances a positive weighting factor will cause a value to be output that is greater than the reference value.

Programming Example:

For diesel-electric locomotive operation, generator excitation is to be regulated in such a way that in steady state the diesel engine will operate by a characteristic within a range of optimum consumption.



Fig. 33: Power Control

Control of generator excitation is taken over by HEINZMANN Digital Control that for this purpose will supply a signal of 0.20 mA. As long as the prime mover system is operating in accordance with the power characteristic, the control will output the mean value of the signal, viz. 12mA. If the system is operating at a value above the power characteristic the signal is reduced to some smaller value, e.g., 10mA and will in its turn reduce generator excitation until the system returns to working again in accordance with the characteristic.

To achieve this, the power control correction value 2600 PowerControlCorr must be handed over via an analog output. In the example, analog output 1 is used for this purpose. It is configured as a current output of 4..20 mA which means that for a correction value of 0% of a current 4 mA is being supplied and for 100 % one of 20 mA (
Analog Outputs).

If actuator position coincides with the power characteristic the mean value of the signal shall be output. Hence the reference value is to be set to 50 %.

Next, the power characteristic is programmed with respect to optimum consumption:

In this case, the power characteristic is programmed to be below
Speed Dependent Fuel Limitation by approx. 10%. When actuator travel coincides with the fuel limit, a signal of 10mA is to be issued. Taking into account that a total range of 16mA corresponds to an output scale of 100% the required correction value is obtained by:

Given a reference of 50 % and a difference of 10 % between actual actuator position and characteristic value, these values as well as the required correction value of 37.5% will have to be entered in the above formula an the equation solved for the weighting factor:

This leads to a weighting factor of -125%:

As a last step, power control is to be enabled:

11. Inputs and Outputs of the Digital Controls

11.1 Analog Inputs

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls are equipped with a number of analog inputs that can be utilized as setpoint inputs, pressure transducer inputs, temperature sensor inputs, etc. The following table gives an overview:

The question of choosing the appropriate sensor models should be settled in consultation with HEINZMANN who are able to configure them according to customer requests at the factory.

The following table lists the hardware denotations and pins of analog inputs.

All parameters names of the analog inputs begin with the prefix "ADC" followed by the input number and supplement to the parameter name.

The parameters for configuring the analog inputs are assigned the parameter numbers beginning with 1500, those for the values as measured by the control are assigned the parameter numbers from 3500 onward (e.g., for input i from 1510 and 3510 onward, for input 2 from 1520 and 3520 onward, etc.

The Digital Control of the HELENOS series include an additional function that will permit to change over to a temperature sensor of the NTC or to one of the Ni1000 type. This change-over is made by means of the function 5045 ADC6Ni1000On.

NOTE: This change-over requires suitable requires suitable adaptation of hardware. When using the PRIAMOS Digital Control, the NTC temperature sensor is to be connected to analog input ADC6 and the Ni1000 temperature sensor to analog input ADC7.

11.1.1 Measuring Ranges of Sensors

As measuring scales of pressure and temperature sensors will differ considerably, the control must at some instant be given information on the physical measuring range of each specific sensor. Values that cannot be measured in terms of physical measuring ranges (such as setpoint adjusters) will be specified on per cent of the respective sensor range.

NOTE: These parameters will be active only following a
Reset, They must have been entered before any function based on these sensors is activated (e.g., temperature dependent idling speed, boost pressure dependent fuel limitation, etc.).

Programming Example:

There is a boost pressure sensor to be used with a measuring range from 0.5 through 3.5 bar.

11.1.2 Calibration of Analog Inputs

Sensors and transducers convert physical quantities (e.g., pressure temperature) to electric quantities (voltage, current). The governor measures voltages or currents and displays the measured values scaled for a value range from 0 to 65535. To enable the control to operate with the value transmitted by the sensor, it is necessary that the control be provided with information on he relation between measured values and sensor positions. This relation is established by two reference values that correspond to the controls measurements for minimum and maximum senor positions. With this information, the control is capable of normalizing the measured values and to display them specified in per cent of the sensor range or directly in terms of their physical values.



Fig. 34: Measuring Sequence

Programming Example:

A boost pressure sensor has been connected to input 3. Its measuring range is supposed to be from 0.5 to 3.5 bar and is to be converted to voltages ranging from 1.0 V to 4.8 V. The value measured by the control is indicated by the parameter 3531 ADC3Value. It will read 18700 for 1.0 V and 63100 for 4.8 V. These two reference values are to be entered in the parameters 1530 ADC3ReferenceLow and 1531 ADC3ReferenceHigh. The normalized value of the analog input may then be viewed by parameter 3530 ADC3. It will range from 0% for the sensors minimum position to 100% for its maximum position. The physical sensor value is indicated by the parameter 2520 Boost provided the control be previously given information about the sensors measuring range (
Measuring Ranges of Sensors).

As component tolerances of governors and qualified sensors are rather tight, there will in general be no need to calibrate all of the sensors that have been connected to the control. In most cases, entering standard values for the reference values will do.

In particular accuracy is required with respect to reading the sensors, it is also possible to input the voltages resp. currents for the minimum and maximum deflections as specified by the sensor manufacturer and to calibrate the analog input for these values.

As regards temperature sensors, linear interpolation between the two reference values will not suffice. In this case, characteristic curves must be provided for the respective analog inputs instead of reference values.

11.1.3 Filtering of Analog Inputs

The measurements of analog inputs can be filtered through a digital filter. The following table gives an overview of the filter values and the respective time constants.

For normally fast sensor changes filter value 3 will be suitable. For measuring quantities changing more slowly, such as temperature, filter values from 6 to 10 can be used. The filtering time constant should correspond approximately to the sensors time constant.

11.1.4 Error Detection for Analog Inputs

On failure of a sensor (e.g., by short circuit or cable break), the control will register voltages or currents that are outside the normal measuring range. Such excessive measuring values can serve to define inadmissible operating ranges by which the control will recognize that the sensor is at fault.

Programming Example:

The boost pressure sensor connected to input 3 (cf. above example) that is operated within a normal voltage range of 1.0 V to 4.8 V is here assumed to supply a voltage of 5 V ( the value measured by the control will be 65520) in case of cable break and a voltage of 0 V ( the measured value will be 7100) in case of a short circuit. The controls normal measuring range is from 18700 to 63100. The ranges below the measured value of 16000 and above the measured value of 64000 are defined as inadmissible by the following parameters:

These error limits, as they are called, should not be too close to the minimum and maximum values in order to prevent natural fluctuations of sensor measuring values from being mistaken as errors. On the other hand, it is necessary to ensure that short circuits or cable breaks are unambiguously recognized as such. Once an error is detected, the error parameter (error flag) associated with the analog input and with respective application is set. The measures to be taken if any such error should occur will be explained in the chapter
Error Handling.

NOTE: As for unused inputs, it is advisable to enter the minimum and maximum values (0 resp. 65535) to prevent errors from being indicated for these inputs.

11.1.5 Assignment of Sensors to Analog Inputs

Sensors are readily assigned to the analog inputs by entering the number of the parameter for the sensor measurement (indication parameter) as value of the assignment parameter for the respective analog input. Entering the number 0 in the assignment parameter will signify that this analog input is not activated.

Programming Example:

The setpoint adjuster 1 (indication parameter 2901) is to be connected to analog input 1, the boost pressure sensor (indication parameter 2520) to input 3, and the cooling water temperature sensor (indication parameter 2560) to input 6. The other inputs are left unassigned.

NOTE: Double assignments will not be intercepted. These functions will be enabled only following a
Reset.

11.2 Digital Inputs

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls include a number of digital inputs serving as on-off-switches or as change-over switches for functions. The digital inputs can be designed to be high-active, i.e., active with the switch closed, or low-active, i.e., active with the switch opened.

For each function, there exist monitor parameters indicating whether or not the respective function is enabled. With these parameters, the value "1" will always indicate that the function is enabled whereas "0" will signify that it is not. This type of indication is not subject to hardware modifications as described in the preceding paragraph.

It is also possible to have one single switch change over several functions. Thus, e.g., one single switch will simultaneously perform change-over from driving operation with
Droop (Proportional Band) to steady-state operation with fixed speed, but without droop. The below table explains the relations between switch numbers and control pins:

Decisions as to the particular design of switches and functions should be made in consultation with HEINZMANN where configuration can be done according top customer specifications at the factory.

The following table provides an overview of the functions implemented. For explanations of the diverse functions and switch priorities, please refer to the respective chapters.

NOTE: For testing purposes, these functions can be simulated independently of the switch states (
Simulation of Digital Inputs).

11.2.1 Assignment of Switch Functions to Digital Inputs

Switch functions are readily assigned to the digital inputs by entering the switch numbers as values of the respective function parameters. Low-active switches are to be designated by negative switch numbers. Switch number 0 will signify that the function is not enabled. One single switch may simultaneously turn on or change over several functions. In this case, the functions involved will have to be assigned the same switch number.

Starting with parameter number 810, the function parameters are arranged in parallel order with their respective indication parameters beginning with parameter number 2810.

Programming Example:

Switch no. 2 is to be used to change over from variable speed control with droop 1 (switch position 0=switch opened) to fixed speed 1 with droop and torque limitation.

NOTE: Assignment of functions to switches will take effect only following a
Reset. With the HELENOS Digital Control, input DIGI IN 2 (switch no. 3) is to be used as a stop switch. For actuators with return springs it can be configured via a bridge such that on activating the function the amplifier will be turned off. With the PRIAMOS Digital Control input DI 1 (switch no.1) will always be configured that way for actuators with return springs.

11.2.2 Configuration of DIGI-IOs for HELENOS (binary coded)

The HELENOS Digital Control has 4 in-/outputs that can be used as switches or for PWM signal. These functions are configured by a binary code. To select a function the bit assigned to it must be set according to the table below. This is achieved by adding the respective values from the table and entering their sum in parameter 800 DIGI_MODE.

Programming Example:

All of the 4 DIGI-IOs are to be used as switch inputs. To do so, the bits 7 to 4 are to be set, i.e., the values assigned to the switch functions are to be added and accordingly entered.


NOTICE

Double assignments will not be intercepted. This function will be active only after a
Reset.


In order to ease adjustment, this way of setting the parameters has changed with new governors. Instead of the parameter 800 Digimode, single function switches have been implemented. For further information, please refer to the next chapter.

11.2.3 Configuration of DIGI-IOs for HELENOS (function coded)

The HELENOS Digital Control has 4 inputs/outputs that can be utilized as switches or for PWM. Configuration of the single inputs/outputs is done via two functions for each channel. By means of the function 4800 DigChannel1OutOrIn it is determined whether the first channel is being used as input or an output. The second function 4801 DigChannel1PwmOrDIO will determine whether it is to operate as a switch or by PWM. Assignment of the other inputs/outputs by means of the respective functions will follow the same lines.

Programming Example:

The first channel is to be used as a switch input and the second as a switch output. The third digital input is to be configured as a PWM input, and the fourth as a PWM output. By entering 1 the first of the alternatives specified in the parameter name is being chosen (Out resp. PWM) and by 0 the second (In resp. DIO).

11.3 Analog Inputs

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls are equipped with a number of analog inputs that may be utilized, e.g., for indicating speed or actuator position as well as for setpoint output accessory devices. By standard, the analog outputs are designed as current outputs of 4.20 mA and/or as voltages outputs of 0.5 V. other output ranges can be provided on request.

The following table gives a survey:

Any of the controls measurements can be read out via the analog outputs. To do so, it will suffice to enter the parameter number of the measurement to be read out as a value of the desired output parameter.

Programming Example:

It is intended to read out speed (indication parameter 2000) by analog output 1 and actuator position (indication parameter 2300) by analog output 2.

For another example of how to output values computed by the control via an analog output for the purpose of driving an external device refer to the chapter
Power Control.

11.3.1 Value Ranges of Output Parameters

To output values, it will sometimes not be the entire range that is of interest but only a restricted one. This can be taken account of by adapting output to the desired range with the aid of the parameters 1643 AnalogOut1ValMin and 1644 AnalogOut1ValMax. As there are a great many different ranges of values, these parameters are to be set to the required low and high output values specified in per cent of the maximum value of the output parameter. The same will hold for the outputs 2 through 4. If the entire value range is required, the minimum value is to be set to 0% and the maximum value to 100%.

Programming Example:

Present speed 2000 Speed is to be output out via a current output of 4..20 mA, but restricted to the range from 500 rpm to 1500 rpm. Given this restriction, 500 rpm will correspond to 4 mA and 1500 rpm to 20 mA. As the range of values for this parameter is from 0 to 4095 rpm, output has to be adjusted as follows:



Fig. 35: Output of Parameter Via Analog Output

11.3.2 Value Ranges of Analog Outputs

With particular regard to current outputs, it will mostly be the standard output range of 4..20 mA that is required rather than the maximum output range of approx. 0..22 mA. To adapt the output range the parameters 1641 AnalogOut1RefLow and 1642 AnalogOut1RefHigh will have to be employed. The values to be entered relate to the maximum output value and are to be specified in per cent.

Programming Example:

To obtain a current output of 4..20 mA. the following values must be entered:

NOTE: Because of component tolerances, the output ranges for identical parameter values may vary for different governors. To ensure accuracy of output, the output ranges should be measured and the parameters accordingly adjusted.

The HELENOS Digital Control offers the possibility to double the range of the voltage outputs from 0..5 V to 0..10 V.

NOTE: These parameters will be active only following a
Reset.

11.4 Digital Inputs

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls are equipped with digital outputs that are utilized for indication of errors and overspeed.

In addition to its indicator function, the overspeed output has been designed as a relay output so that a separate overspeed protection can be driven by this output. For the adjustment of overspeed and the governors reaction in the event of overspeed, please refer to the chapter
Overspeed Monitoring.

The PRIAMOS Digital Control is equipped with additional 3, and the HELENOS Digital Control with 4 digital outputs.

These digital outputs can be assigned customer specific functions on request.

The common alarm output is enabled whenever the governor detects at least one error. The output can be used for a visual or an audible signal. See chapter
Error Handling for a detailed description of the common alarm output and for explications of the possible error causes.

The common alarm and the governor ready outputs can be loaded higher then above mentioned outputs.

NOTE: During initialization of the PRIAMOS Digital Control, the common alarm output is activated for about 500 ms.

12. Actuator and Feedback

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls are capable of driving various types of actuators with different operating modes and feedbacks. They can drive both actuators with 2-quadrant operation (electrical energized one-way, return effectuated by strong springs) and actuators with 4-quadrant operation (electrical energized both ways). As actuator position feedback either an analog or a digital signal can be used. When using an analog signal, the information about actuator position will be conveyed through the size of the DC signal, whereas with digital feedback the actuator position will be calculated based on the time intervals of the pulses. In addition to the signal transmitting the actuator position, actuators with digital feedback operate by a reference signal. This reference signal is used to compensate for temperature variations of the actuator that may affect the measuring signal.

The amplifier for the actuator is enabled by parameter 5900 AmplifierOn.

Normally, the amplifier is always turned on. It is only turned off for actuators equipped with strong pull-back springs if a fatal error occurs such as failure of both speed pickups, overspeed, and the like, and if this compels the go error to stop the engine. In this event, the amplifier can be activated again by means of the above parameter or by clearing the error memory by means of the PC or the Hand Held Programmer (
Programming Possibilities).

The actuator itself is put into operation by the parameter 5910 ActuatorOn.

Amplifier operating mode is selected by the parameter

and actuator feedback mode is set by the parameter

NOTE: These parameters will both be enabled only following a
Reset.

For safety reasons, the control will normally energize the actuator for 5 seconds following restart, reset, automatic calibration or engine stop, and will then turn current off again. If the actuator is to be energized permanently, this will require setting the parameter 5901 ActPermanentOn=1.

12.1 Calibration of Actuator

To accurately determine actuator position in its relation to the total range of actuator travel the Digital Control must be given reference values to correctly scale the relation between the measured value and the position of the actuator. These reference values correspond to the governors measurements for minimum and maximum actuator positions. When using actuators with digital feedback, the reference signal has in addition to be registered. Calibration can be performed automatically or manually. As it is absolutely necessary for the actuator to be capable of moving to its minimum and maximum positions for calibration of the actuator should be performed with the linkage removed if possible.

NOTE: Actuator calibration must be performed individually for each system of control and actuator. Otherwise it may happed that tolerances of actuator and/or control components have an impact on governor performance and, in particular, on the functionability of the limiting functions.

12.1.1 Manual Calibration

Manual calibration is performed analogously to
Calibration of Analog Inputs. With the actuator moving first to its minimum and then to its maximum position, the governors measuring value 3950 Feedback is to be entered for the parameters

The current difference between preset and actual actuator position is indicated by the parameter 3951 FeedBackDifference. Actuators with digital feedback will in addition require that the value of 3955 FeedBackRef be entered for the parameter

There will be no change of the reference signal throughout the entire actuator range.

NOTE: On manual calibration these parameters will be enabled only following a
Reset.

After calibration, the governor will be capable of normalizing the measured feedback values and to accurately indicate actuator position. Actuator position can then be checked by the parameter.

In addition, the current position of the actuator is displayed as a strongly filters value which will prove helpful in observing the course of actuator travel. The strongly filtered value of the actuator position is indicated by the parameter

The setpoint of the position of the actuator can be read from the parameter

12.1.2 Automatic Calibration

On automatic calibration, measuring of the reference values is done by the governor itself. The governor will energize the actuator for a certain time to ensure that it can travel to its minimum and maximum positions, and will then measure the reference values. The values thus obtained are entered for the respective parameters and, in contrast to manual calibration, will immediately be available.

Automatic calibration can also be performed, if required, with the help of the PC or the Hand Held Programmer (
Programming Possibilities).

The Digital Control PRIAMOS permits to also perform automatic calibration without these diagnostics devices simply by means of the
Turn Switch. To do so, the governor must be restarted by a
Reset with the switch turned to position 1. After initialization, the governor will then perform automatic calibration. As the values will subsequently be saved by the governor, one should wait for about 20 seconds before restoring the turn switch to its original position. After that, the governor is to be started once again by a
Reset.

During automatic calibration, it is possible for the error 3000 ErrFeedBackAdjust to occur. Explanations as to the possible causes and information on how to eliminate this error will be given in the chapter
Error Handling.

The time for which the control keeps energizing the actuator and waiting for it to properly attain its minimum and maximum positions is determined by the parameter 1900 FeedBackAdjustTime. The current for automatic calibration is given by the parameter 1919 ServoCurrentAdj. This current will vary with different actuators connected, the waiting time, however, will always be the same.

12.1.3 Detection of Feedback Errors

In much the same fashion as for
Analog Inputs,, there also exist error margins for feedback by which the Digital Control is able to detect when a measure value is inadmissible. These error margins must be entered by hand for both manual and automatic calibration.

By this, all measured values that are either below the low error limit 952 FeedBackErrorLow or above the high error limit 1953 FeedBackErrorHigh are defined as admissible.

These error limits should not be chosen too close to the minimum and maximum values in order to avoid misinterpreting natural variation of measured feedback values aserrors. On the other hand, it must be ensured that short circuits or ruptures of the supply or signal lines will not remain undetected.

Once some error is detected, the respective feedback error parameter is set. For the measures to be taken in the event that any such error occurs see chapter
Error Handling.

12.2 Servo Circuit

The servo resp. position control circuit serves the purpose of making the actuator travel to the position set by the speed governor. The servo circuit represents an autonomous control circuit ranking below the one for speed control. In the same manner as for the speed control, there are PID parameters provided for this control circuit, too:

Besides, there exists an additional filter for the (second order) derivation of the servo circuit:

With the aid of parameter 1908 ServoAdaption the PID and the filter factors can be jointly reduced. The standard and maximum value of this parameter is 100% and signifies that there will be no modification of the PID-parameters.

Analogously to the speed control circuit, there is a simple way of correcting the PID parameters for the servo circuit. This correction of the servo circuit parameters can be performed in dependence of actuator position/or in dependence of oscillations.

When applying actuator position dependent correction, the servo circuit parameters are corrected for 100% actuator travel by the value of 1907 ServoPID_Cor, but remain unaltered for 0%.



Fig. 36: Fuel Dependent Correction of Servo Circuit Parameters

EMC-tests have shown that in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields the reference signal of actuators with digital feedback tends to swing. To compensate for this effect it is possible to correct the servo circuit parameters in dependence of oscillations. The oscillations of reference signal can be viewed by the parameter 3905 FeedBackSwing. If the reference signal is swinging by the value of 1905 ServoSwingMax the servo circuit parameter will be corrected using the value of 1906 ServoSwingCorr.



Fig. 37: Oscillation Dependent Correction of Servo Circuit Parameters

As in the case of the previously discussed correction value there will be no modification of the servo circuit parameters if this correction value is set to 100%.

The actual correction value is indicated by parameter 3907 PID_ServoCorr.

Based on these servo circuit parameters, the servo circuit will calculate the current to the actuator. For actuators with strong pull-back springs, a minimum current limit can be provided so that the actuator remains energized and capable of counteracting spring power. This will improve the actuators response when changing positions. To protect the actuator against stress, maximum current may be limited in like manner.

Maximum current can be tolerated for a short period to achieve faster changes of actuator position. For longer periods, however, current must be reduced to protect the actuator against thermal stress. With steady load, the servo control will therefore reduce current by an exponential function with a time constant of about one minute to the value of

For dynamic changes of position maximum current will be available just the same. On adjusting current reduction, it is directly in the lead with its particular cable length that current must be measured. In doing so, is should be kept in mind that current may be determined only when the actuator has warmed up (steady-state operation) as flowing current will change with rising temperature.



Fig. 38: Current Reduction of Steady Load

The rate by which the servo circuit is to react to setpoint changes can be adjusted by a ramp function.

Response of the servo circuit will be the fastest for a value of 100%.

Depending on actuator type, the values for the servo circuit may differ considerably and must be accordingly adjusted. The correct adjustment will be made by HEINZMANN on delivery. In general, there will be no need for further adaptation.

The rated current through the actuator is indicated by the parameter 3916 ServoCurrentSetup with its value specified in per cent. The actual current flowing through the actuator depends on the amplifier voltage.

To take account of this, an additional current control for the servo circuit can be activated. This current control will correct the rated current for the actuator in dependence of the amplifier voltage.

To do so, the controls 24V is to be entered as reference voltage via parameter 1660 VoltageAmpRef. Present voltage is indicated by 3661 VoltageAmpValue. The servo circuit parameters must have previously been set with the amplifier voltage at 24V. Current control is enabled by 5917 ServoCurrntCorrOn=1. The corrected value of the nominal current through the actuator can then be viewed via parameter 3917 ServoCurrentCorr.

13. Simulation

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls permit to simulate various functions such as analog and digital inputs as well as engine, actuator, etc. By this, it is possible to test individual functions of the Digital Controls without being compelled to have it mounted with all sensors and switches to an engine.

13.1 Simulation of the Engine

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls incorporate an integrated engine simulator by which the governor functions can be tested without an engine. The engine simulator is enabled by parameter 5710 SimEngineOn. It is recommended to set the following PID values for simulation:

Simulator operation is permitted only with the engine stopped. If the control detects that the engine is starting it will immediately change over to normal operation as a speed control.

The engine simulator makes use of the setpoint adjusters 1 and 2. Setpoint adjuster 1 will serve as an ordinary adjuster whilst setpoint adjuster 2 is used to preset either engine load or directly speed. The respective mode is selected by means of the parameter

Setting speed directly will allow to readily scan the limiting functions because with fixed speed enabled the governor is not capable of regulating speed. If load is being set by setpoint adjuster 2, it will be indicated by parameter 3730 Load.

NOTE: For generator and dual fuel operation, only one setpoint adjuster will be needed normally, so in these operating modes it will be possible to preset engine simulator load by means of the parameter 1730 SimLoad.

The integrated starter will start the simulator by double the starting speed as specified by 255 StartSpeed1. The simulator will, however, start off only if load was chosen neither too small nor too high. Thus for starting the simulator, load should correspond to approximately half the starting actuator position specified by 260 Start1Actpos (
Starting Fuel Adjustment).

Once the simulator has been started, various speed governor functions can be tested, such as speed setting range, fixed speed, droop, speed ramp, speed dependent limitation of actuator travel, etc.

13.2 Positioner Mode

Using positioner mode, it is readily verified whether the actuator is capable of moving to any of the required positions. Positioner mode is enabled by the parameter 5700 PositionerOn, and the position the actuator is supposed to move to is set directly through the parameter 1700 PositionerSetPoint. The position actually attained can be checked by the parameter 2300 ActPos.

NOTE: In positioner mode, actuator travel is limited by the safety distances 310 ActPosSecureMin and 312 ActPosSecureMax (
Limitation of Actuator Travel).

Operation by positioner mode will not be possible unless the engine is at standstill. If the control detects that the engine is starting it will immediately change over to normal operation by speed control.

13.2.1 Setpoint Jump Generator

As a further function of positioner mode, a setpoint jump generator can be enabled by 5701 PositionerVarOn=1. By parameter 1702 PositionerFrequency the frequency of the setpoint jumps can be set. The amplitude of the setpoint jumps is to be entered for parameter 1701 PositionerAmplitude. The setpoint jumps will always relate to the position as set by 1700 PositionerSetpoint.

Programming Example:

There are position changes to be set with amplituder of 30% actuator travel and to be repeated every 0.75 seconds.

13.2.2 Ramp Function

In positioner mode, a ramp function 5703 PositionerRampOn can be enabled which will allow to move to the position given by 1700 PositionerSetpoint via a ramp. The parameter 1703 PositionerRamp is used for defining actuator travel percentage per second. On activation of 5703 PositionerRampOn the setpoint will be ramped up to across the programmed slope.

Programming Example:

The setpoint positioned to 50% is to be attained by a ramp of 20% actuator travel per second

13.3 Simulation of Analog Inputs

When simulating
Analog Inputs, the value for the input signal of the respective channel is set directly. Simulation of analog inputs is enabled by the parameter 5740 SinADCOn.

To simulate analog inputs it must be known which sensor had been connected to which input. The value for the analog input must be specified in percent and will be displayed on its relation to the corresponding range of values by the parameter associated with the respective sensor. The values required for simulation are to be entered for the following parameters:

13.4 Simulation of Digital Inputs

The digital inputs that are used as switches for changing over functions or turning functions on and off can be simulated independently of the switch states. In these cases, "1" will always denote that the function is enabled and "0" that it is inactive (see also
Digital Inputs).

Simulation of the digital inputs is activated by the parameter 4809 SimSwitchOn.

The selected functions by which the governor is operating will also be displayed by the indication parameters associated with the digital inputs (parameter numbers 2810 and higher).

13.5 Simulation of Digital Outputs

For testing purposes the digital outputs can be simulated in the same way as digital inputs. To do so, the following functions should be set to 0 (disabled) or 1 (enabled).

Simulation of digital outputs is activated by means of the parameter 5480 SimDigOutOn. Indication parameters for the digital outputs are the parameters 3481 DigOut1 through 3484 DigOut4.

14. Data Management

14.1 Identification

The control provides diverse parameters for information on governor type, software version, etc.

14.1.1 Governor Type

The governor is identified by hardware and software numbers:

14.1.2 Engine/Device Manufacturers

Fir identification of the manufacturer if the engine or the other devices there are 20 parameters available that are not used by HEINZMANN. Each of them can store a five-digit number up to 65535 (maximum) as an identification of the engine or any other unit. The identification numbers are assigned to the parameters 1821 IdNumber1 through 1840 IdNumber20.

14.1.3 PC Program/Hand Held Programmer

Each HEINZMANN PC program and each HEINZMANN Hand Held Programmer (
Programming Possibilities which are required for altering parameters has a specific identification number that is passed on to the control. The current identification number of the PC program or Hand Held Programmer is displayed by the parameter 3850 Identifier. The identification number of the PC program or Hand Held Programmer which was used in saving the last parameter change into the control is shown by the parameter 3851 LastIdentifier.

15. Error Handling

15.1 General

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls include an integrated error monitoring system by which errors occurring at sensors, speed pickups and actuators, or erroneous entering of parameter values, etc., may be detected and reported. Whenever the control detects at least one error, the common alarm output will be activated. This output can be used for a visual or an audible signal.

NOTE: During initialization of the Digital Control PRIAMOS, the governors common alarm output will be activated for about 500 ms.

The common alarm output remains active until there is no longer any error to be reported. If the common alarm output is alert to different overlapping errors, it can be reset on occurrence of any further error for about one second and then activated again. This function is enabled by the parameter

It will prove particularly useful when the common alarm output has been connected to some higher ranking unit of the SPS type.

Which error is being reported by the common alarm can be established by means of the error parameters bearing parameter numbers 3000 onward. A currently set error parameter will read the value "1", otherwise the value "0".

The Digital Control PRIAMOS offers the additional possibility of having a basic diagnosis performed by means of the
Operating Mode Display and the LED Display. The following sections describe each individual error as well as the governors reaction and the steps to be taken for clearing the errors.

Basically, the following errors types are to be distinguished:

* Errors in configuring the governor and adjusting the parameters. Such errors to erroneous input on the part of the user and cannot be intercepted by either the PC program or Hand Held Programmer. They do not occur with governors that have been produced in series.
* Each occurring during operation. These errors are the most significant ones when using governors produced in series. Errors such as failures of speed pickups, setpoint adjusters, pressure and temperature sensor, etc., are typical of this category.
* Internal computing errors of the control. These errors may be due to defective components or other inadmissible operating conditions. Normally, they are not likely to occur.

To remove an error one should first establish and eliminate its cause before clearing any of the current errors. Some errors are cleared automatically as soon as the failure cause has been eliminated (see also
Error Parameter List). Errors can be cleared by means of the PC or Hand Held Programmer. Clearance will also rest the common alarm output. Should the system nevertheless persist in reporting an error, the search for its cause must be continued.

Principally, the control starts operating on the assumption that there is no error and will then go over to checking for possible occurrences of errors. Hence, the control can be put into an error free state by a
Reset, but will immediately report any errors that are currently active.

15.2 Error Memories

When the control is powered down it will lose any information there is on actual errors. In order to obtain a survey of which errors have occurred, a permanent error memory has been incorporated in the control. Any errors that occurred at least once will be stored there but the order and the time of their occurrence is ignored.

The values stored in the error memory are treated by the control merely as monitor values and are not taken any further account of. In other words, it is only the errors occurring during operation that the control will respond to. The permanent error memory can be inspected by means of the parameters that have been assigned numbers from 3100 upward so that the numbers of permanently stored errors will differ by 100 from those of the respective actual errors.

NOTE: There exist a few errors that are excluded from being stored in the permanent error memory (see also
List of Error Parameters).

In the same way as actual errors, the permanent error memory can be cleared by means of the PC or Hand Held Programmer. After clearance, the control will revert to accumulating any occurring errors in the empty error memory.

NOTE: If the parameter 5071 NoStoreSerrOn=1 is set, there will be no storing errors into the error memory before the next
Reset. This feature is intended to permit shipping a control in error free condition with a customer specific data set downloaded and without having to stimulate the inputs by the correct values.

15.3 Modifying Reactions to Errors

In a certain number of cases, the user is offered the option to decide on how the governor is to react should the respective error occur. Depending on application and operating mode, the errors can thus be weighted differently.

For setpoint adjusters and sensors, it is necessary to define error limits (or error thresholds as they are called) based on which the control can recognize that an error has occurred (
Error Detection by Analog Inputs).

In normal cases, provisions can be made to define substitute values for sensors connected to analog inputs. This will permit the governor to continue operation should the respective sensor fail thus ensuring emergency operation for the entire installation.

NOTE: These parameters will be enabled only following a
Reset.

For the setpoint adjusters there is the additional option to revert to the last value that was valid before failure of the setpoint adjuster occurred rather than to maintain operation by resorting to a substitute value. This function is activated by the parameter.

For a certain number of significant functions emergency stop parameters are provided that can be used to make the control execute an emergency engine shutdown when an error occurs. If this is envisaged, an emergency stop parameter must have been enabled for the respective function. The following table lists the available emergency stop parameters in juxtaposition with their respective errors.

NOTE: There is a specific procedure provided for overspeed (error 3006 ErroSpeedOver, see
Over Speed Monitoring).

15.4 Error Parameter List

The below error parameter list contains descriptions of the causes of each single error and of the governors reactions to it. Furthermore, it lists the appropriate measures to be taken to remove the respective error.

The errors are stored in the volatile error memory under the parameter numbers 3000 and higher (as far as provided) in the permanent error memory under parameter numbers from 3100 onward.

The errors are sorted by ascending numbers with the parameter on the left indicating the actual error as stored in the volatile memory and with the parameter on the right indicating the one stored as sentinel in the permanent error memory. As explained above, the control will only react to actual errors whereas the permanent error memory serves no other purpose than to accumulate information on the occurrences of errors.

15.5 Display of Operational Modes

The PRIAMOS Digital Control is equipped with an operational mode display. Its main purpose is to indicate the governors operating states and to perform a basic error diagnosis. The operating states are indicated by the same numbers as those displayed by the parameter
3830 phase:

Serious errors are indicated by a letter:

15.6 LED Display

The Digital Control PRIAMOS has ten light emitting diodes (LED) giving further information on the governors operating states and on the error states. Eight of these LEDs are accessible by parameters so that their states may also be examined with the housing closed.

15.7 Turn Switches

There is a 16 position turn switch on the PRIAMOS Digital Control which allows adjustment of various functions without having to use the PC or the Hand Held Programmer. It should be remembered that the actual position of the turn switch will take effect only following a
Reset. Its current position is also indicated by parameter 3831 TurnSwitch.

NOTE: The value of velocity limitation will be determined by means of the turn switch only after setting the parameter 5311 VelocityMaxMode=1 (
Velocity Limitation).

16. Parameter Description

16.1 Synoptical Table

In the table below the different parameter groups are listed in adjacent columns. It is followed by another table itemizing all parameters by number and denotation and grouping them in accordance with the previous four lists. This will make it easier to understand the interrelations between the different parameters.

16.2 List 1: Parameters

16.3 List 2: Measurements

16.4 List 3: Functions

General Information

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls are designed to serve as general purpose controls for diesel engines, gas engines, and other prime movers. Besides their primary function of controlling speed, the controls are capable of performing a great variety of other tasks and functions.

Actual engine speed is measured by a pulse pickup on the starter gear. With regard to safety redundancy, either an additional pick-up can be installed, or the generator signal from terminal W can be used by the control as a substitute for the speed signal so that operation can continue in case the first pick-up should happen to fail.

Engine speed is set by one or more setpoint adjusters. These adjusters can be analogue or digital ones. Further digital inputs permit to switch on functions or to change over to other functions.

Parameter Lists

In developing the HEINZMANN Digital Controls highest priority was given to realizing a combination of universal applicability and first grade functionability. As for each function several adjustable parameters had to be provided, some system was needed to conveniently organize the great multitude of parameters resulting from the numerous functions that had to be implement. For the sake of clarity and easy access, the parameters have therefore been grouped into four lists.

1. Parameters Parameters used for adjusting the control and the engine (parameter numbers 1..1999)
2. Measurements Parameters (measuring or monitor values) used for displaying the actual states of the control and the engine (parameter numbers 2000..3999)
3. Functions Parameters used for activating and switching over functions (parameter numbers 4000..5999)
4. Curves Parameters used for programming characteristic curves and tag maps (parameter numbers 6000..7999)

Each parameter has a number and an abbreviation. The parameter number indicates which list the parameter belongs to. Within the lists, the parameters are arranged by groups andthus readily identified.

The following overview shows the list.

Parameter Value Ranges

Each parameter is assigned a certain value range. As a consequence of the multitude of parameters and functions, there also exists a great variety of value ranges. In the appendix, the value ranges are listed for all parameters.

For speed parameters, however, a common value range is provided. As a standard, it comprises 0..4095 rpm which allows to run engines at maximum speeds of approx. 3500-3600 rpm. (There must exist some reserve for Thrust Operation and Overspeed Monitoring).

For high speed engines, a speed range of 0..8191 rpm is available, and for driving a turbine by the control, a further speed range of 0..32767 rpm can be provided. Please, specify the desired speed range when ordering the Digital Control; otherwise, it will be shipped with the value range of 0..4095 rpm.

For some parameters the value ranges cannot be determined explicitly in advance, but must be communicated to the control by the user. This applies to any parameter indicating physical measurements, e.g., of pressure or temperature sensors (Measuring Ranges of Sensors).

Some parameters are assigned a value range consisting of two states only, 0 or 1. Parameters of this type are used to activate or switch over particular functions or to indicate states of errors or of external switches, etc. Parameters having this value range will appear only in list 2 (Measurements) or in 3 (Functions). List 3 exclusively comprises parameters with the value range 0..1.

State "1" signifies that the respective function is enabled or that the respective error has occurred, whereas state "0" signals the function to be inactive or that no error has occurred.

Levels

As the Digital Controls serves the purpose to determine operational behavior of the engine with regard to speed, power, etc., programming should remain entrusted exclusively to the engine manufacturer. However, to make the advantages of the Digital Control available to the ultimate customer, too, the parameters of the HEINZMANN Digital Control have been grouped by a hierarchy of seven levels.

* Level 1: Level for the ultimate customer

On this level, it is possible to have the basic operational values, (e.g., set values, current values of speed and actuator position) as well as errors displayed. This level, however, does not admit of interventions with regard to the control or the engine data.

* Level 2: Level for the device manufacturer

The device manufacturer can adjust the speeds within the permissible range. Besides, the dynamic parameters and the dynamic tag map of the control may be modified and power output reduced.

* Level 3: Level for the service

With the exception of the most relevant engine specific parameters, such as engine output and various tag map boundaries, all types of modifications are permitted on this level.

* Level 4: Level for the engine manufacturer

On this level, the entire program is accessible for programming of the control. Furthermore, user masks can be created on this level.

* Level 5: Level for engine manufacturers with user specific software.

This level is required if a customer wishes to create control software of his own. User software will eventually allow to modify functions of the Digital Control and to define user-specific functions.

* Level 6: Level for the control manufacturer

On this level, control functions may be manipulated directly. Therefore, access remains reserved for HEINZMANN.

* Level 7: Level for development

This level remains reserved for the HEINZMANN development department.

As will have become evident from this survey any superior level comprises all inferior ones.

The Appendix offers a list of all parameters and their respective levels.

The maximum level is determined by the diagnosis device used (PC or Hand Held Programmer) and cannot be changed. There exists, however, the option of reducing the currently valid level via a special menu item of the PC-program or with the aid of parameter 1800 LEVEL. Reducing the level will, however, affect the number of parameters and functions that can be accessed.

Programming Possibilities

There exists different ways of programming the HEINZMANN Digital Controls:

* Programming by HEINZMANN

During final inspection at the factory, the functionability of the control is checked by means of a test program. If the customer specific operational data are available, the test program is executed using those data. When mounted to the engine, only the dynamic values and, if necessary, the actuator position limits and sensors remain to be calibrated.

* Programming with the Hand Held Programmer

Depending on the level, all programming can be performed using the Hand-Held Programmer. This handy device may be conveniently used for development and for serial tuning as well as for servicing purposes.

* Programming by PC

Depending on the level, The PC offers the possibility to have several parameters constantly displayed and to modify them. Besides, the PC-program is capable of graphically displaying limitation curves, characteristics, etc., and of adjusting them conveniently. The control data can be stored by the PC or downloaded from the PC to the control. Furthermore, the PC-program has the advantage of visualizing measured values (such as speed, actuator travel) versus time or versus each other (e.g., actuator travel versus speed).

* Programming with User Masks

Programming can generally be performed with user masks that are provided by HEINZMANN or that the user may conveniently created by himself. User masks will display only those parameters that are actually needed.

* Transferring Data Sets

Once programming has been completed for a specific engine type and its application, the data set can be stored by the Hand Held Programmer or on diskette. For future applications of similar kind, such data sets can then be downloaded to the new controls.

* Check-out Programming (End Of Line-Program)

This type of programming is performed by the engine manufacturer during the final bench tests of the engine. By this procedure, the control is tuned to engine requirements and to ordering specifications.

Further Information

The present manual describes the functions and adjustments of the HEINZMANN Digital Controls. For further information refer to the following manuals:

The above manuals can be ordered from HEINZMANN using the ordering from in the appendix.

Starting the Engine

On first setting the governor into operation on the engine, be sure to observe all of the following instructions. This is the only way to ensure that no problems will arise when the engine is started.

The following instructions are intended to provide some brief information only on how to install the governor. For more detailed information, one should refer to the brochure, "Basic Information Digital Controls" respective chapters or manuals.

The following instructions cover all parameters that have been adjusted in order to start the engine. The parameter values, however, are to be taken as examples only. For actual operation they will have to be set in a way as will reasonably suit the engine and the specific application.

1. Adjust distance of pulse pickup.

The distance between the pick-up and the tip of the teeth should be approx. 0.5 to 0.8 mm. For detailed information see the manuals for the basic systems.

2. Check linkage.

The linkage must operate smoothly and be capable of moving to the stop and maximum fuel positions.

3. Check cabling.

-Digital inputs: On turning any switch, the respective monitoring parameter must display the change.

Example: When actuating the engine-stop-switch, the value of parameter 2810 SWITCH_MOTOR_STOP must change accordingly.

Check all switches in like manner.

-Analog Inputs: On first commissioning, only the setpoint adjusters are required because there will be no need yet to enable functions for which the signals of the analog inputs must be available (such as boost pressure dependent fuel limitation, speed dependent oil pressure monitoring, etc.) Nevertheless, all analog inputs should be checked.

Example: The setpoint adjuster 1 is presumed to have been connected to analog input 1. When altering the set value, the parameter 3511 ADC1_VALUE is expected to change accordingly. If no change is to be observed, then the cabling of the setpoint adjuster must be faulty. In like manner as 3511 ADC1_VALUE, the parameter 3510 ADC1 as well as the parameter 2901 Setpoint1 related to the setpoint adjuster are bound to change from 0% to 100% when the setpoint adjuster moves from its minimum to its maximum position. Otherwise, the input needs to be normalized.

-Adjust and check the actuator (Calibration of Actuator). The calibration of the actuator may be performed with the aid of the PC program or the Hand Held Programmer, or in case of the DC 1.3, by using the Turn Switch.

Automatic calibration of the actuator is to be carried out with the linkage removed from the governor and the injection pump resp. the gas mixer to make sure that the actuator is capable of moving to its minimum and maximum positions. For checking the actuator, the Positioner Mode can be enabled by setting the parameter 5700 POSITIONER_ON=1. By this procedure, the actuator position may be preset directly by 1700 POSITIONER_SETPOINT and then checked by having the actual actuator position displayed by 2300 ACT_POS. Again, the actuator should be able to move along its total traveling range from 1% to 100%.

4. Programming the most significant parameters.

- First, program number of teeth, minimum and maximum speeds, overspeeds and the speed limit line:

- Preset PID-values:

- Program the absolute limits of actuator travel:

- Adjust starting actuator position (type 1):

- Save values in governor and reset governor by a Reset.

5. Check pulse pick-up and determine starter speed.

- Turn engine-stop-switch to OFF so that the engine cannot be started.

Actuate starter and check the measured speed as indicated by 2000 SPEED. At this point, the parameter should read the starter speed. The speed as measured by the control should be verified, if possible, by a separate speedometer to ensure that the number of teeth has been entered correctly.

- Check for the speed at which the control recognizes the engine to have started (256 START2_SPEED). This speed must exceed starter speed.

6. Start the engine and adjust control circuit stability.

- Turn engine-stop-switch back to ON.

- Start the engine and run it up to rated speed by means of the setpoint adjuster.

- Optimize the PID-values.

Increase gain (P-factor) 100 GAIN till the engine becomes unstable and then reduce till stability is restored.

Increase stability (I-factor) 101 STABILITY till the engine becomes unstable and then reduce till stability is restored.

Increase derivative (D-factor) 102 DERIVATIVE till the engine becomes unstable and then reduce till stability is restored.

With this adjustment, disturb engine speed briefly and observe the transient response.

7. Perform this checking procedure for the entire speed range. If for minimum and maximum speed this checking will result in values differing from the programmed ones, the setpoint adjuster needs to be calibrated.

The parameter 2031 SPEED_SETPOINT1 will show whether the value is set correctly.

8. Perform speed and/or fuel dependent correction of PID parameters for gas engines resp. for variable speed controls operating by larger ranges of speed.
9. Adjust the remaining functions, such as speed ramps, speed dependent fuel limitation, etc.
10. Save data thus determined by storing them in the control.

3. Configuring the Governor with the Hand Held Programmer



Fig. 1: Hand Held Programmer

After connecting the Hand Held Programmer to the governors communication interface, the parameters of the governor can displayed and altered. Any parameter may be selected directly by its number or by using the arrow keys while moving through the lists. The parameter value is altered either directly (by entering a value) or by increasing/decreasing it step-by-step with the keys [+] and [-]. The parameter contained in the DISPLAY list and numbered 2000 through 3999 are not subject to alteration since they represent measuring and display values. The Programmer 2 also includes several additional features, such as the Capability of storing the governors complete data set in its memory.


NOTICE

The Hand Held Programmer is supplied power through the governors communication interface so there will be no need for any additional supply by batteries of the like. Similarly, data transfer between the Hand Held Programmer and a PC will require using a special adapter cable to ensure current supply to the Hand Held Programmer.


3.1 The Display Panel



Fig. 2: The Display Panel

Figure 2 shows the display panel with a standard parameter representation. The parameter currently selected is the actual speed value as measured by speed pickup 1. This measurement has been assigned the parameter number 2001 and the parameter name SPEED_PICK_UP1. Current speed is 1230 revolutions per minute (1/min), the total value range being from 0 through 4095 1/min. The small field for the user mask indicates, whether the parameter specified has been programmed for inclusion in the user mask (see section 3.5). This label can read three states:

The bottom line displays messages about current errors. In the above example, the error"Excessive difference in actuator travel" is signalled to have occurred. If no error is being detected, the message NO ERROR will show up.

The programmers display is illuminated to ensure legibility in sufficiently lighted environments.

3.2 The Control Panel



Fig. 3: The Control Panel

The programmers control panel is divided into several groups some of which are distinguished by different background colors. In addition to their standard functions, a number of keys are assigned a second function which is denoted by the blue legend and activated by the topmost left key [2nd]. Keys exhibiting exclusively blue captions have no effect unless in combination with the [2nd]-key.

3.2.1 The Standard Functions


These keys (background green) permit to switch between the different lists (standard functions). In doing so, the last-selected list item is kept in memory.

Example: If the parameter 10 SPEED_MIN1 had been assessed while working in the parameter list (PARAM) and if after switching to the function list (FUNCT) any parameter had been altered there, then on returning to the parameter (PARAM) the parameter 10 SPEED_MIN1 would be displayed again.


to
The numeric keys (no particular background color) serve to enter parameter numbers and the parameter values.


The point key is used for entering decimal places. The allowable number of decimal places after the point is to be seen from the third line of the display (vale range).


If a typing mistake occurs while entering parameter numbers or values, entry can be aborted with the [CE] key (CE=Clear Entry). The blinking cursor will disappear from the topmost line and the previous value will be displayed again.


With this key, the user mask for the currently selected parameter is activated or deactivated. The Hand Held Programmer must, however, have been programmed to at least level 4 if this key is to be used.


These keys (background black) are destined for selecting parameters. For direct input, the [NUMBER] key is to be pressed first. The parameter number will be replaced by a blinking cursor indicating that a new number may be entered. Entry is terminated by pressing the [ENTER] key (background black/green) which will bring the desired parameter into display. In case the parameter number entered does not exist, the parameter with the next highest number is selected. Pressing the key [ ] will select the next parameter, pressing [ ] the preceding one.


With this key, the user mask of the Hand Held Programmer is switched on and off. It has to be recalled that the Hand Held Programmer must have been programmed to at least level 4 if this key is to be used.


With these keys (background green), the value of the parameter selected can be altered. For direct input, the key [VALUE] is to be pressed first. The topmost line will display a blinking cursor indicating that a new value may be entered. Entry is terminated with the key [ENTER], and the entered value accepted by the governor. Should the entered value happen to be smaller that the lower limit or larger than the upper one, the respective limit value will be set instead. An alternative option provides for continuously changing the values. Thus, by pressing the [+] key the value displayed will be increased and by pressing the [-] key decreased. The incrementof these changes can be set through the parameter 1876 VALUE_STEP. VALUE_STEP always refers to the smallest adjustable unit of parameter (with two decimal places this will be hundredth, with integer number units, etc.).


NOTICE

The parameters contained in the DISPLAY list and numbered 2000 through 3999 are measuring and display values that are not subject to alteration.



These keys placed to the left of the control panel (background blue) have not been allocated any standard functions.

3.2.2 The Second Functions


With this key, the second or special functions can be invoked. After pressing the key, an "S" is displayed to the right of the bottom line, and the Hand Held Programmer will be waiting for the next key to be entered (like a pocket calculator). If inadvertently pressed, correction is possible by pressing the [2nd] key one more, which will also make the "S" disappear.


The second functions allocated to these keys are jumps to the most relevant parameter groups. Their significations are:

The following keys open a way to moving through the lists very fast. By pressing the [2nd] key and then the specified key following jump functions are performed:


Jump to the first parameter of the currently selected list


Jump to the last parameter of the currently selected list


Jump to the first parameter of the next parameter group


Jump to the first parameter of the previous parameter group

The increment for the last two keys is 100.

Example:


The second functions of these keys enable to increase and decrease parameter values considerably faster. The increment will be ten times the value of the parameter 1876 VALUE_STEP (increment).


With this key, the sign of the parameter value can be changed (if permitted by the parameter value range).

3.2.3 Special Functions

Special functions are selected in like manner using the [2nd] key. After pressing the [2nd] key, an "S" is displayed to the right of the bottom line, and the Hand Held Programmer is waiting for input from some special key.

3.2.3.1 Engine Stop


By shortly pressing this key, the transient behavior of the engine can be checked. When this key is pressed, the governor will pull the actuator to its stop position and keep it there as long as the key is held down. If the key is released before the engine comes to a standstill, the governor will run up the engine again to set speed.

3.2.3.2 Saving Values in the Governor

Parameter values that have been altered during operation are stored only in the governors RAM and are bound to get lost as soon as the powers supply is turned off. This feature permits of testing various governor adjustments without interfering with the governors configuration. If, however, the changes are to be retained, it is necessary that they be permanently saved in the governor.


With this key, the current values and the programmed mask are permanently saved in the governor. During storage, the message "Saving data in governor" is issued.

3.2.3.3 Data Transfer Governor Hand Held Programmer Governor

The Hand Held Programmer is capable of storing one complete data set. This provides a possibility to transfer data sets from one governor to another.


NOTICE

It is always the complete data set that will be transferred.


This implies that also values that might be different for different governors will be overwritten, particularly the reference values for the actuator and for the analog inputs. It is, therefore, imperative that an automatic adjustment of the actuator be carried out each time data have been transferred. If necessary, the reference values for the analog inputs should also be adjusted.


With this key, the complete data set of the governor is stored in the Hand Held Programmer. The display will read "Receiving Data", and a slide bar will indicate the stage of data transfer in per cent. Depending on the number of parameters to be transmitted, transfer will be completed after approx. 2-4 minutes, and all values will be permanently stored in the Hand Held Programmer.


With this key, the values are downloaded from the Hand Held Programmer to the governor. Before starting transmission, the hardware and software numbers are displayed to make sure that the governor and the data set are compatible. Transmission must be started by pressing [ENTER]. If any other key is pressed instead, the Hand Held Programmer will switch over to standard parameter representation without transmitting any data. After pressing the [ENTER] key, the messages "Transmitting Data" and Transmission Complete" are briefly displayed, followed by the instruction "Save data and restart the governor to work with the new data set". This instruction signals that the values transferred from the Hand Held Programmer have to be permanently stored in the governor by the key sequence [2nd] and [Save data]. After that, the governor must be restarted.

There are two ways of restarting the governor. One is by pressing the [RESET] key (if available) on the governors mother board, the other by switching power supply to the governor off and on (which will always work).

Restarting the governor is necessary because, for reasons of security, some of the values, such as number of teeth of the speed pick-up, become effective only after a reset.

3.2.3.4 Data Transfer PC Hand Held Programmer PC

Similarly, the data set of the Hand Held Programmer may be downloaded to a PC. Vice versa, the Hand Held Programmer may be programmed with a data set from the PC. Connecting the Hand Held Programmer and a PC will require a special adapter cable that ensures power supply to the Hand Held Programmer. To put the Hand Held Programmer into communication mode, it is necessary to keep either the [SEND DATA] key or the [GET DATA] key pressed for about 5 seconds while the Hand Held Programmer is connected to the power supply. After issuing the switch-on message, the display reads "Waiting for a command", signalling that the Hand Held Programmer is ready for communication with the PC. In addition, the hardware and software numbers of the data set stored are displayed. Using the HEINZMANN PC program DC_DESK the data set stored in the Hand Held Programmer can now be read out and stored in the PC. Storage is commented by the Hand Held Programmer with the message "Transmitting data".

In similar fashion, data can be downloaded from the PC to the Hand Held Programmer. In this case, transmission is no longer confined to complete data blocks but will equally work for a restricted choice of parameters (see description of PC program). Receipt of data sets by Hand Held Programmer is acknowledged through the message "Receiving data".

3.2.3.5 Error Memory

For more detailed information about the error memory, please refer to section 5.2 of this manual. At this point, it will suffice to explain the functions of each single key.


This key serves to clear the error memory of actual errors. The display will show the message "Clear error memory".


With this key, the errors saved permanently in the governor erased. The action is confirmed by the message "Erasing errors".

3.2.3.6 Data Blocks

The governor is capable of accommodating several data blocks each containing a complete data set.


On pressing this key, the existing data sets are listed, and the number of the data block to be deleted can be entered. Entry may be aborted with the key [CE] without deleting any data sets.

3.2.3.7 Automatic Adjustment of Actuator


After pressing this key, the instruction "Confirm actuator adjust! Press ENTER to continue" is displayed.It is now possible to either carry out automatic adjustment (autoadjust) or abort the procedure by pressing any other key. Automatic adjustment may be performed only with the engine at a standstill.

If several actuators are connected to the governor, the Hand Held Programmer will offer a choice for which actuator automatic adjustment is to be performed.

Automatic adjustment of the actuator corresponds to adjusting feedback voltage for an analog governor.

3.3 Parameter Selection

3.3.1 Entering Parameter Numbers


After pressing the [ENTER] key, the parameter number is replaced by a blinking cursor, and the Hand Held Programmer will be waiting for a number of maximum four digits to be entered.


Entry has to be terminated with the [ENTER] key. The parameters are automatically included in the user mask. If a number has been entered that does not exist in the governor, the parameter with the next higher number is selected. It is only possible to select parameters that have been programmed for the previously set level.


Input cab be cancelled with the key [CE].

3.3.2 Selection of Arrow Keys


First, select the desired list with one of the keys PARAM, DISPLAY, FUNCT or CURVES.


By shortly pressing the arrow keys, one cam then move on to the next parameter or go back to the preceding one. Keeping the keys pressed permits to quickly browse through the lists. By using the second functions, parameter selection becomes considerably faster. The function [NEXT] performs a jump to the first parameter of the next group, the function [LAST] a jump to the first parameter of the preceding group.


The function [BEGIN LIST] performs a jump to the beginning of the list and the function [END LIST] to list end.


NOTICE

In order to make use of any second function, the key
must have been pressed beforehand.


3.4 Changing Values

3.4.1 Entering Values


On pressing the [VALUE] key, a blinking cursor appears in place of the value, and the Hand Held Programmer will be waiting for input of a new value. Value range and number of decimal places can be read from the third line of the display. If the value entered is outside the value range, the respective limit value will be set.


The point preceding decimal places is entered with the point key. The sign of the value may be changed by means of the second function [+/-].


Input can be cancelled by pressing the key [CE]. In this case, the previous value is displayed again.


Entering values is terminated by pressing [ENTER].

3.4.2 Changing Values Directly


With the help of the keys [+] and [-], the value of the currently displayed parameter can be directly changed without having to leave the standard parameter display. By shortly pressing the keys, the value is altered by one step, and by keeping the keys pressed, it is altered continuously. The value will, however, change only within the limits of the value range as indicated in the third line of the display. The increment can be set by means of the parameter 1876 VALUE_STEP. Using the second functions [x10], the value will be altered by ten times the increment.


NOTICE

In order to delete a value, only the keys [VALUE] and [ENTER] are to be pressed. There is no need to enter zero. Direct entry is particularly suited to switching functions on and off since their values vary only between 0 and 1. Thus, pressing the key [+] will suffice to switch any function on and [-] to switch it off.

The parameter contained in the list DISPLAY and numbered 2000 thru 3999 are measuring and display values that are not subject to direct (or any other) alteration).


3.5 User Masks

3.5.1 General

From level 4 upward, the user is granted access to a great number of the governors parameters. To facilitate access and survey, the possibility of creating user masks has been provided. Any desired parameter can be readily allocated to a user mask. With the user mask activated, only the allocated parameters will be displayed. In order to take advantage of this function the Hand Held Programmer must have been programmed to level 4 at least.

3.5.2 Activating and Deactivating the User Mask


With this key, the user mask is activated or deactivated. If the user mask is activated and no parameter has been programmed for inclusion in the user mask, the message "No parameter in mask" will be issued. If a parameter has been programmed for the user mask, this will be indicated by displaying "Mask" at the end of the third line. If the user mask is deactivated, the third line will read "on" or "off". These messages indicate whether the specified parameter has been programmed for inclusion in the user mask ("on") or not ("off"). On powering up the Hand Held Programmer, the mask is activated by default.

3.5.3 Creating and Deleting User Masks


With this key, the selected parameter is assigned to the mask or removed from it. If the user mask is already activated, the current parameter is deleted from the user mask, and the following parameter is displayed. With the user mask activated, a parameter can be directly programmed for inclusion in the user mask by means of the key [NUMBER].


NOTICE

To delete a user mask completely, the user mask is to be activated first with the third line reading "MASK" as described before. Then, the key [ON/OFF] is to be pressed so many times until the message "No parameter in mask" appears.

In the same way as any value changes, programming the masks will take place only in the governors volatile memory. If the results of programming are to be made permanent, the function [SAVE DATA] must be executed.


4. Configuring the Governor with the PC-Program

4.1 General

The PC program DC_DESK is used for setting and visualizing parameters and functions of the HEINZMANN Digital Control. Visualization executes alternatively by graphics or alphanumerically. DC_DESK has been designed as software for Windows. The layout and the basic functions of the program are structured exactly like Windows functions (e.g., windows technique, pulldown menus, etc.). The following description of the program assumes the user to be knowledgeable of how to work with Windows programs in general and will, therefore, not go into details about specific Windows functions and applications.

Depending on Windows country specification, the PC program will present the menus either on German or in English. Similarly, the decimal delimiter will be adopted in accordance with country specification. Shipping the PC program includes by standard the files 01030000._p and STANDARD.HZM that permit to run the program straightaway (see section 4.4.1.1) and to start processing and changing parameter values without being connected to a governor.

4.2 Starting the Program



Fig. 4: The DC_DESK Icon

After booting Windows, the DC_DESK icon must be activated using either the mouse cursor or the keyboard. The program may then be started by double-clicking with the left mouse button or by pressing the [ENTER] key.



Fig. 5: Screen after Program Start

Immediately after starting the program, the screen will look like the one shown in figure 5. The screen divides into five windows, four of them exhibiting the names of the parameter lists in their title bars:

Parameters Parameters for adjusting the governor and the engine
Measurements Parameters indicating the current states of the governor and the engine


NOTICE

By default, measurements are not updated in this window. However, updating of measurements every 5-60 seconds can be activated in the menu "Options".


Functions Parameters for activating and switching functions.
Curves Parameters for programming characteristic curves and maps of coefficients.

The fifth window is the Select Confirmation window. It is only in this window that parameter values can be changed or measured values continually updated (see section 4.3). In the lower left corner, there is a label indicating the program status. Two states are to be distinguished:

On starting the program, no parameters are displayed (see figure 5) since at this point the program will neither be in what is actually the "OFFLINE" state nor in "ONLINE" state.

It is now up to the user to decide whether to establish connection to the governor or to make parameter changes without the governor. Depending on the program status, the functions of the different pulldown menus are either active or grayed. The single menu items and the differences of their functions with regard to the possible states will be discussed below.



Fig. 6: Screen in ONLINE State

Figure 6 shows the screen after setting the program ONLINE. Connection to the governorcan be established or interrupted by the item Governor in the pulldown menu. These functions may also be invoked directly from the keyboard with the function keys F4/F5.

Unlike figure 5, the diverse windows are now filled with parameters. Similarly, parameters will be displayed in the Select Configuration window in figure 6 as the program will always load the last-saved configuration (status as on exiting the program).

4.3 The Selection Configuration Window



Fig. 7: The Selection Configuration Window

The Select Configuration window (figure 7) serves to alter parameters and to have the measured values constantly updated. This configuration window displays the selections of those parameters that are needed to execute certain functions. Thus, various parameters have to be grouped together, e.g., for speed ramps, for PID adjustment, for setting the starting fuel amount, etc. The ability to save a particular configuration and to load it again some time later provides a convenient way for adjusting the various governor functions. Section 4.3.1 will offer a description of how to pick parameters from the four lists and include them in such selections.

4.3.1 Selecting Parameters

Parameters that have been selected are marked by highlighting the respective line.

4.3.1.1 Mouse

Single parameters are selected by clicking on them with the left mouse button. By clicking the left mouse button with the [Ctrl] key held down, several individual parameters can be selected, and with the [Shift] key pressed, blocks of parameters.

4.3.1.2 Keyboard

Single parameters may be selected by the cursor keys, and any number of parameters by the cursor keys with the [Shift] key held down.

4.3.2 Transferring Parameters to the Select Configuration Window

4.3.2.1 Mouse

Single parameters are transferred by double-clicking with the left mouse button, groups of parameters by dragging them over with the right mouse button pressed.

4.3.2.2 Keyboard

Any number of specific parameters will be transferred to the configuration window by simply pressing the [ENTER] key.

4.3.3 Removing Parameters from the Select Configuration Window

Single parameters may be deleted with the key [E] or the key [Del]. The entire selection can be cleared by the item "Selection New" in the File Menu.

4.3.4 Changing Parameters

The value of the parameter specified in the Select Configuration window is displayed in a separate text box. Pressing the [ENTER] key will take into the text box and permit to directly change the parameter value there. By pressing the [ENTER] key a second time, the value is accepted and transmitted to the governor. This also takes back again to the list where the next value may be picked with the arrow keys. By clicking on the buttons next to the text box, the values can be continually decreased ([<] [<<]) or increased ([>] [>>]). The increment by which the value is decreased [<] resp. increased [>] equals the smallest possible value of the parameter selected (last decimal place) whereas the increment effected by the keys [<<] and [>>] has to be set in the menu options. If the cursor is placed within the text box, the same actions may be performed using the keys [ ]/[
]. In this case, the keys [ ]/[
] will have the same effect as the buttons [<]/[>] and the combination [Shift] + [ ]/[
] the same as the buttons [<<] /[>>]

4.3.5 Constantly Updating Measured Values

Clicking the button [on/off] causes the measured and display values to be constantly updated in the Select Configuration window. A blinking blue point will indicate that this function is active.


NOTICE

When measured values are displayed graphically in the Curves window this function should be disabled to relieve the serial interface.


4.3.6 Saving and Loading Configurations

By means of the items "Selection Load/ Selection Save/ Selection Save as" in the pulldown menu "File", the parameters displayed in the Select Configuration window can be saved or a new selection loaded. Files listing parameter numbers for display in the Select Configuration window have the extension *.cfg. By standard, HEINZMANN ships the following configurations:

4.4 The Main Menu

The main menu consists of the following items:

F ile

Governor

Graphics

E rrors

Options

Windows

Shortcuts

Help

Each of the items opens a pulldown menu listing diverse specific options. These functions can be invoked "Windows-like".

4.4.1 Menu Item File



Fig. 8: Menu Item File

To complete the picture, fig. 8 shows the pulldown menu of menu item "file" as it will appear after starting the program. Note that most of the options are grayed since at this point the program status is neither "OFFLINE" nor "ONLINE".



Fig. 8a: Status "OFFLINE"



Fig. 8b: Status "ONLINE"

4.4.1.1 Without Governor

On selecting this option, data sets may be processed using the PC program without being connected to any governor. The program will first offer to choose among the available hardware and software versions. After selecting the governor type, the respective parameter definitions are loaded. The parameters are displayed with their numbers, names, value ranges, units and levels and are then ready to be processed. Shipping by HEINZMANN includes a standard file that permits to adjust the basic functions. If it is intended, however, to process customer specific functions without a governor, the PC must have previously been connected to some suitable governor, since the PC program cannot make governor types available it is not acquainted with. If this is taken account of, there will be no difficulty in loading the respective parameter values.


NOTICE

This menu item is only available when in OFFLINE mode.


4.4.1.2 Values Load

All parameter values stored in the computer can be loaded except the parameters with numbers from 2000 to 3999 as these parameters represent measurements and status values.

4.4.1.3 Values Save

The data set available in the PC can be saved to the current drive under its old name.

4.4.1.4 Values Save as

The data set available in the PC can be saved to any drive and is assigned the specific file name.


NOTICE

Savings values will in any case include measurements and states as it is necessary that some complete actual state be recorded. These values, however, can be displayed only by means of a separate text program. Saving from out of dialog boxes is restricted to storing either the complete set of values or the values contained in the Select Configuration window.


There are basically two modes of loading or saving values:

1. ASCII format

The parameters are saved resp. loaded as a text file in accordance with the current level of the program. These files exhibit the extension *.hzm.

2. Binary-Coded

After being encoded, the parameters are saved in accordance with the maximum level of the program and loaded independently of the level. In this case, it is required to enter a password. Thus, for example, a level 4 program will be capable of transferring also level 6 data. This feature is of particular importance for servicing purposes.

4.4.1.5 Configuration New

This item will clear any parameter configurations that are presently displayed in the Select Configuration window. If any changes have been made to the current configuration, the program will first inquire whether they are to be saved.

4.4.1.6 Configuration Load

This item will load any saved parameter configuration from diskettes or from the hard disk.

4.4.1.7 Configuration Save

The contents of the Select Configuration window can be saved under its original name. If a new configuration was created, the file can be assigned a new name.

4.4.1.8 Configuration Save as

The contents of the Select Configuration window may be saved to any drive and assigned any name.

4.4.1.9 Print

After selecting this item, the following dialog box will appear (fig. 9):



Fig. 9: Dialog Box Print

One or more items that have been selected will be printed one after the other. Graphic windows are output as graphics, any other windows as lists. Some windows provide the option of direct printing by clicking on the respective button.

4.4.1.10 Printer Setup

This item brings up the familiar Windows dialog box for configuring and changing the printer.

CLose

Connection to the governor is interrupted, and the program is excited.

4.4.2 Menu Item Governor



Fig. 10a: Governor OFFLINE



Fig. 10b: Governor ONLINE

4.4.2.1 Start Communication

This item will establish communication with the governor, and the lists will build up in the diverse windows. After that, the message ONLINE is displayed in the bottom left corner of the screen.


NOTICE

Communication with the governor cannot be established unless the PC has been connected to the governor by the communication (adapter) cable. Furthermore, the correct interface and baud rates must have been set in the menu Options.


4.4.2.2 Stop Communication

Communication with the governor cannot is interrupted. The message box in the lower left corner of the screen will read OFFLINE.

4.4.2.3 Automatic Adjustment of Actuator



Fig. 11: Automatic Adjustment

This dialog box (figure 11) offers the alternative of either confirming automatic adjustment (autoadjust) or aborting the action. When operating with more than one actuator (e.g., in dual fuel operation), the user will be asked for which of the actuators automatic adjustment is to be carried out. With the action completed, a message is issued to that effect.

4.4.2.4 Store Parameters in Governor

The set values are stored in the governor.


NOTICE

During operation, any parameter changes are stored in the governors RAM only and are bound to get lost on turning the power supply off. This permits of testing different governor configurations without changing the governors setting permanently. If the values are to be retained, it is absolutely necessary that they be stored in governor.


4.4.2.5 Data Blocks



Fig. 12: Data Blocks

HEINZMANN Digital Controls are capable of internally storing several complete data sets (data blocks). Selecting this item brings up the above dialog box presenting a list of all data blocks available. Any block from this list can be selected and set to be the actual one. If the actual block is set to a number that is not available, a new block will be created. Similarly, it is possible to predetermine the block by which the governor is to operate after the next reset. This start data block must be set to an available one, otherwise a data set error will be indicated after the next start-up.

4.4.2.6 Read Mask from Governor

The mask stored in the governor is transferred to the Select Configuration window.

4.4.2.7 Store Mask in Governor

The parameter configuration displayed in the Select Configuration window is stored as a mask in the governor.

4.4.2.8 Adjusting Sensors



Fig. 13: Adjusting Sensors

This item opens a dialog box that serves to adjust the different sensor inputs as required by their specifications. This feature provides a convenient method for calibrating, e.g., the set point adjusters; turning them to their upper and lower limit stops will suffice to correctly calibrate them. As regards other sensors, e.g., boost pressure sensors, the minimum and maximum values at the sensor inputs must be set accordingly. The procedure will automatically determine the upper and lower error limits, indicate the upper and lower reference values, and display the current measurement. If necessary, the reference and error values may be corrected manually. With all this done, the calibrated values can be sent to the governor.

4.4.2.9 Simulation

HEINZMANN Digital Controls are equipped with an integrated engine simulator that allows to test the governors functions without connecting it to an engine. Similarly, it is possible to simulate the actuator.

4.4.3 Menu Item Graphic



Fig. 14a: Graphics OFFLINE



Fig. 14b: Graphics ONLINE

4.4.3.1 View over t

By this feature, the screen is transformed into a graphics window that permits to view various measurements in relation to time (fig. 15).



Fig. 15: Graphics Window "Curve over time"

4.4.3.2 Description of the Options in The Graphics Window

Up to 6 different parameters may be selected. As the parameter number is entered in the number column, the other columns will fill automatically. Changing the minimum and maximum values, the scaling, and the colors will present no problems. The following sections describe the functions of the different switch buttons as provided by the graphics window.

Start

This switch serves to start and stop recording. Once recording is started, the caption will change to stop. When positioned in the graphics area, the mouse cursor will be replaced by a cross hair with which the recorded curve can be conveniently traced. Indoing so, the respective parameter values will be continually displayed halfway up in the right and left scales.


NOTICE

It is only in Stop state that changes can be made as to which parameters are to be viewed and which ranges are to be displayed.


Reset

All curves and characteristics shown in the window will be erased.

Print

The recorded curves will be printed, including all relevant information. Some brief additional information may be entered.

Parameters

This switch serves to change the size of the graphic area. The space for the display of diagrams can be maximized by making it overlap the lower portion of the graphics window.

Change

A new parameter configuration can be loaded or the current configuration stored if there be need to quickly view some other parameters.

Close

Clicking on this button will terminate display and close the window.

Resolution

The sampling rate may be altered by means of the slide control. As the graphical image is updated by blocks only, the time thus saved is used to fetch more values from the governor. By this, resolution is enhanced while, on the other hand, graphical representation be comes more discontinuous.

ms/unit

This box contains information on the scaling intervals of the time axis as determined by two adjacent marks on the x-axis. The time total is indicated at the right end of the x-axis.

Minimum/Maximum/Delta

Scaling of the y-axis is accomplished by specifying the minimum and maximum values and by setting delta (subdivision of the y-axis).

Left/Right

Clicking on the buttons in the columns Left/Right will decide at which side of the graphic chart the scale for the respective parameter is going to be placed. The current value of the particular parameter will then be displayed in the middle of the associated scale.


NOTICE

For both graphic windows (curve over t, curve over x) applies that several charts may be opened at the same time.


4.4.3.3 View over X



Fig. 15: Curve over x

By this option, parameter values can be plotted in relation to each other, e.g., speed versus actuator travel. The switch buttons have the same functions as in the graphic chart over time. Unlike that other window, however, parameters are to be allocated to both the x-and y-axis so that only two parameters can be displayed at a time.

4.4.3.4 Set Limit Curve

This item opens a dialog box offering a convenient way to adjust various limit functions graphically.



Fig. 17: Curve

After clicking on the point to be shifted with the right mouse button, it will be highlighted blue and may now be dragged to any position with the left mouse button held down. The program will ensure that the boundary conditions associated with the specific limit function are observed (see manual "Basis Information Digital Controls"). The coordinates of the point that is being moved are assigned to the respective parameter and displayed separately to the right of the parameter list. In addition to indicating the x and y values, the scalings of the x- and y-axis are displayed in two further boxes and are accessible there for adaptation. Once the limit curve has been set, the data must be sent to the governor for the changes to take effect.


NOTICE

Limit functions must be activated separately.


4.4.3.5 Overview

This item presents a graphical overview including analog and digital representations of various parameter values and states. The values displayed, among others, are set speed and current speed, set actuator travel and actual actuator travel, the analog inputs, and the switch states. Furthermore, the actual phase and the error status of the governor are indicated, and an additional analog display is provided for allocation to any appropriate function.

4.4.4 Menu Item Errors



Fig. 18a: Errors OFFLINE



Fig. 18b: Errors ONLINE

4.4.4.1 Actual Errors

By this, all errors are listed that have currently occurred.

4.4.4.2 Stored Errors

This item will display the errors stored permanently in the governor.

4.4.4.3 Clear Actual Errors

This will clear all actual errors.

4.4.4.4 Erase Stored Errors

This item will erase the errors stored permanently in the governor.

4.4.5 Menu Item Options



Fig. 19: Menu Item Options

4.4.5.1 Settings

This item opens a large dialog box (Fig. 20). Any settings required by the PC program can be made in this field.



Fig. 20: Dialog Field Options

Marking the respective boxes within the framed Columns field will decide on which information is to be included in the various parameter windows. Furthermore, the following options are offered:

Updating measurements

Color printer (the default is monochrome, even when using color printers)

Setting of programming levels

Adjustment of increments for altering parameters continually

Changing the typeface used in the parameter windows

Selecting the interface and setting the baud rate

4.4.5.2 Recorder

This dialog box (Fig. 21) serves to program data recording. In addition to specifying the parameters to be recorded, it permits to set start time, duration, and sampling rate. The values can be assigned any file name and stored in the PC.



Fig. 21: Dialog Box Recorder

The selected parameters will be listed in the box headed "Parameters". Clicking on the switch button [Start] will set off recording ("Immediate" will be active) or enable the recorder ("Timed" will be active). In addition to the parameter names, the PC time and the timer as set by the governor will be stored as reference values. The stored data are formatted as text to facilitate processing them by other Windows programs, such as EXCEL or Winword.

4.4.6 Menu Item Window



Fig. 22: Menu Item Window

This menu item allows to automatically arrange the opened windows in various ways. The windows have been numbered consecutively and can be selected directly. The currently active window is marked by the
symbol.

4.4.7 Menu Item Shortcuts



Fig. 23: Menu Item Shortcuts

4.4.7.1 Goto parameter

To directly select a function or a parameter, the [Ctrl] key and the [G] key ("Go") must be pressed simultaneously.

4.4.7.2 Change parameter

Parameter values or function states may be directly changed by pressing the [Ctrl] key and the [C] key at the same time.

4.4.7.3 Stop/Start engine

In analogy to the description in section 3.2.3.1 of the chapter Hand Held Programmer, the transient behavior of the engine can be tested by shortly pressing the combination of the keys [Ctrl]+[E]. With this combination pressed, the governor will keep pulling the actuator to its stop position as long as the keys are held down. If the keys are released before the engine has come to standstill, the governor will run up the engine to set speed again.

4.4.7.4 Start all curves

By pressing the combination [Ctrl]+F8, the curves displayed in any opened "Curve over t" and "Curve over x" windows will simultaneously be started resp. closed.

4.4.8 Menu Item Help



Fig. 24: Menu Item Help

The menu item "Help" offers tips and hints for running the program. It also furnishes information on the functions of the governor and explains the different parameters. The item "About" contains some information on the program.

5. Error Handling

5.1 General

The HEINZMANN Digital Controls include an integrated error monitoring system by which errors occurring at sensors, speed pickups and actuators, or erroneous entering of parameter values, etc., may be detected and reported. Whenever the control detects at least one error, the common alarm output will be activated. This output can be used for a visual or an audible signal.


NOTICE

During initialization of the DC 1.3, the governors common alarm output will be activated for about 500 ms.


The common alarm output remains active till there is no longer any error to be reported. If the common alarm output is alert to different overlapping errors, it can be reset on occurrence of a further error for about one second and then activated again. This function is enabled by the parameter

and will prove particularly useful when the common alarm output has been connected to some higher ranking unit of the SPS type.

Which error is being reported by the common alarm can be ascertained by means of the error parameters bearing parameter numbers from 3000 onward. A currently set error will indicate the value "1", otherwise the value "0".

In addition, the Digital Control DC 1.3 offers the possibility of having a basic diagnosis performed by means of the Operating Mode Display and the LED Display.

The following section will describe each individual error as well as the reaction of the governor and the steps to be taken to remove the error.

Basically, the following errors types are to be distinguished:

* Errors in configuring the governor and adjusting the parameters. Such errors are due to erroneous input on the part of the user and cannot be intercepted by either the PC program or Hand Held Programmer. They will not occur with serial governors.
* Errors in connection with a User Program. These errors will occur only when the control is basing operation on a program written by the customer himself.
* Errors occurring during operation. These errors are the most significant ones when operating with serial governors. Errors such as failures of pulse pick-ups, of setpoint adjusters, of pressure and temperature sensor, etc., are typical of this category.
* Internal computing errors of the control. These errors may be caused by defective components or other inadmissible operating conditions. They will not normally occur.

To remove an error one should first establish and eliminate its cause before clearing any of the current errors. Some errors are cleared automatically as soon as the cause of the failure is eliminated (see also 5.4 List of Error Parameters). Errors can be cleared by means of the PC or the Hand Held Programmer which will also deactivate the common alarm output. Should the system nevertheless persist in reporting an error, the search for its cause must be continued.

Principally, the control starts operating on the assumption that there is no error, and will begin to check for possible occurrences of errors. Thus, the control can be put into an error free state by a Reset, but will immediately display errors that are currently active.

5.2 Error Memories

When the control is powered down, it will lose any information on actual errors. In order to obtain a survey of which errors have occurred, a permanent error memory has been incorporated in the control. Any errors that have occurred at least once will be stored there but neither the order nor the time of their occurrence.

The values stored of the error memory are treated by the control merely as monitor values and are not taken account of any further. In other words, it is only the errors occurring during operation that the control will respond to.

The permanent error memory can be inspected by means of the parameters which have been assigned the numbers from 3100 upward. Thus, the permanently stored errors are located at numbers by 100 higher than the respective actual errors.


NOTICE

There exist a few errors that will not be stored in the permanent error memory (see also 5.4 List of Error Parameters)


In the same way as actual errors, the permanent error memory can be cleared by means of the PC or Hand Held Programmer. After that, the control will revert to accumulating any occurring errors in the empty error memory.

5.3 Modifying Reactions to Errors

In a certain number of cases, the user is offered the option to decide on how the control is to react if the respective error should occur. Depending on application and operation mode, the errors can thus be weighted differently.

With regard to setpoint adjusters and sensors, so-called error thresholds (error limits) are to be defined by which the control will recognize that an error has occurred (see "Basic Information Digital Controls").

In normal cases, provisions can be made to define substitute values for sensors connected to analog inputs which will permit the governor to continue operation should the respective sensor fail. Thus, emergency operation of the installation can be safely maintained.


NOTICE

These parameters will be enabled only after a Reset.


As far as setpoint adjusters are involved, there is the additional option to revert to the lastvalue that was valid before the failure of the setpoint adjuster occurred instead of continuing operation by recurring to a substitute value. This function is activated by the parameter.

With regard to all significant functions, the control can be caused by so-called emergency stop parameters to execute an emergency engine shutdown if an error occurs. If this is requested, the emergency stop parameter of the respective function must have been enabled. The following table lists the available emergency stop parameters together with their respective errors.

5.4 List of Error Parameters

In the below error parameters, the causes for the different errors as well as the reactions of the control have been described. Besides, the measures have been included that should be taken to remove the respective error.

The errors are stored in the volatile error memory under the parameter numbers from 3000 onward and at the same time in the permanent error memory under the parameter numbers from 3100 onward.

The errors are arranged by ascending numbers with the parameter on the left indicating the actual error as stored in the volatile memory and with the parameter on the right indicating the one stored as sentinel in the permanent error memory. As explained above, the control will only react to actual errors whilst the permanent error memory serves only the purpose of accumulating information on occurrences of errors.

5.5 Display of Operational Conditions

The Digital Control DC 1.3 is equipped with an operational mode display. Its main purpose is to indicate the governors operating states and to perform a basic error diagnosis.

The operating states are indicated by the same numbers as those displayed by the parameter 3830 phase:

Grave errors are indicated by a letter:

5.6 LED Display

The Digital Control DC 1.3 has ten light emitting diodes (LED) offering further information on the governors operating states and on the error states. Eight of these LEDs are accessible by parameters so that their states may also be examined with the housing closed. LED no. 2 is green, the others are red.

6. Appendix

6.1 List 1: Parameters

6.2 List 2: Measuring Values

6.3 List 3: Functions

6.4 List 4: Characteristics and Tag Maps

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