3408C & 3412C INDUSTRIAL ENGINES Caterpillar


Testing & Adjusting

Usage:



Introduction

NOTE: For Specifications with illustrations, make reference to Specifications For 3408C & 3412C Industrial Engines, RENR1312. If the Specifications in RENR1312 are not the same as in the Systems Operation, Testing & Adjusting, look at the printing date on the back cover of each book. Use the Specifications given in the book with the latest date.

Troubleshooting

To troubleshoot engine problems make reference to Troubleshooting, 3408C & 3412C Industrial Engines, SENR6582.

Fuel System

Either too much fuel or not enough fuel for combustion can be the cause of a problem in the fuel system. Many times work is done on the fuel system when the problem is really with some other part of the engine. The source of the problem is difficult to find, especially when smoke comes from the exhaust. Smoke that comes from the exhaust can be caused by a defective fuel injector, but it can also be caused by one or more of the reasons that follow:

a. Not enough air for good combustion.
b. An overload at high altitude.
c. Oil leakage into combustion chamber.
d. Not enough compression.
e. Fuel injection timing incorrect.

Fuel System Inspection

A problem with the components that send fuel to the engine can cause low fuel pressure. This can decrease engine performance.

1. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank. Look at the cap for the fuel tank to make sure the vent is not filled with dirt.

2. Check the fuel lines for fuel leakage. Be sure the fuel supply line does not have a restriction or a defective bend. Verify that the fuel return line has not collapsed in the sections subject to heat.

3. Install a new fuel filter. Clean the primary fuel filter.

4. To remove air from the fuel system, use the procedure that follows:

a. Use the priming pump to remove air from the low pressure side of the fuel system.

b. Loosen one-half turn the fuel injection line nuts at each adapter in the valve cover base. Move throttle lever to Low Idle position. Use the starting motor to turn the engine until fuel without air flows from the loose connections. Tighten the nuts.

NOTE: Because of the check assemblies in the injection pump outlets the priming pump will not give enough pressure to remove air from the fuel injection lines.

5. Inspect the fuel bypass valve to see that there is no restriction to good operation.

Fuel Transfer Pump

With the engine operating at full load speed, the fuel transfer pump receives fuel from the primary fuel filter. Fuel then moves through the ECM and the secondary fuel filters to the fuel injection pump.

To check the fuel transfer pump pressure, disconnect the fuel line (from the filter) at the fuel injection pump housing inlet. Install a tee at the inlet and connect the fuel line to the tee. Connect a pressure indicator to the tee and start the engine. Fuel is delivered to the fuel pump housing at approximately 414 kPa (60 psi) at full load speed.

If the fuel pressure is not up to specifications, stop the engine. Make a replacement of the primary and secondary fuel filters and check to make sure the fuel lines and hoses are not plugged or damaged.

Start the engine and again check the fuel pressure. If the fuel pressure is not at specifications, a repair or replacement of the fuel transfer pump is needed.

Checking Engine Cylinders Separately

An easy check can be made to find the cylinder that runs rough (misfires) and causes black smoke to come out of the exhaust pipe.

Run the engine at the speed that is the roughest. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump. This will stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test, before the next fuel line nut is loosened. Check each cylinder by this method. When a cylinder is found where the loosened fuel line nut does not make a difference in engine performance, test the injection pump and injection valve for that cylinder.

Temperature of an exhaust manifold port, when the engine runs at low idle speed, can also be an indication of the condition of a fuel injection valve. Low temperature at an exhaust manifold port is an indication of no fuel to the cylinder. This can possibly be an indication of an injection valve with a defect. Extra high temperature at an exhaust manifold port can be an indication of too much fuel to the cylinder, also caused by an injection valve with a defect.

The most common defects found with the fuel injection valves are:

1. Carbon on tip of the fuel injection nozzle or in the fuel injection nozzle orifice.
2. Steel wire brushing of fuel injection nozzle tip.
3. Orifice wear.
4. Dirty fuel injection nozzle screen.

Testing Fuel Injection Nozzles

Testing of the fuel injection nozzles must be done off the engine. Perform the following tests using the 5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group to determine if nozzle performance is acceptable:

Valve Opening Pressure Test

Flush The Nozzle

Tip Leakage Test

Orifice Restriction Test

Bleed Screw Leakage Test

Make reference to Special Instruction, SEHS7292, for operation of the 5P4150 Nozzle Testing Group.

Removal And Installation Of Fuel Injection Pumps

Removal Of Injection Pump


Put Rack At Zero Position
(1) Plug. (2) Governor control shaft.

1. Remove plug (1) from the timing pin hole on the fuel injection pump housing.

2. Install 4C9581 Rack Zero Pin with the flat end down in the hole that the plug was removed from.

3. Remove rack solenoid (BTM) and use the 4C9583 Fuel Pump Indicator to hold the rack against the rack zero pin.

4. Disconnect the fuel lines from the injection pumps.

5. Use the 8T5287 Wrench and 6V7050 Compressor Group to loosen the bushing that holds the fuel injection pump in the housing.

6. Install the 8S2244 Extractor on the threads of the injection pump. Pull the pump straight out of the bore.

When injection pumps and spacers are removed from the injection pump housing, keep the parts for each pump together so they can be installed back in their original location.

Be careful when injection pumps are disassembled. Do not damage the surface on the plunger. The plunger and barrel for each pump are made as a set. Do not put the plunger of one pump in the barrel of another pump. If one part is worn, install a complete new pump assembly. Be careful when the plunger is put in the bore of the barrel.

Installation Of Injection Pump


NOTICE

The fuel rack Must Be In The Center Position before the correct installation of an injection pump is possible.


Make reference to Fuel Injection Service, Removal Of Injection Pump for the correct procedure to center the fuel rack.

To install a fuel injection pump back into the housing bore, use the procedure that follows:


Fuel Pump Installation (Typical Illustration)
(3) Barrel. (4) Gear segment. (5) 8S2244 Extractor. (6) Bushing.

1. Put 8S2244 Extractor (5) on threads of injection pump.

2. Put groove of barrel (3) in alignment with slot of gear segment (4) (slot is on opposite side of gear segment teeth).

3. Look inside the bore of the injection pump housing to find the dowel. Put groove of the barrel in alignment with the dowel and put the injection pump straight down into the bore.

4. Push down on 8S2244 Extractor (5) with 6V7050 Compressor Group and install bushing (6) that holds the injection pump in the pump housing. If the pump is in the correct position, the bushing will turn into the threads of the injection pump housing with the fingers until it is even with the top of the housing (except for the pump that is in the position to fire). When bushing is installed correctly, tighten the bushing to 245 ± 15 N·m (180 ± 10 lb ft).


NOTICE

Damage to the housing will be the result if the bushing is too tight. If the bushing is not tight enough, the pump will have leakage.


5. Remove the 4C9581 Rack Zero Pin from injection pump housing and install the plug back in the hole.

6. Move the governor control back to shut-off position. Check to be sure governor control moves freely between fuel-on and shut-off position.

NOTE: This check can only be done with the fuel injection pump OFF engine.

Check for the correct installation of injection pump with the engine stopped. Rack travel from the center position in the fuel-on direction can be checked with governor installed, but the governor and governor piston must be removed to check for full rack travel. Use 6V9128 Rack Position Tool Group and the chart that follows to check rack travel. Make reference to Special Instruction, SEHS8436 for installation of 6V9128 Rack Position Tool Group.

With the governor piston and valve removed, the total amount of fuel rack travel (from shut-off position to full load position) is approximately 20.32 mm (.800 in). If the pump is installed wrong (center tooth of gear segment is not in correct notch of fuel rack) fuel rack travel will be less than 20.32 mm (.800 in). The injection pump will have to be removed and then installed correctly.

------ WARNING! ------

If one or more of the fuel injection pumps have been installed wrong, it is possible for the engine to run out of control when started. When any of the fuel injection pumps have been removed and installed with the fuel injection pump housing on the engine, take the precautions (steps) that follow to stop the engine if it starts to overspeed (run out of control).

--------WARNING!------


Turbocharger With Open Air Inlet (Typical Example)
(7) Air inlet.

a. Remove the air cleaners so that turbocharger air inlets (7) are open as shown.

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when plate is put against air inlet opening. Due to excessive suction, the plate can be pulled quickly against air inlet opening. To avoid crushed fingers, do not put fingers between plate and air inlet opening.

--------WARNING!------


Stopping The Engine (Typical Example)

b. If a pump has been installed wrong and the engine does not run in a normal way, put a steel plate over the air inlet openings as shown to stop the engine.

Fuel Injection Lines

Fuel from the fuel injection pumps is sent through the fuel injection lines to the fuel injection valves.

The fuel lines should be removed as a unit and reinstalled as a unit. Each fuel injection line of an engine has a special design and must be installed in a certain location. When fuel injection lines are removed from an engine, put identification marks or tags on the fuel lines as they are removed, so they can be put in the correct location when they are installed.

The nuts that hold a fuel injection line to an injection valve and injection pump must be kept tight. Use a torque wrench and the 2P5494 Crowfoot Wrench to tighten the fuel line nuts to 40 ± 7 N·m (30 ± 5 lb ft).

Fuel Bypass Valve

The fuel bypass valve controls fuel pressure to the fuel injection pump at full speed to a pressure of 230 ± 35 kPa (33 ± 5 psi).

Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston

NOTE: No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke is the starting point for all timing procedures.


Locating Top Center (Right Side Of Engine)
(1) Timing bolt (in storage location). (2) Plug. (3) Bolt. (4) Cover.

1. Remove timing bolt (1), bolt (3) and cover (4).

2. Remove plug (2).


Location For 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool
(1) Timing bolt (installed). (5) 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool.

3. Install 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool (5) in the housing.

4. Hold timing bolt (1) against the flywheel through the hole from which plug (2) was removed.

5. Use a 1/2 inch drive ratchet and 9S9082 Engine Turning Tool (5) to turn the flywheel counterclockwise (as viewed from the rear of the engine). Stop when the timing bolt goes into a threaded hole in the flywheel. If the timing bolt can be turned freely in the threaded hole in the flywheel, the No. 1 piston of the engine is on top center.

NOTE: If the hole in the flywheel is turned beyond the hole in the flywheel housing, turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a minimum of 30 degrees. Do Step 5 again. This will prevent timing error caused by play in the timing gears.


3408C Cylinder And Valve Location


3412C Cylinder And Valve Location

6. Remove the left front valve cover. Look at the valves of No. 1 cylinder. The valves will be closed if No. 1 piston is on the compression stroke. You should be able to move the rocker arms up and down with your hand. If No. 1 piston is not on the compression stroke, do the steps that follow.

7. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel.

8. Turn the flywheel 360 degrees counterclockwise and install the timing bolt.

NOTE: If the hole in the flywheel is turned beyond the hole in the flywheel housing, turn the flywheel back (clockwise) a minimum of 30 degrees. Do Step 5 again. This will prevent timing error caused by play in the timing gears.

Checking Engine Timing And Automatic Timing Advance Unit With 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group And 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group


8T5300 Timing Indicator Group
(1) 8T5250 Engine Timing Indicator. (2) 5P7366 Cable Assembly. (3) 6V2197 Magnetic Transducer. (4) 5P7362 Cable. (5) 6V2199 & 6V3093 Transducer Adapters. (6) 8D4644 Fuse.

The 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group with an 8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group, can be used to measure fuel injection timing for the engine.


8T5301 Diesel Timing Adapter Group
(7) 5P7437 Adapter. (8) 6V2198 Cable. (9) 5P7436 Adapter. (10) 6V7910 Transducer. (11) 5P7435 Adapter. (12) 6V3016 Washer.

When checking the dynamic timing on an engine that has a mechanical advance, Caterpillar recommends that the service technician calculate and plot the dynamic timing specifications first on a worksheet like SEHS8140. Make reference to Special Instruction SEHS8580 for information required to calculate the timing curve. For the correct timing specifications to use, make reference to the Engine Information Plate for the performance specification number and make reference to the TMI (Technical Marketing Information) or Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche.

NOTE: For more information on acceptable tolerances for dynamic fuel injection timing, make reference to Service Magazines dated 4-1-85 and 10-28-85.

After the timing values are calculated and plotted, the dynamic timing should be checked with the 8T5300 Engine Timing Indicator Group. The engine must be operated from 1000 rpm (base rpm) to high idle and from high idle to 1000 rpm (base rpm). Unstable readings are often obtained below 1000 rpm. He must record the dynamic timing at each 100 rpm and at the specified speeds during both acceleration and deceleration. Plot the results on the worksheet.

Inspection of the plotted values will show if the fuel injection timing is within specification and if it is advancing correctly.

1. Make reference to Special Instruction SEHS8580 for complete instructions and calibration of the 8T5300 Timing Indicator Group.

------ WARNING! ------

The engine must be stopped before the timing indicator group is installed. A high pressure fuel line must be disconnected and a probe must be installed in the flywheel housing.

--------WARNING!------


Transducer In Position
(10) Injection transducer. (13) Fuel injection line (for No. 1 cylinder).

2. Disconnect fuel injection line (13) for No. 1 cylinder. Slide the nut up and out of the way. Put 5P7436 Adapter (9) in its place and turn the adapter onto the fuel pump bonnet until the top of the bonnet threads are approximately even with the bottom of the "window" in 5P7436 Adapter (9).

3. Put 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11) on injection transducer (10) and put the end of 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11) in the "window" of 5P7436 Adapter (9).

4. Move the end of fuel injection line (13) down on top of 5P7435 Tee Adapter (11). Hold fuel injection line (13) in place with 5P7437 Adapter (7) and tighten to a torque of no more than 40 N·m (30 lb ft).


Timing Hole Location
(14) Plug.

5. Remove plug (14) from timing hole in flywheel housing. Install 6V2199 or 6V3093 Transducer Adapter (5) into the timing hole and tighten just a small amount more than finger tight.


Transducer In Position
(3) Magnetic transducer.

6. Push magnetic transducer (3) into 6V2199 or 6V3093 Transducer Adapter (5) until it makes contact with the flywheel. Pull it back out 1.5 mm (.06 in) and finger tighten the knurled locknut.

7. Connect the cables from the transducer to 8T5250 Engine Timing Indicator (1). Calibrate and make adjustments. For calibration procedure, make reference to Special Instruction SEHS8580.

8. Start the engine and let it reach operating temperature. Then run the engine at approximately one-half throttle for eight to ten minutes before measuring timing.

9. Run the engine at the speeds required to check low idle, timing advance and high idle. Record the engine timing indicator readings. If the engine timing is not correct, make reference to Fuel System Adjustments (On Engine), Measuring Fuel Injection Pump Timing Dimension for static adjustment of the fuel injection pump drive.

10. If the timing advance is still not correct, or if the operation of the advance is not smooth, make a repair or replacement of the automatic advance unit. There is no adjustment to the unit.

Fuel System Adjustments (On Engine)

Camshaft Timing For Fuel Injection Pump

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on compression stroke. Make reference to Finding Top Center Compression Position For NO. 1 Piston.

NOTE: A 1P3566 Hex Bit (9/16 inch) cut to a length of 25 mm (1.0 in) can be used to remove the plug from the front end of the injection pump housing.


Remove Timing Pin Plug.
(1) Timing pin plug.

2. Remove the plug at the front end of the fuel injection pump housing.

3. Install 6V4186 Timing Pin (end with taper) through the hole in the injection pump housing.

4. If timing is correct, the timing pin will go into the notch in the camshaft and the timing bolt will turn into the threaded hole in the flywheel. If timing is NOT correct, the timing must be changed.

NOTE: If timing is correct, BE SURE TO REMOVE TIMING PIN AND TIMING BOLT.


Access Cover To Automatic Timing Advance Unit
(2) Cover.

If timing was NOT correct, remove timing pin and use the procedure that follows to change the timing.

a. Remove access cover (2) to the four bolts of the automatic timing advance unit.


Automatic Timing Advance Unit
(3) Bolts. (4) Automatic timing advance unit.

b. BE SURE the timing pin is removed before you loosen the bolts. Loosen the four bolts (3) which hold automatic timing advance unit (4) on the fuel pump camshaft.

c. Tighten the bolts (3) with fingers until there is a small amount of friction (slight drag) between the retainer and the automatic timing advance unit (4). This friction will hold the unit against the timing gears. This prevents play (backlash) when gears are turned to the correct position.

d. Remove the timing bolt. Turn the flywheel until the timing pin will go into the groove in the injection pump camshaft.

e. With the timing pin installed, turn the flywheel clockwise (opposite the direction of engine rotation) a minimum of 30 degrees. The reason for this step is to be sure the backlash is removed from the timing gears when the engine is put on top center (TC).

f. Turn the flywheel in the direction of engine rotation until the No. 1 piston of the engine is on top center compression stroke. Then turn the timing bolt into the threaded hole in the flywheel.

g. Tighten bolts (3) to 25 N·m (20 lb ft). Then remove the timing pin from the injection pump housing.

h. Tighten bolts (3) to 230 ± 15 N·m (170 ± 11 lb ft). Then remove the timing bolt from the flywheel.

5. Turn the crankshaft two complete revolutions and check the timing again to see that timing pin will go into notch in camshaft with bolt in flywheel.

6. If timing is not correct, do the procedure of Steps b through h again.

NOTE: If timing is correct, BE SURE TO REMOVE TIMING PIN AND TIMING BOLT.

Engine Speed Measurement


9U7400 Multitach Group

The 9U7400 Multitach Group is used to check the fan speed. Make reference to Operator's Manual, NEHS0605, for the operating instructions for this tool.

Rack Position Sensor Calibration

1. Shut the engine off. Turn power off to the electronic control system control module.

2. Connect the electronic service tool to the engine data link connector J13.

3. Turn the ignition switch to the On position, engine Off. Select "Calibrate/Monitor" from the main menu and then select "Rack Position Sensor Calibration" to monitor "Rack Position".


Fuel Injection Pump Housing
(1) Rack solenoid (BTM). (2) Cover.

4. Remove rack solenoid (BTM) (1) and cover (2).


(3) Shutoff Lever.

5. Remove shutoff lever (3).


Plugs (4).

6. Remove plugs (4) from the governor housing.


(5) 4C9581 Rack Zero Pins.

7. Install the 4C9581 Rack Zero Pins (5) in the top of the fuel injection pump housing. Move rack control bar to engage both pins behind the racks.

8. Move rack control approximately 25 mm (1 in) toward the front of the engine and block in this position.

9. With the rack held back against the "zero pin", read the "Actual Rack Position" on the electronic service tool display.

a. If the "Actual Rack Position" reading is 9.50 ± 0.25 mm (.374 ± .010 in) the rack position sensor is correctly calibrated. STOP.
b. If the "Actual Rack Position" reading is not 9.50 ± 0.25 mm (.374 ± .010 in) the rack position sensor needs adjustment as follows:


(6) Rack position sensor locknut.

10. Use the 4C9582 Crowfoot Wrench and a 3/8 inch drive ratchet to loosen the rack position sensor locknut (6) on the rack position sensor.

11. Make sure the rack position sensor wiring is connected to the engine harness connector wiring.

12. With electrical power to the ECM, select the Calibrate/Monitor display that has "Rack Position Sensor Calibration" from the main menu on the electronic service tool.

13. Turn the collar on the rack position sensor in or out as indicated by the electronic service tool, until the electronic service tool displays "Calibrated". If the rack position sensor is unable to calibrate go back to Functional Test Step 3.

14. Tighten the rack position sensor locknut (6) to 55 ± 7 N·m (41 ± 5 lb ft).

15. Check the rack position calibration reading on the electronic service tool to make sure that the rack position sensor is still in calibration after tightening the locknut.

16. Turn power off to the electronic control system control module.

17. Install the rack solenoid (BTM) (1).

18. Install shutoff lever and cover on governor housing. Make sure not to pinch a wire between the cover and housing.

19. Remove the 4C9581 Rack Zero Pins (5) and install the plugs (4) in the top of the fuel injection pump housing.

20. Disconnect the electronic service tool from the electronic control system control module. Connect the electronic control system data link connector to the wiring harness.

Air Inlet And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

There will be a reduction of horsepower and efficiency of the engine if there is a restriction in the air inlet or exhaust system.

Air flow through the air cleaner must not have a restriction (negative pressure difference measurement between atmospheric air and air that has gone through air cleaner) of more than 7.5 kPa (30 inches of H2O).

Back pressure from the exhaust (pressure difference measurement between exhaust at outlet elbow and atmospheric air) must not be more than 6.7 kPa (27 inches of H2O).

Measurement Of Pressure In Inlet Manifold

The efficiency of an engine can be checked by making a comparison of the pressure in the inlet manifold with the information given in the TMI (Technical Marketing Information) or Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. This test is used when there is a decrease of horsepower from the engine, yet there is no real sign of a problem with the engine.

The correct pressure for the inlet manifold is given in the TMI (Technical Marketing Information) or Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. Development of this information is done with these conditions:

a. 99 kPa (29.7 inches of Hg) (DRY) barometric pressure.
b. 29°C (85°F) outside air temperature.
c. 35 API rated fuel

Any change from these conditions can change the pressure in the inlet manifold. Outside air that has higher temperature and lower barometric pressure than given above will cause a lower horsepower and a lower inlet manifold pressure measurement than given in the TMI (Technical Marketing Information) or Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. Outside air that has a lower temperature and a higher barometric pressure will cause higher horsepower and a higher inlet manifold pressure measurement.

A difference in fuel rating will also change horsepower and the pressure in the inlet manifold. If the fuel is rated above 35 API, pressure in the inlet manifold can be less than given in the TMI (Technical Marketing Information) or Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. If the fuel is rated below 35 API, the pressure in the inlet manifold can be more than given in the TMI (Technical Marketing Information) or Fuel Setting And Related Information Fiche. Be Sure That The Air Inlet And Exhaust Do Not Have A Restriction When Making A Check Of Pressure In The Inlet Manifold.

Use the 1U5470 Engine Pressure Group to check the pressure in the inlet manifold.

Remove the plug on the aftercooler housing to measure inlet manifold pressure.


1U5470 Engine Pressure Group

This tool group has a indicator to read pressure in the inlet manifold. Special Instruction SEHS8907 is with the tool group and gives instructions for its use.

Turbocharger

If any unusual sound or vibration in the turbocharger is noticed, a quick check of bearing condition can be made without disassembling the turbocharger. This can be done by removing the piping from the turbocharger and inspecting the compressor impeller, turbine wheel and compressor cover. Rotate the compressor and turbine wheel assembly by hand and observe by feeling excess end play. The rotating assembly should rotate freely with no rubbing or binding. If there is any indication of the impeller rubbing the compressor cover or the turbine wheel rubbing the turbine housing, recondition the turbocharger or replace with a new or rebuilt one.

End clearance is best checked with a dial indicator. Attach a dial indicator with the indicator point on the end of the shaft. Move the shaft from end to end making note of the total indicator reading.

If end play is more than the maximum end play rebuild or replace the turbocharger. End play less than the minimum end play could indicate carbon build up on the turbine wheel and the turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning and inspection.


Checking Turbocharger Rotating Assembly End Play (Typical Example)

A more reliable check of bearing conditions can be made only when the turbocharger is disassembled and the bearings, shaft journal and housing bore diameters can actually be measured.

NOTE: Care must be taken not to cock the shaft or a false reading will be obtained.

Exhaust Temperature

Use the 123-6700 Infrared Thermometer II to check exhaust temperature. Operator's Manual, NEHS0630 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

Crankcase (Crankshaft Compartment) Pressure

Pistons or piston rings that have damage can be the cause of too much pressure in the crankcase. This condition will cause the engine to run rough. There will also be more than the normal amount of fumes coming from the crankcase breather. This crankcase pressure can also cause the element for the crankcase breather to have a restriction in a very short time. It can also be the cause of oil leakage at gaskets and seals that would not normally have leakage. Other sources of blowby can be worn valve guides or turbocharger seal leakage.


8T2700 Indicator Group

The 8T2700 Indicator Group is used to check the amount of blowby. The test procedure is in Special Instruction SEHS8712.

Compression

An engine that runs rough can have a leak at the valves, or have valves that need adjustment. Use the test that follows for a fast and easy method to find a cylinder that has low compression, or does not have good fuel combustion. Find the speed that the engine runs the roughest, and keep the engine at this rpm until the test is finished. Loosen the fuel line nut at a fuel injection pump to stop the flow of fuel to that cylinder. Do this for each cylinder until a loosened fuel line is found that makes no difference in engine performance. Be sure to tighten each fuel line nut after the test before the next fuel line nut is loosened. This test can also be an indication that the fuel injection is wrong, so the cylinder will have to be checked thoroughly. Removal of the head and inspection of the valves and valve seats is necessary to find those small defects that do not normally cause a problem. Repair of these problems is normally done when reconditioning the engine.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head has valve seat inserts, valve guides, and bridge dowels that can be removed when they are worn or have damage. Replacement of these components can be made with the tools that follow.

Valves

Valve removal and installation is easier with use of the 5S1330 Valve Spring Compressor Assembly and 5S1322 Valve Keeper Inserter.

Valve Seat Inserts

Tools needed to remove and install valve seat inserts are in the 6V4805 Valve Insert Puller Group. Special Instruction SMHS7935 gives an explanation for this procedure. For easier installation, lower the temperature of the insert before it is installed in the head.

Valve Guides

Tools needed to install valve guides are the 5P2396 Driver Bushing and 9U7349 Driver. The counterbore in the driver bushing installs the guide to the correct height. Use a 1P7451 Valve Guide Honing Group to make a finished bore in the valve guide after installation of the guide in the head. Special Instruction SMHS7526 gives an explanation for this procedure. Grind the valves after the new valve guides are installed.

Checking Valve Guide Bore

Use the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group to check the bore of the valve guides. Special Instruction GMGO2562 gives complete and detailed instructions for use of the 5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group.


5P3536 Valve Guide Gauge Group

Bridge Dowel

Use a 5P0944 Dowel Puller Group with a 5P0942 Extractor to remove the bridge dowels. Install a new bridge dowel with a 5P2406 Dowel Driver. This dowel driver installs the bridge dowel to the correct height.

Bridge Adjustment

When the head is disassembled, keep the bridges with their respective cylinders. Adjustment of the bridge will be necessary after the valves are ground or other reconditioning of the cylinder head is done. The bridge should be checked and/or adjusted each time the valves are adjusted. Use the procedure that follows to make an adjustment to the bridge.


Bridge Adjustment

NOTE: Valves must be fully closed.

1. Put engine oil on the bridge dowel in the cylinder head and in the bore in the bridge.

2. Install the bridge with the adjustment screw toward the exhaust manifold.

3. Loosen the locknut for the adjustment screw and loosen the adjustment screw several turns.

4. Put a force on the bridge with a finger to keep the bridge in contact with the valve stem opposite the adjustment screw.

5. Turn the adjustment screw clockwise until it just makes contact with the valve stem. Then turn the adjustment screw 30 degrees more in a clockwise direction to make the bridge straight on the dowel, and to make compensation for the clearance in the threads of the adjustment screw.

6. Hold the adjustment screw in this position and tighten the locknut to 28 ± 4 N·m (22 ± 3 lb ft).

7. Put engine oil at the point where the rocker arm makes contact with the bridge.

Valve Lash Setting

NOTE: Valve lash is measured between the rocker arm and the bridge for the valves.

Valve Lash Check: Engine Stopped

Exhaust ... 0.69 to 0.84 mm (0.27 to .033 in)

Inlet ... 0.30 to 0.46 mm (.012 to .018 in)

NOTE: When the valve lash is checked, adjustment is Not Necessary if the measurement is in the range given in the chart for Valve Lash Check: Engine Stopped. If the measurement is outside this range, adjustment is necessary.

Refer to the chart for Valve Lash Setting: Engine Stopped, and make the setting to the nominal (desired) specifications in this chart.


Valve Lash

NOTE: Inlet and exhaust valve lash adjustments should be made at the first recommended oil change.

Valve Lash Setting: Engine Stopped

Exhaust ... 0.76 mm (.030 in)

Inlet ... 0.38 mm (.015 in)

To make an adjustment to the valve lash, use the procedure that follows:


Valve Lash Adjustment

1. Put No. 1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to Finding Top Center Compression Position For No. 1 Piston.

2. Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the inlet valves for cylinders:

3408C ... 1,2,5,7

3412C ... 1,3,6,7,12

Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the exhaust valves for cylinders:

3408C ... 1,3,4,8

3412C ... 1,4,5,8,9,12

3. Loosen the locknut for the push rod adjustment screw and turn the screw counterclockwise to increase the valve lash.

4. Put a feeler gauge of the correct dimension between the rocker arm and bridge contact surface. Turn the adjustment screw clockwise until the valve lash is set to specifications in the chart Valve Lash Setting: Engine Stopped.

5. After each adjustment, tighten the nut for the adjustment screw to a torque of 30 ± 4 N·m (22 ± 3 lb ft) and check the adjustment again.


3408C Cylinder And Valve Location


3412C Cylinder And Valve Location

6. Remove the timing bolt and turn the flywheel 360 degrees in the direction of normal engine rotation. This will put No. 8 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke for the 3408C and No. 11 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke for the 3412C. Install the timing bolt in the flywheel.

7. Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the inlet valves for cylinders:

3408C ... 3,4,6,8

3412C ... 2,5,8,9,10,11

Make an adjustment to the valve lash on the exhaust valves for cylinders:

3408C ... 2,5,6,7

3412C ... 2,3,6,7,10,11

8. Loosen the locknut for the push rod adjustment screw and turn the screw counterclockwise to increase the valve lash.

9. Put a feeler gauge of the correct dimension between the rocker arm and bridge contact surface. Turn the adjustment screw clockwise until the valve lash is set to specifications in the chart Valve Lash Setting: Engine Stopped.

10. After each adjustment, tighten the nut for the adjustment screw to a torque of 30 ± 4 N·m (22 ± 3 lb ft) and check the adjustment again.

11. Remove the timing pin from the flywheel after all valve lash adjustments are correct.

Lubrication System

One of the problems in the list that follows will generally be an indication of a problem in the lubrication system for the engine.

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Pressure Is Low

Oil Pressure Is High

Too Much Bearing Wear

Increased Oil Temperature

Too Much Oil Consumption

Oil Leakage On Outside Of Engine

Check for leakage of the seals at each end of the crankshaft. Look for leakage at the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil comes out of the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gas leakage around the pistons. A dirty crankcase breather will cause high pressure in the crankcase, and this will cause gasket and seal leakage.

Oil Leakage Into Combustion Area Of Cylinders

Oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders can be the cause of blue smoke. There are four possible ways for oil leakage into the combustion area of the cylinders:

1. Oil leakage between worn valve guides and valve stems.
2. Worn or damaged piston rings, or dirty oil return holes.
3. Compression ring and/or intermediate ring not installed correctly.
4. Oil leakage past the seal rings in the impeller end of the turbocharger shaft.

Too much oil consumption can also be the result if oil with the wrong viscosity is used. Oil with a thin viscosity can be caused by fuel leakage into the crankcase, or by increased engine temperature.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

An oil pressure indicator that has a defect can give an indication of low oil pressure.

The 1U5470 Engine Pressure Group can be used to check engine oil pressure.


1U5470 Engine Pressure Group

This tool group has a indicator to read oil pressure in the engine. Special Instruction SEHS8524 is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with SAE 10W30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the information in the Engine Oil Pressure Graph does not apply.


Oil Manifold
(1) Pressure test location.

2. Connect the 1U5470 Engine Pressure Group to the main oil manifold at location (1).

3. Operate the engine to get it up to normal operating temperature.

4. Keep the oil temperature constant with the engine at its rated rpm, and read the pressure indicator.

NOTE: Make sure engine oil temperature does not go above 115°C (239°F).

5. On the Engine Oil Pressure Graph, find the point that the lines for engine rpm and oil pressure intersect (connect).


Engine Oil Pressure Graph

6. If the results do not fall within the "Acceptable" pressure range given in the graph, find the cause and correct it. Engine failure or a reduction in engine life can be the result if engine operation is continued with oil manifold pressure outside this range.

NOTE: A record of engine oil pressure, kept at regular intervals, can be used as an indication of possible engine problems or damage. If there is a sudden increase or decrease of 70 kPa (10 psi) in oil pressure, even though the pressure is in the "Acceptable" range on the graph, the engine should be inspected and the problem corrected.

Oil Pressure Is Low

Crankcase Oil Level

Check the level of the oil in the crankcase. Add oil if needed. It is possible for the oil level to be too far below the engine oil pump supply tube. This will cause the engine oil pump to not have the ability to supply enough lubrication to the engine components.

Engine Oil Pump Does Not Work Correctly

The inlet screen of the supply tube for the engine oil pump can have a restriction. This will cause cavitation (low pressure bubbles suddenly made in liquids by mechanical forces) and a loss of oil pressure. Air leakage in the supply side of the engine oil pump will also cause cavitation and loss of oil pressure. If the bypass valve for the engine oil pump is held in the open (unseated) position, the lubrication system can not get to maximum pressure. Engine oil pump gears that have too much wear will cause a reduction in oil pressure.

Engine Oil Filter Bypass Valves

If the bypass valve for the engine oil filter is held in the open position (unseated) because the engine oil filter has a restriction, a reduction in oil pressure can result. To correct this problem, remove and clean the bypass valve and bypass valve bore. Install a new engine oil filter with an oil change to be sure that no more debris makes the bypass valve stay open.

Too much Clearance At Engine Bearings Or Open Lubrication System (Broken Or Disconnected Oil Line Or Passage)

Components that are worn and have too much bearing clearance can cause oil pressure to be low. Low oil pressure can also be caused by an oil line or oil passage that is open, broken or disconnected.

Piston Cooling Tubes (Jets)

When engine is operated, cooling jets direct oil toward the bottom of the piston to lower piston and ring temperatures. If there is a failure of one of the jets, or it is bent in the wrong direction, seizure of the piston will be caused in a very short time.

Use the 5P8709 Piston Tool Group to check and adjust the alignment of piston cooling jets.

Oil Pressure Is High

Oil pressure will be high if the bypass valve for the engine oil pump can not move from the closed position.

Too Much Bearing Wear

When some components of the engine show bearing wear in a short time, the cause can be a restriction in an oil passage. A broken oil passage can also be the cause.

If the indicator for oil pressure shows enough oil pressure, but a component is worn because it can not get enough lubrication, look at the passage for oil supply to the component. A restriction in a supply passage will not let enough lubrication get to a component, and this will cause early wear.

Increased Oil Temperature

Look for a restriction in the oil and coolant passages of the engine oil cooler. If the engine oil cooler has a restriction, the oil temperature will be higher than normal when the engine is operated. The oil pressure of the engine will not get low just because the engine oil cooler has a restriction.

Also check the engine oil cooler bypass valve to see if it is held in the open position (unseated). This condition will let the oil through the valve instead of the engine oil cooler, and oil temperature will increase.

Cooling System

This engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can have safe operation at a temperature that is higher than the normal boiling (steam) point of water. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (low pressure bubbles suddenly made in liquids by mechanical forces) in the water pump. With this type system, it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to be made in the cooling system.

The cause for increased engine temperature is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not made. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before a test is made with test equipment.

Visual Inspection To The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

NOTE: Water pump seals. A small amount of coolant leakage across the surface of the "face-type" seals is normal, and required, to provide lubrication for this type of seal. A hole is provided in the water pump housing to allow this coolant/seal lubricant to drain from the pump housing. Intermittent leakage of small amounts of coolant from this hole is not an indication of water pump seal failure. Replace the water pump seals only if a large amount of leakage, or a constant flow of coolant is observed draining from the water pump housing.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive belts for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the filler cap and the surface that seals the cap. This surface must be clean.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When a diagnosis is made of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and height above sea level on the boiling (steam) point of water.

Test Tools For Cooling System


4C6500 Digital Thermometer Group

The 4C6500 Digital Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine hotter than normal) or overcooling (engine cooler than normal) problems. This group can be used to check temperatures in several different parts of the cooling system. The testing procedure is in Operating Manual, NEHS0554.


8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group

The 8T2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. The test procedure is in Special Instruction, SEHS8712.


9U7400 Multitach Group

The 9U7400 Multitach Group is used to check the fan speed. Make reference to Operator's Manual, NEHS0605, for the operating instructions for this tool.


9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

Filler Cap And Pressure Relief Valve


Typical Pressure Relief Valve System
(1) Pressure relief valve. (2) Stud for filler cap.

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure relief valves and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks.


9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group
(3) Release valve. (4) Adapter. (5) Hose.

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a defective seal on the radiator filler cap.

------ WARNING! ------

DO NOT loosen the filler cap or pressure cap on a hot engine. Steam or hot coolant can cause severe burns.

--------WARNING!------

1. After the engine is cool, loosen the filler cap and let the pressure out of the cooling system. Then remove the filler cap.

2. Inspect the filler cap carefully. Look for damage to the seal or to the surface that seals. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, seal or surface that seals, must be removed.

Use the procedure that follows to pressure check the cooling system.

1. Make sure the coolant level is above the top of the radiator core.

2. Install and tighten the filler cap.

3. Remove hose (5) from adapter (4).

4. Remove the pressure test plug for the radiator top tank.

5. Install the end of hose (5) in the hole for the pressure test plug as shown.

6. Operate the pump until the pointer on the pressure indicator no longer increases. The highest pressure indication on the indicator is the point that the relief valve opens. The correct pressure that makes the relief valve open is 105 to 125 kPa (15 to 18 psi).

7. If the relief valve does not open within pressure specification, replacement of the relief valve is necessary.

8. If the relief valve is within specifications, check the radiator for outside leakage.


9S8140 Pump Group Installed

9. Check all connections and hoses of the cooling system for outside leakage.

10. If you do not see any outside leakage and the pressure reading on the indicator is still the same after five minutes, the radiator and cooling system does not have leakage. If the reading on the indicators goes down and you do not see any outside leakage, there is leakage on the inside of the cooling system. Make repairs as necessary.

------ WARNING! ------

If a pressure indication is shown on the indicator, to avoid personal injury push release valve (3) to release all pressure in the system before removal of hose (5) from the radiator.

--------WARNING!------

11. Remove hose (5) from radiator test pressure location.

12. Install plug in pressure test location.

Indicator For Water Temperature


Water Temperature Connection
(1) Sending unit.

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system could be the cause. If the indicator for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage. If a place cannot be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the indicator for water temperature. A temperature indicator of known accuracy can be connected at the location for sending unit (1) to make this check. Also, the 4C6500 Digital Thermometer Group or the 2F7112 Thermometer and 6B5072 Bushing can be used.

------ WARNING! ------

Work carefully around an engine that is running. Engine parts that are hot, or parts that are moving, can cause personal injury.

--------WARNING!------

Start the engine and run it until the temperature is at the desired range according to the test indicator or thermometer. If necessary, put a cover over part of the radiator or cause a restriction of the coolant flow. The reading on the indicator for water temperature must be the same as the test indicator or thermometer within the tolerance range in the chart in specifications, 3408C & 3412C Industrial Engine, RENR1312.

Water Temperature Regulators

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is 92°C (197°F). Move the water around in the pan to make it all the same temperature.

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for ten minutes.

5. After ten minutes, remove the regulator and immediately measure the distance the regulator has opened. Make reference to the Specification module for the correct opening distance.

Belt Tension Chart

Basic Block

Piston Rings

This engine has piston grooves and rings both conventional and of the KEYSTONE (taper) design. The 1U6431 Keystone Piston Ring Groove Gauge Group is available to check the top two ring grooves in the piston. For correct use of the gauge group refer to the instruction card that is with the gauge group.

The 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available for checking the oil control ring groove. For instructions on the use of the gauge, make reference to Guideline For Reusable Parts, Pistons SEBF8049.


Instructions For 1U6431 Keystone Piston Ring Groove Gauge Group

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use the 7M3978 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use the 5P3526 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder block.

Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the step sequence that follows:

1. Put engine oil on bolt threads and contact surfaces of nut and cap.

2. Tighten all bolts to 80 ± 8 N·m (60 ± 6 lb ft).

3. Put a mark on each nut and end of bolt.

4. Tighten each nut 120 degrees from the mark.

The connecting rod bearings fit tightly in the bore in the rod. If bearing joints or backs are worn (fretted), check bore size. This can be an indication of wear because of a loose fit.

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Connecting rod bearings are available with 0.64 mm (.025 in) and 1.27 mm (.050 in) smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than the original size).

Main bearings are available with a larger outside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger than the original size). The size available is 0.64 mm (.025 in) larger outside diameter than the original size bearings.

Cylinder Block


1P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group

The bore in the block for main bearings can be checked with the main bearing caps installed without bearings. Tighten the nuts that hold the caps to the torque shown in the Specifications module. Alignment error in the bores must not be more than 0.08 mm (.003 in). Special Instruction, SMHS7606 gives instructions for the use of 1P4000 Line Boring Tool Group for alignment of the main bearing bores. The 1P3537 Dial Bore Gauge Group can be used to check the size of the bores. Special Instruction, GMG00981 is with the group.

Cylinder Liner Projection


(1) Bolt. (2) Steel washer. (3) Fabric washer.

Install larger diameter washers (4) and (5) under bolts marked "X".

Install smaller diameter washers (6) and (7) under remaining two bolts.

1. Install clean liners or cylinder packs (without the filler band or the rubber seals), spacer plate gasket and clean spacer plate.

2. Install bolts and washers, as indicated previously, in the holes. Install all bolts or the six bolts around the liner. Tighten the bolts to a torque of 95 N·m (70 lb ft).

3. Use the 8T0455 Liner Projection Tool Group to measure liner projection at positions indicated with an A,B,C and D. Record measurements for each cylinder. Add the four readings for each cylinder and divide by four to find the average.

4. The cylinder liner specifications are as follows:

Liner projection ... 0.025 to 0.152 mm (.0010 to .0060 in)

Maximum variation in each cylinder ... 0.051 mm (.0020 in)

Maximum average variation between adjacent cylinders ... 0.051 mm (.0020 in)

Maximum variation between all cylinders ... 0.102 mm (.0040 in)

5. If the liner projections are out of specification, try rotating the liner or install the liner in another bore to see if the measurements improve.

6. If the liner projections are all below the specifications or low in the range, 0.025 mm (.0010 in) or 0.051 mm (.0020 in), try using a thinner spacer plate. These plates are 0.076 mm (.0030 in) thinner than the regular plate and they will increase the liner projection, thus increasing the fire ring crush. Use these spacer plates to compensate for low liner projections that are less than 0.076 mm (.0030 in) or if the inspection of the top deck reveals no measurable damage directly under the liner flanges, but the average liner projection is less than 0.076 mm (.0030 in).

NOTE: Do not exceed the maximum liner projection of 0.152 mm (.0060 in). Excessive liner projection will contribute to liner flange cracking.

7. With the proper liner projection, mark the liners in the proper position and set them aside.

8. When the engine is ready for final assembly, the O-ring seals, cylinder block and upper filler band must be lubricated before installation. Make reference to the Disassembly & Assembly Manual for the proper procedure to install the cylinder liners.

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

Face Run Out (Axial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearance must be removed to get correct measurements.


8T5096 Dial Indicator Group Installed

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the anvil of the indicator will touch the face of the flywheel housing.

2. Put a force on the crankshaft toward the rear before the indicator is read at each point.

3. With dial indicator set at 0.00 mm (.000 in) at location (A), turn the crankshaft and read the indicator at locations (B), (C) and (D).

4. The difference between lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than 0.38 mm (.015 in), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel housing.

Bore Runout (Radial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel Housing

1. Fasten the dial indicator as shown so the anvil of the indicator will touch the bore of the flywheel housing.


8T5096 Dial Indicator Group Installed

2. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft up against the top of the bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

NOTE: Write the dial indicator measurements with their positive (+) and negative (-) notation (signs). This notation is necessary for making the calculations in the chart correctly.

3. Divide the measurement from Step 2 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).

4. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

8. Add lines I & II by columns.

9. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal eccentricity (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.


Graph For Total Eccentricity
(1) Total vertical eccentricity [mm (in)]. (2) Total horizontal eccentricity [mm (in)]. (3) Acceptable. (4) Not Acceptable.

10. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.

11. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable", the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable", the flywheel housing must be changed.

Face Runout (Axial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Always put a force on the crankshaft in the same direction before the indicator is read so the crankshaft end clearance (movement) is always removed.

2. Set the dial indicator to read 0.0 mm (.00 in).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90 degrees.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not exceed the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.


Checking Face Runout Of The Flywheel

Bore Runout (Radial Eccentricity) Of The Flywheel


Checking Bore Runout Of The Flywheel
(1) 7H1945 Holding Rod. (2) 7H1645 Holding Rod. (3) 7H1942 Indicator. (4) 7H1940 Universal Attachment.

1. Install the 7H1942 Indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the 7H1940 Universal Attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.

2. Set the dial indicator to read 0.0 mm (.00 in).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90 degrees.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not exceed the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.


Checking Flywheel Clutch Pilot Bearing Bore

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed the maximum permissible pilot bearing bore runout of the flywheel.

Electrical System

Test Tools For Electrical System

Most of the tests of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections must be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully charged. If the on-engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

The service manual Testing And Adjusting Electrical Components, REG00636 has complete specifications and procedures for the components of the starting circuit and the charging circuit.

The 4C4911 Battery Load Tester is a portable unit in a metal case for use under field conditions and high temperatures. It can be used to load test all 6, 8 and 12V batteries. This tester has two heavy-duty load cables that can easily be fastened to the battery terminals. A load adjustment knob on the top permits the current being drawn from the battery to be adjusted to a maximum of 1000 amperes. The tester is cooled by an internal fan that is automatically activated when a load is applied.

The tester has a built in LCD digital voltmeter and amperage meter. The digital voltmeter accurately measures the battery voltage at the battery through tracer wires buried inside the load cables. The digital amperage meter accurately displays the current being drawn from the battery under test.

NOTE: Make reference to Operating Manual, SEHS9249 for more complete information for use of the 4C4911 Battery Load Tester.


8T0900 AC/DC Clamp-On Ammeter

The 8T0900 AC/DC Clamp-On Ammeter is a completely portable, self-contained instrument that allows electrical current measurements to be made without breaking the circuit or disturbing the insulation on conductors. A digital display is located on the ammeter for reading current directly in a range from 1 to 1200 amperes. If an optional 6V6014 Cable is connected between this ammeter and one of the digital multimeters, current readings of less than 1 ampere can then be read directly from the display of the multimeter.

A lever is used to open the jaws over the conductor [up to a diameter of 19 mm (.75 in)], and the spring loaded jaws are then closed around the conductor for current measurement. A trigger switch that can be locked in the ON or OFF position is used to turn on the ammeter. When the turn-on trigger is released, the last current reading is held on the display for 5 seconds. This allows accurate measurements to be taken in limited access areas where the digital display is not visible to the operator. A zero control is provided for DC operation, and power for the ammeter is supplied by batteries located inside the handle.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction, SEHS8420 for more complete information for use of the 8T0900 Clamp-On Ammeter.


6V7070 Heavy-Duty Digital Multimeter

The 6V7070 Heavy-Duty Digital Multimeter is a completely portable, hand held instrument with a digital display. This multimeter is built with extra protection against damage in field applications, and is equipped with seven functions and 29 ranges. The 6V7070 Multimeter has an instant ohms indicator that permits continuity checks for fast circuit inspection. It also can be used for troubleshooting small value capacitors.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction, SEHS7734 for more complete information for use of the 6V7070 Multimeter.

Battery

------ WARNING! ------

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to personnel can be the result.

--------WARNING!------

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit can result if the connections (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is in operation. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage. High voltage can damage, not only the charging unit, but also the regulator and other electrical components.

Use the 4C4911 Battery Load Tester, the 8T0900 Clamp-On Ammeter and the 6V7070 Multimeter to load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. Make reference to Special Instruction, SEHS9249 for the correct procedure and specifications to use.

Charging System

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system operates correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is constantly in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (more than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 100 service hours).

When it is possible, make a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator on the engine, and use wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off engine (bench) testing will give a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. After repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that the units are repaired to their original condition of operation.

Before the start of on engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked as shown in the Steps that follow:

1. Battery must be at least 75 percent (1.225 Sp Gr) fully charged and held tightly in place. The battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starting motor and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches, and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give correct circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and have the ability to operate the charging unit.

Alternator Regulator Adjustment

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, the charging rate of the alternator should be checked. Make reference to the Specifications module to find all testing specifications for the alternators and regulators.

No adjustment can be made to change the rate of charge on the alternator regulators. If rate of charge is not correct, a replacement of the regulator is necessary.

Alternator Pulley Nut Tightening

Tighten the nut that holds the pulley to the specifications given in the Specification Module.


Tools To Tighten Alternator Pulley Nut
(1) 8T9293 Torque Wrench. (2) 8S1588 Adapter (1/2 inch female to 3/8 inch male). (3) 2P8267 Socket Assembly. (4) 8H8517 Combination Wrench (11/8 inch). (5) 8T5314 Socket.

Starting System

Use the multimeter in the DCV range to find starting system components which do not function.

Move the start control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starting motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.

If the solenoid for the starting motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery did not get to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the multimeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. A zero reading is an indication that there is a broken circuit from the battery. More testing is necessary when there is a voltage reading on the multimeter.

The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the multimeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the multimeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. A zero reading on the multimeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance.

Make a test with one multimeter lead fastened to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the multimeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltage reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. A zero reading is an indication that the problem is in the start switch or the wires for the start switch.

Fasten one multimeter lead to the start switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. A zero reading indicates a broken circuit from the battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and wiring. If there is a voltage reading, the problem is in the start switch or in the wires for the start switch.

A starting motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starting motor can also be caused by a short circuit, loose connections and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment

When the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starting motor removed.


Connection For Checking Pinion Clearance
(1) Ground terminal. (2) SW terminal. (3) Connector (from Motor terminal on solenoid to motor).

1. Install the solenoid without connector (3) from the MOTOR connections (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the SW terminal (2).

3. Connect the other side of the battery to ground terminal (1).

4. Connect for a moment a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked Motor to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.


Pinion Clearance Adjustment
(4) Adjustment nut. (5) Pinion. (6) Pinion clearance.

5. Push the pinion toward the commutator end to remove free movement.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be 8.3 to 9.9 mm (.33 to .39 in).

7. To adjust pinion clearance, remove plug and turn adjustment nut (4).

8. After the adjustment is completed, install the plug over adjustment nut (4) and install connector (3) between the Motor terminal on the solenoid and the starting motor.

Instruments And Indicators

Magnetic Pickup


Typical Illustration

(1) Clearance between magnetic pickup and flywheel ring gear ... 0.55 to 0.83 mm (.022 to .033 in)

NOTE: Turn the pickup in until it comes in contact with the teeth on the flywheel ring gear. Turn the pickup out 1/2 turn. This will give 0.55 to 0.83 mm (.022 to .033 in) clearance at (1).

(2) Tighten the locknut to a torque of ... 45 ± 7 N·m (33 ± 5 lb ft)

Mechanical Indicators For Pressure


Direct Reading Indicator

To check these indicators connect the indicator to a pressure source that can be measured with accuracy. Make a comparison of pressure on the indicator of test equipment with the pressures on the direct reading indicator.

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