5.4" BORE, V12 VEHICULAR ENGINE Caterpillar


Testing and Adjusting

Usage:



Introduction

NOTE: For Specifications with illustrations, make reference to SPECIFICATIONS FOR 5.4" BORE, 60° V12 VEHICULAR ENGINE, Form No. REG01561. If the Specifications in Form REG01561 are not the same as in the Systems Operation and the Testing and Adjusting, look at the printing date on the back cover of each book. Use the Specifications in the book with the latest date.

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting can be difficult. On the following pages there is a list of possible problems. To make a repair to a problem, make reference to the cause and correction.

This list of problems, causes, and corrections, will only give an indication of where a possible problem can be, and what repairs are needed. Normally, more or other repair work is needed beyond the recommendations in the list. Remember that a problem is not normally caused only by one part, but by the relation of one part with other parts. This list can not give all possible problems and corrections. The serviceman must find the problem and its source, then make the necessary repairs.

1. Engine Fails to Start
2. Misfiring
3. Stalls at Low Speed
4. Erratic Engine Speed
5. Low Power
6. Excessive Vibration
7. Heavy Combustion Knock
8. Valve Train Clicking Noise
9. Oil in Coolant
10. Mechanical Knock
11. Excessive Fuel Consumption
12. Loud Valve Train Noise
13. Excessive Valve Lash
14. Valve Spring Retainer Free
15. Slobber
16. Valve Lash Close-up
17. Premature Engine Wear
18. Coolant in Engine Lubricating Oil
19. Excessive Black or Gray Smoke
20. Excessive White or Blue Smoke
21. Low Engine Oil Pressure
22. High Lubricating Oil Consumption
23. Abnormal Engine Coolant Temperature
24. Starting Motor Fails to Crank
25. Alternator Fails to Charge
26. Alternator Charging Rate Low or Unsteady
27. Alternator Charging Rate Excessive
28. Noisy Alternator
29. High Exhaust Temperature

Engine Fails To Start

Misfiring

Stalls At Low Speed

Erratic Engine Speed

Low Power

Excessive Vibration

Heavy Combustion Knock

Valve Train Clicking Noise

Oil In Coolant

Mechanical Knock

Excessive Fuel Consumption

Loud Valve Train Noise

Excessive Valve Lash

Valve Spring Retainer Free

Slobber

Valve Lash Close-Up

Premature Engine Wear

Coolant In Engine Lubricating Oil

Excessive Black Or Gray Smoke

Excessive White Or Blue Smoke

Low Engine Oil Pressure

High Lubricating Oil Consumption

Abnormal Engine Coolant Temperature

Starting Motor Fails To Crank

Alternator Fails To Charge

Alternator Charging Rate Low Or Unsteady

Alternator Charging Rate Excessive (As Evidenced By Lights Burning Out, Battery Requires Too Much Water.)

Noisy Alternator

High Exhaust Temperature

Fuel System

Difficulty within the fuel system can be classed in one of two groups: lack of fuel or too much fuel for proper combustion.

Many times, the fuel system is blamed when the fault lies elsewhere, expecially when smoky exhaust is the problem. Smoky exhaust can be the result of a faulty fuel injection valve, but it can also be caused by lack of air for complete combustion, overloading at high altitude, excessive oil burning or lack of compression.

Troubleshooting The Fuel Supply System

1. Observe the fuel pressure gauge reading. Lack of pressure indicates difficulty in the supply side of the system.

2. Check the fuel level in the supply tank and the fuel tank cap vent for being plugged.

3. See that the vent valve is closed.

4. Check for leakage in the fuel supply lines and components or for a kinked or restricted supply line.

5. Replace the fuel filter element and clean the primary fuel filter if so equipped.

6. Inspect the fuel bypass valve to see that it moves freely and that dirt is not holding the plunger off its seat. Be certain the spring has correct tension.

7. Bleed the fuel system to remove trapped air.

8. Test the fuel transfer pump.

To test the fuel transfer pump, connect an 8M2743 Pressure Gauge which is part of 7S8875 Hydraulic Test Box in place of the fuel pressure gauge line at the filter housing.

The pressure should be:

Full load ... 31 ± 5 psi(2.18 ± 0.35 kg/cm2) (214 ± 34 kPa)

Low idle ... min. 20 psi(1.41 kg/cm2) (138 kPa)

Cranking speed ... 10 to 20 psi(0.7 to 1.41 kg/cm2) (69 to 138 kPa)

Testing Fuel Injection Equipment

Always inspect the seats of both the nozzle and the precombustion chamber prior to installing a fuel injection valve. The nozzle assembly should be finger tight on the body. It is important to maintain the nozzle retaining nut torque to 105 ± 5 lb. ft. (142 ± 7 N·m). Excessive torque will damage the nozzle. Less torque can cause the nozzle case to bulge or split and will allow the nozzle to leak resulting in fuel dilution of the crankcase oil. Any loose fuel line connections inside the camshaft housings can cause crankcase dilution and result in low oil pressure, bearing wear, and engine damage.

Before attempting to test a fuel injection pump or valve in an engine that is missing or puffing black smoke, make a simple check to determine which cylinder is causing the difficulty. While operating the engine at a speed which makes the defect most pronounced, momentarily loosen a fuel line nut at the fuel injection pump sufficiently to "cut out" one cylinder. Check all cylinders in the same manner. If, after cutting out a cylinder, there is no noticeable difference in engine operation, or if this action causes puffing or black smoke to cease, the pump and valve for only that cylinder need be tested.

Checking Fuel Injection Valves

Examine fuel injection valves for:

1. Excessive carbon on tip of nozzle or in orifice.
2. Erosion of the orifice.
3. Screen plugged with dirt.

The condition of a capsule-type nozzle assembly can be tested on the Caterpillar Diesel Fuel Injection Test Apparatus, and the nozzle leakage rate can be determined.

Removing and Installing Fuel Injection Pump Assemblies

1. Remove the timing pin from its storage position and install one of the retaining bolts (head down) through one of the flange holes. Install a nut at the top to hold the bolt in place. The bolt head limits the depth the pin can be inserted into the housing.

2. Insert timing pin (1) in the timing hole. Move the governor control or rack linkage back and forth slowly to allow the pin to pass through the notch in the rack. The pin is in place when the head of the inverted bolt touches the fuel pump housing. With the rack in this position, the center line of the second tooth on each fuel pump gear segment, will be aligned with the correct tooth on the rack. With the rack located in this manner, a zero reference point is established.


TIMING PIN ZEROES THE RACK
1. Timing Pin.

NOTE: The fuel pump housing and rack are now ready for installing or removing the fuel injection pump assemblies.

3. With the flat and alignment pin visually aligned, install the injection pump assembly into the fuel pump housing and install the pump retaining bolts finger tight. If the injection pump cam lobe is up, use downward pressure (by hand) to push the pump body flush with the fuel injection pump housing. This ensures the gear segment is positioned by the alignment pin during installation. This prevents sheering the alignment pin while tightening the body down with a wrench.


LIFTER ASSEMBLIES (TOP VIEW)
Align the flat on the back of the gear segment with alignment pin (2) located in the top of the lifter assembly as the fuel pump and body are placed into position. This flat and locating pin provide for correct rack tooth and gear segment alignment.

4. Remove the timing pin and place it in the storage position.

Checking Fuel Injection Pump Lifter Washer and Pump Plunger

The timing dimension should be checked and adjusted, if necessary, by setting the fuel injection pump timing dimension with the fuel injection pump off the engine. This will assure that the point of the fuel injection is correct. If the timing dimension is too small, injection will begin early, and if too great, injection will be late.


WEAR BETWEEN LIFTER WASHER AND PLUNGER
Fig. A Illustrates the contact surfaces of a new pump plunger and a new lifter washer. In Fig. B the pump plunger and lifter have worn considerably. Fig. C shows how the flat end of a new plunger makes poor contact with a worn lifter washer, resulting in rapid wear to both parts.

When pump plunger wear becomes excessive, the lifter washer may also be worn so it will not make full contact with the end of a new plunger. To avoid rapid wear on the end of the new plunger, replace the lifters having washers showing visible wear.

A pump can maintain a satisfactory discharge rate and yet be unserviceable because of delayed timing resulting from wear on the lower end of the plunger. When testing a pump which has been in use for a long time, check the plunger length with a micrometer. Discard the pump if the plunger measures less than the minimum length (worn) dimension.

Inspect the upper diameter of the plunger for wear. Worn pumps can be checked as described in the Instructions for Fuel Injection Test Apparatus.

Locating Top Center (TC) Compression Position For No.1 Piston

No.1 piston on the compression stroke at top center (TC) is the reference point for all timing procedures.

1. Remove the valve cover for the odd numbered bank of cylinders. The four valves at the front of the engine are the intake and exhaust valves for No.1 cylinder.


TIMING BOLT LOCATION (992 ENGINE ILLUSTRATED)
1. Bolts (three). 2. Drive pinion. 3. Cover. 4. Spacer. 5. Bolt to be used as timing bolt.

2. Remove the cover (3).

NOTE: On the 776 and 777, one bolt has inteference.

3. Remove bolts (1), drive pinion (2) and spacer (4) from the flywheel housing.

4. Install the drive pinion (2) and bolts (1) into the flywheel housing without the spacer (4).


ROTATING FLYWHEEL (992 ENGINE ILLUSTRATED)
2. Drive pinion. 6. 8H8557 Ratchet wrench.

NOTE: Use wrench (6) and pinion (2) to rotate flywheel.


TIMING BOLT HOLE LOCATION (992 ENGINE ILLUSTRATED)
7. Opening.

5. Engage the teeth of pinion (2) with the teeth on the flywheel ring gear. Rotate the flywheel clockwise (as viewed from the flywheel end of the engine) at least 30°. Now rotate the flywheel counterclockwise (as viewed from the flywheel end of the engine) and install timing bolt into flywheel.

NOTE: If timing hole is passed, do not back up repeat Step 5.


CAMSHAFT DRIVE GEARS
8. Pointer.

6. Observe the position of the camshaft drive gears. The dash marks on camshaft drive gears must align, the pointer (8) in the camshaft housing must align with dash marks on gear and camshaft timing pin must fit into camshaft. All four valves for No.1 cylinder must now be closed.

Checking Fuel Injection Pump Timing: On Engine

Checking With Timing Pins

1. Locate (TC) compression position for No.1 piston.

2. Remove the speed limiter access plug. Install the 9S8521 Rod (1) and 9S8519 Plug (2) to depress the speed limiter.


DEPRESSING SPEED LIMITER PLUNGER
1. 9S8521 Rod. 2. 9S8519 Plug.

3. Remove timing pin (4) from storage hole (5) and install it through the timing hole (3) in the fuel injection pump housing. When timing pin (4) fits into the timing slot in the fuel pump camshaft, it must be flush with the top of the fuel pump housing.


TIMING PIN LOCATION
3. Timing hole. 4. Timing pin. 5. Storage hole.

NOTE: Move the governor control lever back and forth slowly to allow the pin to first pass through the notch in the rack. The pin can then drop through to engage the slot in the camshaft.

4. If the timing pin (4) fits into the fuel pump camshaft slot, the fuel pump camshaft is correctly timed to the engine crankshaft. If the timing pin (4) does not fit into the camshaft timing slot, one of the following problems has occurred.

(a) Timing gear backlash has increased (worn) during machine operation. Adjust the speed sensing, variable timing drive gear.
(b) Variable timing unit malfunction. Look for binding flyweights or burr in sliding spline drive.
(c) Variable timing drive gear has slipped or was not adjusted correctly.

NOTE: A slight binding of the timing pin during insertion is not cause for adjusting the variable timing drive gear. If the timing pin does not fit, refer to the topic ADJUSTING VARIABLE TIMING DRIVE GEAR.

Checking the Timing of the Fuel Injection Pump and the Movement of the Variable Timing Drive Assembly with 1P3500 Injection Timing Group.


1P3500 INJECTION TIMING GROUP

Refer to Special Instruction GMG00501 for complete and detailed instructions for the timing light method of checking engine timing and the movement of the variable timing advance.

1. Install the appropriate transducer in the fuel injection line for No.1 cylinder. Be sure the arrow on the transducer is in the direction of fuel flow.

2. Locate the top center position of No.1 cylinder. Make reference to Locating Top Center Compression Position For No.1 Piston.

3. Scribe the damper and install a temporary pointer.

4. Connect the timing light as indicated and run the engine at low idle.


NOTICE

The transducers are designed for operation at no load conditions. Do not operate the engine under full load conditions with a transducer in the fuel line.


5. Put the switch (1) in the "ADV" position and depress the trigger. Aim the flashing timing light at the damper.


USING TIMING LIGHT
1. Switch. 2. Knob.

6. Align the top center scribe mark with the pointer by adjusting knob (2). Read timing on the top meter scale. The readings should be within 1° of the following values.

7. To check movement of variable timing advance, repeat step (6) at high idle. Make reference to the chart for the correct movement of the variable timing advance.

8. Turn knob (2) past the detent to the "time" position and place switch (1) in the "ADV" position. Observe the mark on the damper for smoothness of advance through the speed range.

Checking with 6F6922 Depth Micrometer

1. Put No.1 piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO.1 PISTON.

2. Remove No.1 fuel injection pump. Put micrometer into the bore and measure timing dimension (A) as shown.


MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
A. Timing Dimension

3. The correct timing dimension (ON engine) is as follows:

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart, make reference to ADJUSTING VARIABLE TIMING DRIVE GEAR.

NOTE: If the timing of the fuel system is different than the correct timing dimension given in the chart and the camshaft timing for the fuel injection pump is correct, make reference to FUEL PUMP TIMING DIMENSION SETTING: OFF ENGINE.

Checking with 1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group, 3S2954 Timing Indicator Group and 9M9268 Dial Indicator

Refer to Special Instruction (FM035709) for complete and detailed instructions for the fuel flow method of engine timing.


MEASURING PISTON TRAVEL
1. 3S3263 Adapter. 2. 9M9268 Dial Indicator. 3. 3S3264 Rod. 4. Precombustion chamber. 5. Inlet port. 6. Piston. 7. Crankshaft.

Travel of piston (6), from point of closing inlet port (5) to top center, can be found by using the 3S2954 Timing Indicator Group. Convert the travel of piston (6) into degrees to determine if engine timing is correct.

The 1P540 Flow Checking Tool Group is used to pressurize the fuel system. Maintain 10 to 15 psi (0.70 to 1.05 kg/cm2) (68.9 to 103.4 kPa) fuel pressure with the 1P539 Tank Assembly. This can be done with hand pump provided with the tank assembly, or connecting shop air to the tank assembly.

Consult chart to find angle corresponding to indicator reading. At the indicator reading and timing angle specified for this particular engine, fuel flow from the injection pump should be reduced to 12 to 30 drops per minute [point of closing inlet port (5)].

Adjusting Variable Timing Drive Gear (Timing Fuel Pump Camshaft With No. 1 Piston At TC Compression Position)

1. Rotate the engine crankshaft in direction of engine rotation (counterclockwise as viewed from the rear) to position No.1 piston at (TC) compression position, and install timing bolt (A). See the topic LOCATING TOP CENTER COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO.1 PISTON.

NOTE: The crankshaft must undergo at least 30° of counterclockwise rotation to assure removal of gear backlash prior to alignment.


TIMING BOLT INSTALLED
A. Timing bolt.

2. Remove valve cover on right bank of engine and observe the position of the valves for No.1 cylinder. Move the rocker arms to see if valves are seated. If the valves are not closed, repeat Step 1, rotating the flywheel an additional 360° and install the flywheel timing bolt (A).


TIMING HOLE LOCATION
1. Timing hole. 2. Timing pin. 3. Storage hole.

3. Install timing pin (2) in the fuel injection pump camshaft.

NOTE: Be sure to work the governor control lever back and forth to allow the timing pin (2) to first pass through the slot in the rack. The timing pin (2) can then drop through to engage the slot in the camshaft.

(a) If the timing pin (2) slips into the camshaft slot, and is flush with the top of the housing, the fuel pump camshaft is correctly timed to the crankshaft (No.1 piston TC COMPRESSION POSITION) and no further adjustment is required.
(b) If the timing pin (2) will not enter the camshaft slot, loosen the bolts securing the drive gear to the variable timing unit. Rotate the camshaft by turning the retainer CLOCKWISE ONLY with a 1/2" square drive until the timing pin engages the camshaft timing slot.


ROTATING CAMSHAFT

4. With the retainer bolts loose and timing pin (2) installed, rotate the flywheel approximately 30° CLOCKWISE beyond the flywheel timing bolt hole.

5. Finger tighten two of the retainer bolts and rotate the flywheel COUNTERCLOCKWISE 30° and install the timing bolt (2) into the flywheel.

NOTE: As the crankshaft is rotated counterclockwise, the drive gear slips yet has the resistive force so backlash is taken up in direction of normal rotation.

6. Tighten variable timing drive gear bolts to an initial torque of 10 lb. ft. (14 N·m). Remove flywheel timing bolt (A) and fuel injection pump camshaft timing pin (2). Tighten all variable timing drive gear retaining bolts to a final torque of 75 ± 10 lb. ft. (102 ± 14 N·m).


TIGHTENING DRIVE GEAR BOLTS

7. Rotate flywheel two complete revolutions counterclockwise (as viewed from flywheel end). Install flywheel timing bolt (A) and injection pump camshaft timing pin (2). If flywheel timing bolt hole is passed, do not back up, repeat Step 7 again.

8. If timing is correct, secure the locks on variable timing drive gear retaining bolts. If timing is incorrect, repeat Steps 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.

NOTE: This timing procedure must be completed accurately so the timing pin fits into the camshaft slot when all backlash is taken up on the drive side of the timing gear teeth. Rotate gears as described.

Fuel Pump Timing Dimension Setting: Off Engine

1P7410 Timing Plate.8S2625 Shaft Assembly with key.1P7415 Pointer Assembly.4B4278 Washer.Bolt-3/8 in. NC (3/4 in. long).6F6922 Depth Micrometer.

1. Remove the pump assemblies from the fuel pump housing. Tag the pump assemblies for reinstallation into their respective locations. Keep barrels and plungers in original matched sets and store in a clean covered area. Remove the fuel rack from the front end of the fuel pump housing.


SHAFT AND POINTER ASSEMBLY
1. 8S2625 Shaft Assembly with key. 2. 1P7415 Pointer Assembly.

2. Remove the variable timing drive from the rear of the fuel pump housing and replace it with shaft assembly (1). Shaft assembly (1) tang must engage the slot in the rear of the fuel pump camshaft.

3. Install pointer assembly (2) on the pump housing. Dowels pressed into the pointer assembly locate the edge of the pointer assembly for correct timing.


TIMING TOOLS INSTALLED
2. 1P7415 Pointer Assembly. 3. 1P7410 Timing Plate. 4. Washer. 5. Bolt.

4. Install the key in the end of the shaft assembly (1). Install timing plate (3). Secure the timing plate in place with bolt (5) and washer (4).

5. Rotate the timing plate CLOCKWISE to align the degree setting with the edge of the pointer assembly, and measure dimension (A), from the top of the pump housing to the top of the spacer, in the lifter assembly for No.1 cylinder.


MEASURING TIMING DIMENSION
A. Timing dimension at the designated degree setting should be 3.016 ± .002 in. (76.61 ± 0.05 mm). B. Lifter thickness.

6. If dimension (A) is not within the specified limits new lifter assemblies must be installed. Refer to the following chart.

NOTE: Do not attempt to remove or replace spacers in lifter assemblies. An improperly staked spacer can cause engine failure.

7. Proceed with setting the remaining lifters being sure the timing pointer is aligned with the correct degree mark on the timing plate for each lifter being checked. Always turn the timing plate clockwise when aligning to the degree setting in the chart.

Governor Adjustments


NOTICE

Only competent personnel should attempt to adjust the low and high idle rpm. The low and high idle rpm, and the rack setting dimensions for this engine, are listed in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.


1. Install an accurate tachometer to the service meter drive (use 4S6553 Test Kit).

NOTE: Use a 9S5609 Tachometer Drive Adapter Group with a 2P2311 shaft.

2. Start the engine and move the governor control to HIGH IDLE position. Observe the tachometer reading and compare with the HIGH IDLE value listed in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

3. Adjust HIGH IDLE rpm by turning high idle screw (2). After achieving specified rpm, move the governor control to reduce engine speed, then move the linkage to HIGH IDLE and recheck the setting.

4. After setting HIGH IDLE rpm, move the governor linkage to the LOW IDLE position and adjust the LOW IDLE rpm in a similar manner.


GOVERNOR ADJUSTMENTS
1. Low idle adjusting screw. 2. High idle adjusting screw.

Rack Adjustment

9S240 Rack Positioning Tool Group.


NOTICE

Rack settings are carefully set at the factory and should not be changed without specific instructions to do so. An incorrectly adjusted fuel rack affects the operation of the turbocharger.


1. Remove the fuel ratio control. Disconnect the governor control linkage at a convenient location so full rack travel can be obtained.

2. Remove speed limiter access plug. Using 9S8521 Rod (1) and 9S8519 Plug (2), depress the speed limiter plunger. (Tighten 9S8519 Plug just enough to impose a clamping action on 9S8521 Rod.)


DEPRESSING SPEED LIMITER PLUNGER
1. Rod (for manually depressing speed limiter plunger). 2. Plug (rod guide).


TIMING PIN ASSEMBLY
A. Threaded hole.

3. Remove the timing pin (3) from its storage location (5) and install one of the retaining bolts (head down) through one of the flange holes. Install a nut at the top to hold the bolt in place. The bolt head limits the depth the pin can be inserted into the housing.

NOTE: Thread one of the retaining bolts into hole (A) to aid pin removal. Before using timing pin in timing procedure, remove the bolt from hole (A).

4. Insert the timing pin in the timing hole (4). Move the governor control back and forth slowly, to allow the pin to pass through the notch in the rack. The pin is in place when the head of the inverted bolt touches the fuel pump housing. With the rack in this position, the centerline of the second tooth on each fuel pump gear segment is aligned with the correct tooth on the rack.


TIMING PIN LOCATION
3. Timing pin assembly. 4. Timing hole. 5. Storage location.

5. Remove the standard spring and dust cover from the 9S215 Dial Indicator.

6. Install 5S8157 Extension to 9S239 Adapter. Slide 5S8088 Rod through the assembly (from the bottom) and install 5S8086 Point to rod at the top. Install the complete assembly into the hole for plug (6).


RACK CHECKING LOCATION
6. Plug.

NOTE: Install 3S3268 Contact Point on the 9S215 Dial Indicator.

7. With the rack held in the fuel-on direction, zero the 9S215 Dial Indicator. Do this by moving the indicator up or down, until the revolution counter lies between the red zero and black zero. Tighten the dial indicator retaining bolt. Now place the zero on the large dial under the indicator large hand by rotating the dial face.

8. Remove the rack centering pin and install it in its storage location.

9. Attach the end of the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to the brass screw terminal on the governor housing. Place the other end to a suitable ground.

10. Rotate the governor control lever in the fuel-on direction until the tester lights.

11. While holding the governor control lever in the fuel-on direction, slowly depress the dial indicator stem (slight pressure) until the test light just barely glows (a dim light); in this position, the rack stop collar is just touching the stop bar or torque spring. Rack setting dimension can now be read directly from the dial indicator. Refer to RACK SETTING INFORMATION to obtain the correct rack setting dimension.


DEPRESSING INDICATOR STEM

12. If rack needs adjustment, loosen locknut (8) and turn adjusting screw (9) with wrench (7) until correct dimension is obtained.


ADJUSTING FUEL RACK
7. 4B9820 Wrench. 8. Locknut. 9. Adjusting screw.

13. After fuel rack has been adjusted, tighten locknut (8) to 11 ± 1 lb. ft. (15 ± 1 N·m).

Fuel Ratio Control Setting (Engines equipped with 3S8429 Fuel Ratio Control)

9S240 Rack Position Tool Group

The fuel rack must be set correctly before setting the fuel ratio control. The same 8S4627 Circuit Tester set up can be used as for fuel rack setting. See the topic, RACK ADJUSTMENT.

Install the fuel ratio control when the governor control lever is in the fuel off position. Then the governor control lever should be moved to the high idle position, with engine stopped, through the remainder of the setting procedure. Be sure the speed limiter is depressed.

1. Remove the override control mechanism and cover.

2. Turn the cover (1) clockwise until the circuit indicator light glows brightly.


SETTING FUEL RATIO CONTROL (Typical Example)
1. Cover. 2. Adjusting bolt.

3. Turn the cover counterclockwise slowly until the indicator light flickers. This should place the rack in fuel rack setting position. Mark a reference line on the cover and base for adjusting purposes.

NOTE: In this application, one revolution counterclockwise of the cover causes .090 in. (2.29 mm) restriction in movement of the rack. Six holes in the cover for the mounting bolts, allow for an additional adjustment of .015 in. (0.38 mm) between holes as related to rack movement in this application.

4. Turn the cover counterclockwise the number of turns plus any fraction for closer hole alignment, to arrive at the dimension closest to that given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION.

5. Install the cover, override mechanism and remove the rack setting tools.

NOTE: Before starting the engine, make certain the governor control lever will move the governor to the SHUTOFF position and that all parts operate freely.

With the above initial adjustment made, a further adjustment can be made while the engine is running (if necessary) to improve engine performance. To reduce exhaust smoke during acceleration, turn cover (1) out (less fuel) 1/2 turn at a time until satisfactory. When exhaust smoke is acceptable but acceleration is sluggish, turn cover (1) in (more fuel) 1/2 turn at a time until satisfactory.

NOTE: Some exhaust smoke is likely to appear at maximum acceleration.

If acceleration is sluggish and full engine power seems to be lost, inspect the air line to the cover and the cover gasket for air leaks. If no air leaks are apparent, inspect the diaphragm. A damaged diaphragm will not allow the fuel rack to open completely, acceleration will be sluggish and full engine power cannot be obtained.

Fuel Ratio Control Setting (Engines equipped with 8S6419 Fuel Ratio Control)

OVERRIDE CONTROL LEVER: Bench setting adjustment is made in the following manner:


OVERRIDE CONTROL LEVER ADJUSTMENT
1. Control lever. 2. Adjusting screw. 3. Locknut.

1. Place lever (1) in start position.

2. Loosen locknut (3) and turn adjusting screw (2) counterclockwise as far as necessary to cause the lever to snap to run position when bolt (4) is pulled against the large spring pressure. Approximately 40 lbs. (18.1 kg) pull is required to move the bolt.

3. Tighten the locknut.


CHECKING OVERRIDE CONTROL LEVER ADJUSTMENT
4. Bolt in vise.

DIAPHRAGM: Bench test should be made with shop air pressure applied to the chamber above the diaphragm through port (5) in cover.

1. Application of 5 psi (0.35 kg/cm2) (34 kPa) to chamber (6) should start movement of bolt (4).


TESTING DIAPHRAGM
4. Bolt. 5. Port. 6. Chamber. A. Start position. B. Run position.

2. Application of 16.5 to 20.5 psi (1.16 to 1.44 kg/cm2) (114 to 141 kPA) pressure causes bolt (4) to be fully extended.
3. Pressure of 35 psi (2.46 kg/cm2) (241 kPa) applied in the chamber (6) and turned off should drop no more than 2 psi (0.14 kg/cm2) (14 kPa) in 10 seconds.

Hydraulic Air-Fuel Ratio Control Setting: On Engine

1. Check the fuel rack setting. Make reference to FUEL RACK SETTING. The fuel rack setting must be correct before the adjustment for the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control can be checked or changed.

2. Remove 9S8521 Rod and the 9S8519 Plug from the governor housing to let the speed limiter operate. Install the standard plug in the hole.

3. Remove the cover (1) from the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control.

4. Start the engine.

5. Push the end of valve (2) in and hold it in for two or three seconds. This action will manually move the valve into its operating position.


ADJUSTING HYDRAULIC AIR-FUEL RATIO CONTROL (Typical Example)
1. Cover. 2. Valve.

6. Move the governor control lever from the fuel off to the fuel on direction several times to remove the air from the control for a more accurate reading.

7. Rapidly move the governor control lever in the fuel on direction and read the measurement on the dial indicator. Read the indicator carefully because this reading will be a maximum for only a moment. Look in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION book to find the correct measurement.

8. To make an adjustment to the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control, turn valve (2) in a clockwise direction to make an increase in the limited rack position and in a counterclockwise direction to make a decrease in the limited rack position.

9. After each adjustment is made, the governor control lever must be moved from the fuel off to the fuel on direction before an accurate reading can be made.

10. After the correct adjustment has been made, put slot in cover (1) in alignment with pin in the valve and turn the cover to put it in alignment with the nearest bolt holes. Install the bolts.

11. Stop the engine.

12. After the oil pressure has gone out of the hydraulic air-fuel ratio control, full rack travel must be available. The speed limiter plunger will have to be pushed in to permit full rack travel.

13. Now install the wire and seal on the control.

2N7744 Fuel Pressure Switch


FUEL PRESSURE SWITCH (Typical Illustration)

The fuel pressure switch is normally open. Make a check across the switch with a continuity checker. When there is no fuel pressure, there is no continuity across the switch.

Fuel pressure of 12 psi (0.84 kg/cm2) (83 kPa) makes the contacts in the switch close. After putting 12 psi (0.84 kg/cm2) (83 kPa) pressure on the switch, lower the pressure to less than 5 psi (0.35 kg/cm2) (34 kPa). There is no continuity at pressures of under 5 psi (0.35 kg/cm2) (34 kPa).

Start-Up Procedure

Use the following procedure when starting an engine for the first time after work is done on the fuel injection pump or governor.

1. Remove the air inlet elbows and piping from the air inlets of the turbochargers.


AIR INLET CONNECTIONS (777 TRUCK ILLUSTRATED)

2. Have another person in position near each turbocharger air inlet with a piece of steel plate large enough to completely cover the turbocharger air inlet.

3. If the engine starts to run too fast or does not react correctly to the controls, immediately put the steel plates against the air inlet to the turbocharger. This stops the air supply to the engine and the engine will stop.


STOPPING THE ENGINE

Air Induction And Exhaust System

Restriction Of Air Inlet And Exhaust

Engine horsepower and efficiency will be reduced if either the air inlet or exhaust system becomes restricted.

The air cleaner should not restrict air flow more the 30 in. (762 mm) of water difference in pressure.

Exhaust back pressure (pressure difference measured between the turbocharger outlet elbow tap and the ambient air) should be no more than 27 in. (686 mm) of water difference in pressure.

Measuring Inlet Manifold Pressure

Use the 4S6553 Instrument Group to check engine rpm, the pressure in the inlet manifold and pressure in the exhaust system. Special Instruction (FE036044) is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


4S6553 INSTRUMENT GROUP
1. 4S6992 Differential Pressure gauges. 2. Zero adjustment screw. 3. Lid. 4. 8M2743 Gauge. 5. Pressure tap fitting. 6. 4S6991 Tachometer. 7. 4S6997 Manifold Pressure Gauge.

By checking inlet manifold pressure, and comparing that pressure with the RACK SETTING INFORMATION, one can determine if an engine is operating efficiently. This test should be used if engine horsepower seems to be too low, yet no specific symptom of engine trouble is apparent.

Inlet manifold pressures in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION are recorded under specific operating conditions: 29.4 in. (746.76 mm) of mercury barometric pressure, 85° F. (29° C) ambient temperature and 35 API rated fuel. Any deviation from these conditions can affect the inlet manifold pressure. Ambient air which is denser than that at 85° F./29.4 in. (29° C./746.76 mm) of mercury, can cause a slightly higher horsepower and inlet manifold pressure reading than listed in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION: If the ambient air is less dense, the horsepower and inlet manifold pressure rating can be slightly lower. Fuel density (API gravity rating) also affects the horsepower and inlet manifold pressure. If the fuel is rated above the standard 35 API gravity rating, the inlet manifold pressure can be slightly less than the value given in the RACK SETTING INFORMATION. If the fuel is rated below the standard rating, the inlet manifold pressure can be slightly more. BE SURE THE AIR INLET AND EXHAUST ARE NOT RESTRICTED WHEN CHECKING INLET MANIFOLD PRESSURE.

Measurement Of Exhaust Temperatures

Use the 1P3060 Pyrometer Group to check exhaust temperature. Special Instruction (GMG00697) is with the tool group and gives instructions for the test procedure.


1P3060 PYROMETER GROUP

Checking Cylinder Compression

Irregular (rough) engine operation can be caused by incorrectly adjusted or leaky valves. Operate the engine at the rpm that makes the malfunction most pronounced. A non-firing or low compression cylinder can be located by momentarily loosening and then retightening fuel lines at the fuel injection pumps, one at a time. Continue this until a loosened fuel injection line makes little or no difference in engine operation. This same test can also indicate faulty fuel injection, so further checking of the cylinder is necessary.

Engine cylinder condition can be analyzed with controlled pressure air through the engine cylinder precombustion chamber. Special Instruction (GMG00694) explains the procedure.

1. Remove the fuel injection nozzle, leaving the precombustion chamber in place.

2. Adapt an air hose to the precombustion chamber. This can be done with either a threaded fitting or by holding a rubber adapter in place.

3. Rotate the crankshaft until the piston in the suspected cylinder is at TC on the compression stroke. In this position, the valves of this cylinder will be against their seats.

4. Force air into the cylinder and then check for escaping air. Air escaping from the exhaust opening indicates exhaust valve leakage and air escaping from the air inlet indicates inlet valve leakage. If air escapes from the crankcase breather during this test, the piston, rings and/or liner can be at fault.

It may be necessary to remove the inlet and exhaust connections on both sides of turbocharger.

Crankcase Pressure

Excessive crankcase pressure can be a result of combustion gas leaking past broken or damaged pistons and/or piston rings. This condition will usually be accompanied by irregular engine operation and excess fumes from crankcase breather opening. This pressure can cause the breather element to become restricted in an unusually short time. In addition, it can cause engine oil to leak past gaskets and seals that would function correctly under normal conditions.

Timing The Camshafts To The Crankshaft (Cluster Gears Previously Timed To Crankshaft)

Installing Camshaft Housing Assembly to Cylinder Head

1. With the camshaft housing removed from the engine, align phasing gear timing marks (2) and install timing pin (1) in inlet camshaft bearing journal.

Timing pin (1) will drop into a slot in the inlet camshaft; and timing marks (2) will align, and the pointer (6) in the camshaft housing will align with the dash marks on gear; when the gears are phased correctly.


TIMING CAMSHAFT GEARS (TYPICAL EXAMPLE)
1. Timing pin. 2. Timing marks. 3. Inlet camshaft gear. 4. Dowel. 5. Exhaust camshaft gear.

2. Rotate engine crankshaft to position flywheel timing mark to TC 1 and 11 COMPRESSION position. Check to see if No. 1 cylinder is in COMPRESSION position. If it is not, rotate crankshaft additional 360°.

NOTE: Crankshaft is in No. 1 cylinder COMPRESSION position when (a) or (b) occurs:

(a) Timing pin can be inserted into the slot in the fuel injection pump camshaft. See topic ADJUSTING VARIABLE TIMING DRIVE GEAR.
(b) Camshaft housing on opposite bank of engine has not been disturbed and timing pin will drop into inlet camshaft bearing journal.

3. Install camshaft housing assembly on cylinder head being sure it is installed on the correct bank of the engine.


CAMSHAFT GEARS (Typical Example)
6. Pointer.

Valve Clearance Setting


VALVE NUMBERING GUIDE
1. Intake valves. 2. Exhaust valves. 3. Front of engine.

VALVE CLEARANCE SETTING (Engine Stopped)

Exhaust; 13 clicks from zero ... .026 in.(0.66 mm)

Intake; 6 clicks from zero ... .012 in.(0.30 mm)

1. Put No. 1 Piston at top center (TC) on the compression stroke. Make reference to LOCATING TOP CENTER (TC) COMPRESSION POSITION FOR NO.1 PISTON.

2. At this point the valves for No.1 cylinder are closed. Adjust exhaust valves 1, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 12 according to the chart. Adjust intake valves 1, 3, 6, 7, 10 and 12 according to the chart.

NOTE: To make the adjustment, first turn the adjusting screw clockwise until no rocker arm movement or no adjusting button side movement can be felt with slight finger pressure. This is zero clearance. Turning the adjusting screw beyond this point will result in incorrect valve clearance setting. Then turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise the correct number of clicks according to the chart.

3. Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel. Turn the engine crankshaft 360° in the direction of engine rotation. Install the timing bolt in the flywheel.

4. At this point the valves for No.11 cylinder are closed. Adjust exhaust valves 2, 3, 7, 8, 10 and 11 according to the chart. Adjust intake valves 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 11 according to the chart.

NOTE: To make the adjustment, first turn the adjusting screw clockwise until no rocker arm movement or no adjusting button side movement can be felt with slight finger pressure. This is zero clearance. Turning the adjusting screw beyond this point will result in incorrect valve clearance setting. Then turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise the correct number of clicks according to the chart.

Replacement Of Valve Guides

The intake and exhaust valves operate in replacement type valve guides. After the valves have been removed, clean the valve stems and valve guides.

Valve Guides With Shoulders

Use the 7M3975 Driver to install the 2M6414, 9S9040, and 2N3293 Valve Guides. Put engine oil on the outside diameter of the valve guides before installing in the cylinder head.

The bore of the 2M6414 Valve Guides must be .3751 ± .0007 in. (9.528 ± 0.018 mm), the bore of the 9S9040 Valve Guides must be .3748 ± .0007 in. (9.520 ± 0.018 mm), and the bore of the 2N3293 Valve Guide must be .3727 ± .0005 in. (9.467 ± 0.013 mm) after they are installed in the cylinder head. If the bore in the valve guides is smaller than the dimensions given after they are installed in the cylinder head, they must be honed. Use the 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement to hone the valve guides. Special Instruction GMG00966 gives complete and detailed instructions for the use of the 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement.

Valve Guides That Do Not Have Shoulders

Use a 7M3975 Driver and a 5P1729 Bushing to install the 4N3666 Valve Guide. Put engine oil on the outside diameter of the valve guides before installing in the cylinder head.

The bore of the 4N3666 Valve Guide must be a minimum of .3725 in. (9.462 mm) after installation in the cylinder head. If the bore in the valve guide is smaller than .3725 in. (9.462 mm) after it is installed in the cylinder head, it must be honed to size. Use the 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement to hone the valve guide. Special Instruction GMG00966 gives complete and detailed instructions for the use of the 1P7450 Valve Guide Honing Arrangement.

When honing a 4N3666 Valve Guide, hone to a size as close as possible to the minimum size of .3725 in. (9.462 mm) but do not hone to a size larger than .3736 in. (9.489 mm).

Lubrication System

Engine lubrication system problems are usually indicated by one of these four symptoms:

EXCESSIVE OIL CONSUMPTIONLOW OIL PRESSUREHIGH OIL PRESSUREUNUSUAL BEARING WEAR

Excessive Oil Consumption

External Leaks

Check crankshaft seals for leakage at both ends of the engine, look for leaks around the oil pan gasket and all lubrication system connections. Check to see if oil is being blown from the crankcase breather. This can be caused by combustion gases leaking past pistons. Clogged crankcase breathers will contribute to high crankcase pressure and result in gasket and seal leaks.

Leaking turbocharger shaft seals (turbine end) will cause loss of oil through the exhaust gases. This condition, "slobbering," is evidenced by oil at the exhaust outlet.

Internal Leakage Into Upper Cylinders

Upper cylinder oil leakage can be the cause of blue smoke. There are several possible routes for oil leakage into upper cylinders.

Oil can leak past the ring seals at the impeller end of the turbocharger shafts.

Leakage between worn guides and valves is also possible.

Worn or damaged piston rings or plugged oil return holes can cause oil to enter the upper cylinder. Incorrectly installed compression rings will cause oil to pump into the cylinders.

Excess oil usage can also be the result of oil viscosity being too low for prevailing conditions. Low oil viscosity can be caused by crankcase dilution, incorrect selection of oil weights, or engine overheating.

Oil can enter the inlet air manifold if the air fuel ratio control diaphragm is leaking and a vacuum condition exists in the inlet manifold. Restricted air cleaners can cause this vacuum condition.

Oil can also leak into the cooling system if oil cooler core or gaskets are leaking. Check the radiator for signs of oil.

Low Oil Pressure

An oil pressure gauge that has a defect may give an indication of low oil pressure.


7S8875 HYDRAULIC TEST BOX

An 8M2744 Gauge which is part of 7S8875 Hydraulic Test Box can be used for checking pressure in the system.

Crankcase Lubricant Level

Oil level can be too low for oil pump suction bell pickup. Check oil level and add oil if necessary.

Pump Malfunctions

The oil pump inlet screen can be restricting the suction side of the pump which results in cavitation and loss of oil pressure. An air leak in the suction side of the pump will also cause cavitation and loss of pressure. An oil pump bypass valve that is stuck in the open (unseated) position will not allow system pressure to build to maximum pressures. The oil pump gears can be worn sufficiently to cause a reduction in pump output.

Oil Filter and Bypass Valve

If the oil filter is restricted and the filter bypass valve is stuck in the closed position, oil pressure may be low. Install a new Caterpillar oil filter element, disassemble the bypass valve, clean the spring and plunger. Be sure the plunger moves freely before assembling.

Excessive Clearance in Engine Bearings or Open System

Worn components with extreme bearing clearances can cause engine oil pressure to be abnormally low. Any open, broken, or disconnected oil lines or passages will cause loss of oil pressure. Check gallery and crankshaft plugs to be sure they are in place.

Oil Cooler and Bypass Valve

Check the oil cooler oil passages for sludge. A clogged oil cooler with a stuck cooler bypass valve will be accompanied by high engine operating oil temperatures. Oil pressure will usually not lower due to sludge deposits alone. The cooler bypass valve must be stuck closed, or nearly so, to lower the oil pressure.

High Oil Pressure

This condition will occur when an oil pump bypass valve sticks in the closed position and the full pump volume is directed to the engine bearings.

Unusual Bearing Wear

Single components of the engine showing bearing wear at unusually frequent service intervals can be the result of clogged, restricted or broken oil passages. If the oil pressure gauge shows adequate pressure yet a component shows signs of oil starvation, check the branch supply line to that component.

Measuring Engine Oil Pressure

This procedure must be followed exactly for the pressure readings to be meaningful.

1. Be sure that the engine is filled to the correct level with SAE 30 oil. If any other viscosity of oil is used, the readings which are given below do not apply.


A. Test location.

2. Install a tee at location (A). Install a probe from the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group in one side of the tee. Connect an 8M2744 Gauge from the 7S8875 Hydraulic Test Box to the other side of the tee.

3. Run the engine to get the oil temperature at 200 ± 10° F (93 ± 6° C).

4. With the engine at 2000 rpm and maintaining the oil temperature at 200 ± 10° F, take a reading on the pressure gauge. The minimum oil pressure for a new engine or for a newly rebuilt engine is 65 psi (4.57 kg/cm2) (448 kPa).

The maximum oil pressure is 90 psi (6.33 kg/cm2) (621 kPa).

If the oil pressure is not correct, look for the reason and correct it.

NOTE: On a worn engine the minimum oil pressure can be approximately 60 psi (4.22 kg/cm2) (414 kPa).

NOTE: There can be several combinations of oil pumps and springs and spacers. For engines which have 5S1565 Oil Pump, be sure that the 6N1320 Spring and one T841 Washer are installed.

2N2240 Oil Pressure Switch


OIL PRESSURE SWITCH (Typical Illustration)

Make a check across the oil pressure switch with a continuity tester. When there is no oil pressure on the oil pressure switch there is continuity across the switch.

Oil pressure of 15 psi (1.05 kg/cm2) (103 kPa) makes the contacts in the switch open. Lower the oil pressure and the contacts should close, making continuity through the switch again.

Cooling System

The engine has a pressure type cooling system. A pressure type cooling system gives two advantages. The first advantage is that the cooling system can operate safely at a temperature that is higher than the normal point where water changes to steam. The second advantage is that this type system prevents cavitation (air in inlet of pump) in the water pump. With this type system it is more difficult for an air or steam pocket to form in the cooling system.

The cause for an engine getting too hot is generally because regular inspections of the cooling system were not done. Make a visual inspection of the cooling system before testing with testing equipment.

Visual Inspection Of The Cooling System

1. Check coolant level in the cooling system.

2. Look for leaks in the system.

3. Look for bent radiator fins. Be sure that air flow through the radiator does not have a restriction.

4. Inspect the drive for the fan.

5. Check for damage to the fan blades.

6. Look for air or combustion gas in the cooling system.

7. Inspect the pressure cap and the sealing surface for the cap. The sealing surface must be clean.

8. Look for large amounts of dirt in the radiator core and on the engine.

Testing The Cooling System

Remember that temperature and pressure work together. When making a diagnosis of a cooling system problem, temperature and pressure must both be checked. Cooling system pressure will have an effect on cooling system temperatures. For an example, look at the chart to see the effect of pressure and the height above sea level on the boiling point (steam) of water.

Checking Coolant Temperatures

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.

The 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group is used in the diagnosis of overheating (engine running too hot) or overcooling (engine running too cool) problems. This group can be used to check the different parts of the cooling system. The complete testing procedure is in Special Instruction GMG00450.


9S9102 THERMISTOR THERMOMETER GROUP

The locations for making the temperature checks with probe are listed below:


Fig. 1
Fig. 1. Ambient (air temperature away from the machine and not in direct sunlight).


Fig. 2 (Typical Illustration)
Fig. 2. Top tank (in a pipe plug location in the top tank of the radiator and in the housing for the regulators or in the water manifold).


Fig. 3 (Typical Illustration)
Fig. 3. Bottom tank (in the drain outlet for the radiator or the pipe plug location in the lower elbow of the radiator).


Fig. 4 (Typical Illustration)
Fig. 4. Torque converter (in a pipe plug location of the oil outlet for the torque converter).

Be sure the probe is installed in the liquid of the system being tested.


NOTICE

Do not tighten the probe more than 30 lb. ft. (41 N·m) torque.


Check temperatures in the locations listed in the chart and make a comparison of these temperatures. Look at the chart to see if these comparisons are within the range in the chart. Make the needed checks if the temperatures are not within the ranges.

NOTE: To get the correct reading make a measurement of the temperatures during working conditions.

Checking Radiator Air Flow

9S7373 Air Meter Group.

The 9S7373 Air Meter Group is used to check the air flow through the radiator core. Overheating can be caused by installing the wrong fan guard, low fan speed, or a restriction in the radiator core (clogging). The meter will give aid in finding a restriction in the core. The testing procedure is in Special Instruction GMG00203.


9S7373 AIR METER GROUP

------ WARNING! ------

When making the checks fasten the transmission in neutral, put the parking brakes on and lower all equipment. Make all checks at engine LOW IDLE and on the side of the radiator opposite the fan. Wear eye protection.

--------WARNING!------


CHECKING AIR FLOW IN CROSS AND DIAGONAL LINES (Typical Illustration)

Take readings in a cross and diagonal pattern. Make a comparison of the readings in each line the same distance from the center of the fan. Permit differences for restrictions such as guards, braces and engine components which will cause a change in the rate of air flow.


AIR FLOW (Typical Illustration)
1. Fan hub area. 2. Fan blade area. 3. Area outside fan blade.

The correct air flow readings are in Special Instruction GMG0203.

NOTE: All readings are taken at engine LOW IDLE.


INSPECTING RADIATOR CORE FOR RESTRICTION (Typical Illustration)

If the readings are not within the ranges, stop the engine, put a strong light behind the core and inspect for a restriction. If the restriction is from dirt remove by steam cleaning. If the restriction is from bent fins use 2H1822 Radiator Fin Comb to make the fins straight.

Checking Fan Speed

1P5500 Portable Phototach Group.

If the radiator core does not have a restriction, check the fan speed with the 1P5500 Portable Phototach Group. The complete testing procedure is in Special Instruction GMG00819.


1P5500 PORTABLE PHOTOTACH GROUP

Checking Fan Speed on 992 With Fluid Coupling Drive

With the temperature of the coolant in the inlet line to the water pump at 185°F (85°C) or with the charging valve fixed open or not used, the fan speed after five minutes at engine speed of 2000 rpm should be 1500 ± 50 rpm. If the fan speed is not in the correct range, check the oil supply for the fan drive.

Checking the Oil Supply for the Fan Drive

8M2743 Air Pressure Gauge.3H636 Hose Assembly.3B6488 Nipple.

1. Install a 3H636 Hose Assembly in place of plug (1).


LOCATION TO TEST PRESSURE OF OIL TO FAN DRIVE (992 ILLUSTRATED)
1. Plug. 2. Drain line.

2. Using a 3B6488 Nipple, connect an 8M2743 Pressure Gauge to the hose assembly.

3. Start the engine and run it at 2000 rpm.

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when working around an engine if it is running.

--------WARNING!------

The engine oil should be at a temperature of 190° ± 10° F (88° ± 6° C) with a minimum pressure of 45 psi (3.2 kg/cm2) (310 kPa).

If the temperature and pressure of the engine oil to the fan drive are correct but the fan does not turn fast enough, check the oil flow through the fan drive as follows:

1. Remove the drain line (2) and install a temporary line to direct the oil coming from the fan drive into a container of known volume.

NOTE: Be sure that the inside diameter of the temporary line is not smaller than that of the regular drain line.

2. Start the engine and run it at 2000 rpm. Flow should be approximately 2 gpm (7.6 lit/min).


NOTICE

Be sure the engine is full of oil and do not allow the oil level in the engine to get too low or serious internal damage may result.


Low oil flow can result from restriction in the supply line or restriction within the fan drive.

High oil flow can result from excessive clearances within the fan drive.

Carefully disassemble the fan drive and inspect the parts using the dimensions given in the SPECIFICATIONS, Form No. REG01561, and make repairs as necessary.

Checking Filler Cap or Relief Valve

9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group.

One cause for a pressure loss in the cooling system can be a bad seal on the filler cap or relief valve of the system. Inspect the filler cap and relief valve carefully. Look for damage to the seal or the sealing surface. Any foreign material or deposits on the cap, valve, seal, or sealing surface must be removed.

The 9S8140 Cooling System Pressurizing Pump Group is used to test pressure caps and pressure relief valves, and to pressure check the cooling system for leaks. The pressure that makes the pressure relief valve open is 13 to 16 psi (0.9 to 1.1 kg/cm2) (90 to 110 kPa). The vacuum that makes the vacuum relief valve open is 1 psi (0.1 kg/cm2) (7 kPa) less than ambient pressure.


SEALED PRESSURE OVERFLOW (Typical Illustration)
1. Pressure relief valve. 2. Seal. 3. Screen. 4. Vacuum release valve. 5. Opening to overflow tube. 6. Gaskets. 7. Cover.


9S8140 COOLING SYSTEM PRESSURIZING PUMP GROUP

Gauge for Water Temperature

9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group.2F7112 Thermometer.6B5072 Bushing.

If the engine gets too hot and a loss of coolant is a problem, a pressure loss in the cooling system could be the cause. If the gauge for water temperature shows that the engine is getting too hot, look for coolant leakage. If a place can not be found where there is coolant leakage, check the accuracy of the gauge for water temperature. Use the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. This check can also be made by installing a 2F7112 Thermometer (using a 6B5072 Bushing) into the water manifold.


THERMOMETER INSTALLED (Typical Illustration)

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when working around an engine if it is running.

--------WARNING!------

Start the engine. Put a cover over part of the radiator or cause a restriction of coolant flow. The reading on the gauge for water temperature should agree with the reading on the thermistor thermometer.

Water Temperature Regulators

1. Remove the regulator from the engine.

2. Heat water in a pan until the temperature is correct for opening the regulator according to the chart. Move the water around in the pan to make it all be the same temperature.

3. Hang the regulator in the pan of water. The regulator must be below the surface of the water and it must be away from the sides and bottom of the pan.

4. Keep the water at the correct temperature for 10 minutes.

5. Remove the regulator from the water. Immediately make a measurement of the distance the regulator is open.

6. If the regulator is open to a distance less than given in the chart, install a new regulator.

Water Temperature Contactor

8S4627 Circuit Tester.9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group,2F7112 or 7F6785 Thermometer.

On Engine Test

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when working around an engine that is running. Be careful when working on the cooling system. It can have hot coolant under pressure.

--------WARNING!------

1. Install the thermometer or probe in the nearest location to the position of the water temperature contactor. Make a reference to Special Instructions Form GMG00450 for the procedure for using the 9S9102 Thermistor Thermometer Group. Remove the wiring from the water temperature contactor. Connect the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to "NO" and "C" terminals.

NOTE: If the engine cooling system can not be changed to let the coolant get hot enough for testing with safety, remove the water temperature contactor. Check it according to the following procedure.

2. Cause a partial restriction to the air flow through the radiator or to the coolant flow through the engine. This must be enough to cause the temperature of the coolant in the engine to get to the temperature which makes the water temperature contactor activate.


TYPICAL POSITION FOR INSTALLING PROBE
1. Adapter. 2. Water temperature contactor.


NOTICE

Do not let the coolant level in the engine get too low. The water temperature contactor must be in contact with the coolant in the engine for it to operate correctly.


3. Start the engine. Look at the temperature of the coolant as measured by the test tools. The water temperature contactor must activate in the temperature range as shown in the specifications and on the water temperature contactor. The 8S4627 Circuit Tester operates when the water temperature contactor activates.

NOTE: The water temperature contactor does not activate immediately. Start to measure the time when the engine coolant temperature is at the maximum for the water temperature contactor according to specifications. The water temperature contactor must activate in less than one minute.


NOTICE

Do not let the engine coolant temperature get higher than 3° F (2° C) more than the maximum temperature for the water temperature contactor.


4. Let the engine cool and stop the engine. The water temperature contactor must return to its normal contact position according to specification.

------ WARNING! ------

Be careful when removing the probe from the adapter. The seal in the adapter does not work immediately and serious injury is possible from the hot coolant coming out of the adapter under pressure.

--------WARNING!------

5. If the water temperature contactor did not work correctly, install a new contactor. Check its operation according to the same procedure.

Off Engine Test

1. Put the small end of the water temperature contactor in a container of water. The small end of the water temperature contactor must be in the water up to the first thread. The thermometer or probe must be approximately 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) from the small end. Connect the 8S4627 Circuit Tester to the "NO" and "C" terminals.


WATER TEMPERATURE CONTACTOR
3. Small end.

2. Heat the water to the operating range for the water temperature contactor. The range is on the water temperature contactor and in specifications. The water in the container must be moving against the small end of the water temperature contactor at the rate of 1 ft/sec. (30.5 cm/sec.).

3. Keep the water at the maximum temperature from the specifications. The water temperature contactor must activate in less than one minute. The 8S4627 Circuit Tester operates when the water temperature contactor activates.

NOTE: It is sometimes necessary to use a different liquid. Under these conditions remember that each liquid has a different characteristic for heat transfer (giving or taking heat). The time period for activating from oil is much longer than for water.

Basic Block

Cylinder Liner Projection

1P2396 Adapter Plate.8B7548 Push-Puller Crossbar and three3H465 Plates.3/4"-10 NC Bolts, 3 in. (76.2 mm) long.3/4"-10 NC Bolts, 7 in. (177.8 mm) long.7M7875 Head Bolt Washers.8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement.1P5510 Liner Projection Tool Group.

Check liner projection above spacer plate (4) as follows:

1. Make certain that spacer plate (4) and the cylinder liner flange are clean.

2. Install the gasket and spacer plate (4) on the cylinder block. Use 3/4 in.-10 NC bolts, 3 in. (76.2 mm) long, with two 7M7875 Washers (3) on each bolt to secure spacer plate (4) to the cylinder block. Place two bolts with washers on each side of the cylinder liner. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 10 lb. ft. (14 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (34 N·m), 50 lb. ft. (68 N·m) and finally to 70 lb. ft. (95 N·m).


SECURING SPACER PLATE TO CYLINDER BLOCK (Typical Example)
1. 3H465 Plate. 2. 1P2396 Adapter plate. 3. Cylinder head bolt washers. 4. Spacer plate.

NOTE: To avoid moving bolts and washers as each liner is checked, install two bolts with washers on each side of each cylinder liner, along the entire length of the spacer plate.

3. Invert 3H465 Plate (1) from an 8B7548 Push Puller, in the center of adapter plate (2). Center crossbar (6) on the inverted 3H465 Plate. Using two 3/4 in.-10 NC bolts 7 in. (177.8 mm) long and two 3H465 Plates, secure the crossbar to the cylinder block as illustrated. Tighten the bolts evenly, in four steps; 5 lb. ft. (7 N·m), 15 lb. ft. (20 N·m), 25 lb. ft. (34 N·m) and finally to 50 lb. ft. (68 N·m). Distance from bottom edge of crossbar to top plate, must be the same on both sides of cylinder liner.

4. Zero the dial indicator using the back of 1P5507 Gauge with dial indicator (5) mounted in 1P2402 Block (7).

5. Measure liner projection as close as possible to the clamping area and at four locations around the liner. The liner projection must be within .0020 to .0076 in. (0.05 to 0.19 mm) and the four measurements should not vary more than .001 in. (0.03 mm). The average projection between adjacent cylinders must not vary more than .001 in. (0.03 mm).


MEASURING LINER HEIGHT PROJECTION (Typical Example)
5. Dial indicator. 6. Crossbar. 7. 1P2402 Block.

NOTE: If liner projection varies from point to point around the liner, rotate the liner to a new position within the bore. If still not within specified limits, move liner to a different bore.

NOTE: Measure and check the following dimensions when installing new parts. With all dimensions correct, proceed with the listed Steps.

a. Spacer plate thickness, .5142 ± .0010 in. (13.061 ± 0.025 mm).
b. Spacer plate gasket thickness, .008 ± .001 in. (0.20 ± 0.03 mm). (All surfaces must be clean and dry when installing gasket.)
c. Cylinder liner flange thickness, .5260 ± .0008 in. (13.360 ± 0.020 mm).

Liner projection can be adjusted by machining the contact face of the cylinder block with use of the 8S3140 Cylinder Block Counterboring Tool Arrangement. Form FM055228 is part of the cylinder block counterboring tool arrangement and gives tool arrangement and gives tool usage information.

The counterboring depth ranges from a minimum of .030 in. (0.76 mm) to a maximum of .045 in. (1.14 mm). Put a .030 in. (0.76 mm) shim directly beneath the liner flange and coat the top and bottom of the shim with 7M7260 Liquid Gasket. If more than one shim is installed put the other shims under the .030 in. (0.76 mm) shim and coat only top face of the top shim and the bottom face of the bottom shim with the 7M7260 Liquid Gasket.

Shims of various thicknesses also are available to adjust liner projection.

Piston Ring Groove Gauge

A 5P3519 Piston Ring Groove Gauge is available for checking ring grooves with straight sides. For instructions on the use of the gauge, see the GUIDELINE FOR REUSABLE PARTS; PISTONS AND CYLINDER LINERS, Form No. SEBF8001.


5P3519 PISTON RING GROOVE GAUGE

Connecting Rods And Pistons

Use 7M3978 Piston Ring Expander to remove or install piston rings.

Use 7M3977 Piston Ring Compressor to install pistons into cylinder block.

Tighten connecting rod bolts in the following Step sequence.

Connecting Rod And Main Bearings

Bearings are available with a smaller inside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for crankshafts that have been "ground" (made smaller than the original size). Main bearings are available with a larger outside diameter than the original size bearings. These bearings are for cylinder blocks that have had the bore for the main bearings "bored" (made larger than the original size). Connecting rod bearings are available for earlier type connecting rods which have been "bored."

NOTE: Connecting rod bearings in later engines do not have locating tabs but are positioned by dowels in the connecting rods. The rods with dowel located bearings are marked "Even Cyl Only ..." or "Odd Cyl Only ...". These rods must be installed in the correct bank. They may be installed in earlier engines if the correct piston cooling jets are installed. Refer to Special Instruction (GEG02495) for complete instructions.

Flywheel And Flywheel Housing

8S2328 Dial Indicator Group.

Heat the ring gear to install it. Do not heat to more than 600° F (315° C). Install the ring gear so the chamfer on the gear teeth is next to the starter pinion when the flywheel is installed.

Checking Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing

If any method other than given here is used, always remember bearing clearances must be removed to get correct measurements.

Make tool setup from parts of the 8S2328 Dial Test Indicator Group.

1. Fasten a dial indicator to the crankshaft flange so the indicator anvil will touch the flywheel housing face.

2. Pry the crankshaft to the rear to remove all end play before taking readings at each point.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL HOUSING FACE RUNOUT
A. Bottom. B. Right side. C. Top. D. Left side.

3. With dial indicator set at .000 in. (0.0 mm) at point (A), rotate crankshaft and take readings at points (B), (C) and (D).

4. The difference between the lowest and highest readings taken at all four points should not exceed .012 in. (0.30 mm), which is the maximum permissible flywheel housing face runout.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel Housing


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL HOUSING


8S2328 DIAL INDICATOR GROUP INSTALLED

1. With the dial indicator in position at (C), adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero). Push the crankshaft up against the top bearing. Write the measurement for bearing clearance on line 1 in column (C).

2. Divide the measurement from Step 1 by 2. Write this number on line 1 in columns (B) & (D).

3. Turn the crankshaft to put the dial indicator at (A). Adjust the dial indicator to "0" (zero).

4. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (B). Write the measurement in the chart.

5. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (C). Write the measurement in the chart.

6. Turn the crankshaft counterclockwise to put the dial indicator at (D). Write the measurement in the chart.

7. Add lines I & II by columns.

8. Subtract the smaller number from the larger number in line III in columns (B) & (D). The result is the horizontal "eccentricity" (out of round). Line III, column (C) is the vertical eccentricity.


GRAPH FOR TOTAL ECCENTRICITY

9. On the graph for total eccentricity find the point of intersection of the lines for vertical eccentricity and horizontal eccentricity.

10. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Acceptable" the bore is in alignment. If the point of intersection is in the range marked "Not Acceptable" do Step 11.

11. Loosen the bolts holding the flywheel housing to the cylinder block. Hit the flywheel housing lightly with a hammer to put it in the correct position. Tighten the bolts holding the flywheel housing to the cylinder block and do Steps 1 through 10 again.

Face Runout (axial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator as shown. Move the flywheel to the front or rear to remove all end play.


CHECKING FACE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°. Be sure to remove end play the same way each time.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible face runout (axial eccentricity) of the flywheel.

Bore Runout (radial eccentricity) of the Flywheel

1. Install the dial indicator (3) and make an adjustment of the universal attachment (4) so it makes contact as shown.

2. Set the dial indicator to read .000 in. (0.0 mm).

3. Turn the flywheel and read the indicator every 90°.

4. The difference between the lower and higher measurements taken at all four points must not be more than .006 in. (0.15 mm), which is the maximum permissible bore runout (radial eccentricity) of the flywheel.


CHECKING BORE RUNOUT OF THE FLYWHEEL
1. 7H1945 Holding Rod. 2. 7H1645 Holding Rod. 3. 7H1942 Indicator. 4. 7H1940 Universal Attachment.


CHECKING FLYWHEEL CLUTCH PILOT BEARING BORE

5. Runout (eccentricity) of the bore for the pilot bearing for the flywheel clutch, must not exceed .005 in. (0.13 mm).

Crankshaft Seals

Installation of the crankshaft front and rear seals, and the crankshaft rear wear sleeve requires the 9S8873 and 9S8881 Tool Groups. Specific installation instructions are in Special Instruction GMG00240, part of the tool groups.

Electrical System

Most of the tests of the electrical system can be done on the engine. The wiring insulation must be in good condition, the wire and cable connections must be clean and tight, and the battery must be fully charged. If the on the engine test shows a defect in a component, remove the component for more testing.

Battery

5P957 Coolant and Battery Tester5P300 Electrical Tester or9S1990 Battery Charger-Tester or1P7400 Battery Charger-Tester

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction (GEG02276) and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The battery circuit is an electrical load on the charging unit. The load is variable because of the condition of the charge in the battery. Damage to the charging unit will result, if the connections, (either positive or negative) between the battery and charging unit are broken while the charging unit is charging. This is because the battery load is lost and there is an increase in charging voltage.

High voltage will damage, not only the charging unit but also the regulator and other electrical components.

------ WARNING! ------

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from battery when the charging unit is charging.

--------WARNING!------


9S1990 BATTERY CHARGER TESTER

Load test a battery that does not hold a charge when in use. To do this, put a resistance, across the main connections (terminals) of the battery. For a 6V battery, put a resistance of two times the ampere/hour rating. For a 12V battery, put a resistance of three times the ampere/hour rating. Let the resistance remove the charge (discharge) of the battery for 15 seconds and immediately test the battery voltage. A 6V battery in good condition will show 4.5V; a 12V battery in good condition will show 9V.

Complete operating instructions for the 5P300 Electrical Tester are inside the cover. When checking the battery with this tester, follow those instructions.

Make reference to Special Instruction GEG00058 when checking the battery with the 9S1990 or 1P7400 Battery Charger-Testers.

Charging System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction (GEG02276) and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

The condition of charge in the battery at each regular inspection will show if the charging system is operating correctly. An adjustment is necessary when the battery is constantly in a low condition of charge or a large amount of water is needed (more than one ounce of water per cell per week or per every 50 service hours).

Make a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator on the engine, when possible, using wiring and components that are a permanent part of the system. Off the engine (bench) testing will give a test of the charging unit and voltage regulator operation. This testing will give an indication of needed repair. After repairs are made, again make a test to give proof that the units are repaired to their original operating condition.

Before starting the on engine testing, the charging system and battery must be checked as given in the Steps below.

1. Battery must be at least 75% (1.240 Sp. Gr.) full charged and held tightly in place. The battery holder must not put too much stress on the battery.

2. Cables between the battery, starter and engine ground must be the correct size. Wires and cables must be free of corrosion and have cable support clamps to prevent stress on battery connections (terminals).

3. Leads, junctions, switches and panel instruments that have direct relation to the charging circuit must give correct circuit control.

4. Inspect the drive components for the charging unit to be sure they are free of grease and oil and have the ability to operate the charging unit.

Alternator Regulator (Delco-Remy)

When an alternator is charging the battery too much or not enough, an adjustment can be made to the alternator regulator. Remove the plug from the cover of the alternator regulator and turn the inside adjustment with a screwdriver. Turn the adjustment one or two notches to change the alternator charging rate.


ALTERNATOR REGULATOR
1. Adjustment screw, on other side of alternator from output terminal.

5S9088 Alternator; Pulley Nut Tightening

Tighten nut holding the pulley to a torque of 75 ± 5 lb. ft. (102 ± 7 N·m) with the tools shown.


ALTERNATOR PULLEY INSTALLATION
1. 8S1588 Adapter (1/2" female to 3/8" male). 2. 8S1590 Socket (5/16"-3/8" drive). 3. 1P2977 Tool Group. 8H8555 Socket (15/16"-1/2" drive) not shown.

Starting System

5P300 Electrical Tester.

NOTE: Make reference to Special Instruction (GEG02276) and to the instructions inside of the cover of the tester, when testing with the 5P300 Electrical Tester.

Move the starting control switch to activate the starter solenoid. Starter solenoid operation can be heard as the pinion of the starter motor is engaged with the ring gear on the engine flywheel.

If the solenoid for the starting motor will not operate, it is possible that the current from the battery is not getting to the solenoid. Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the solenoid. Put the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a broken circuit from the battery. Further testing is necessary when there is a reading on the voltmeter.

The solenoid operation also closes the electric circuit to the motor. Connect one lead of the voltmeter to the solenoid connection (terminal) that is fastened to the motor. Put the other lead to a good ground. Activate the starter solenoid and look at the voltmeter. A reading of battery voltage shows the problem is in the motor. The motor must be removed for further testing. No reading on the voltmeter shows that the solenoid contacts do not close. This is an indication of the need for repair to the solenoid or an adjustment to be made to the starter pinion clearance. Pinion clearance is .36 in. (9.1 mm).

Further test by fastening one voltmeter lead to the connection (terminal) for the small wire at the solenoid and the other lead to the ground. Look at the voltmeter and activate the starter solenoid. A voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the solenoid. No voltmeter reading shows that the problem is in the magnetic switch, heat-start switch, or wiring.

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the connection (terminal) for the battery cable on the magnetic switch for the starter. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading shows there is a broken circuit from the battery.

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the connection (terminal) for the line from the heat-start switch. Fasten the other lead to a good ground.

Activate the magnetic switch. A voltmeter reading indicates the malfunction is in the magnetic switch. No voltmeter reading indicates a need for further testing.

Fasten one voltmeter lead to the heat-start switch at the connection (terminal) for the wire from the battery. Fasten the other lead to a good ground. No voltmeter reading indicates a broken circuit from the battery. Make a check of the circuit breaker and wiring. If there is voltmeter reading, the malfunction is in the heat-start switch or in the wiring.

Fasten one lead of the voltmeter to the battery wire connection of the starter switch and put the other lead to a good ground. A voltmeter reading indicates a failure in the switch.

A starting motor that operates too slow can have an overload because of too much friction in the engine being started. Slow operation of the starting motor can also be caused by shorts, loose connections, and/or dirt in the motor.

Pinion Clearance Adjustment (Delco-Remy)

Whenever the solenoid is installed, make an adjustment of the pinion clearance. The adjustment can be made with the starting motor removed.

1. Install the solenoid without connector (1) from the MOTOR connection (terminal) on solenoid to the motor.

2. Connect a battery, of the same voltage as the solenoid, to the terminal (2), marked SW.

3. Connect the other side of battery to ground terminal (3).

4. Connect for a moment, a wire from the solenoid connection (terminal) marked MOTOR to the ground connection (terminal). The pinion will shift to crank position and will stay there until the battery is disconnected.


CONNECTION FOR CHECKING PINION CLEARANCE
1. Connector from MOTOR terminal on solenoid to motor. 2. SW terminal. 3. Ground terminal.

5. Push the pinion toward commutator end to remove free movement.

6. Pinion clearance (6) must be .36 in. (9.1 mm).

7. Pinion clearance adjustment is made by removing plug and turning nut (4).


PINION CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
4. Shaft nut. 5. Pinion. 6. Pinion clearance.

Air Starting System

Pressure Regulating Valve


PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE (TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION)
1. Adjustment screw. 2. Regulator inlet. 3. Regulator outlet.

Use the following procedure to check and adjust the pressure regulating valve.

1. Drain the line to the pressure regulating valve or drain the air storage tank.

2. Disconnect the regulator from the starter control valve.

3. Connect an 8M2885 Pressure Gauge to the regulator outlet.

4. Put air pressure in the line or tank.

5. Check the pressure.

6. Adjust the pressure regulating valve to 150 psi (10.5 kg/cm2) (1034 kPa).

7. Remove the air pressure from the line or tank.

8. Remove the 8M2885 Pressure Gauge and connect the air pressure regulator to the line to the air starting motor.

Air Starting Motor (Ingersoll-Rand)

Lubrication

For temperatures above 32° F (0° C), use a good quality SAE 10 motor oil.

For temperatures below 32° F (0° C), use diesel fuel.

Always use an air line lubricator with these Starters.

Disassembly

Before disassembling an SM450 Starter, always mark adjacent parts on the Motor Housing Cover (1), Motor Housing (7), Gear Case (52), Gear Case Cover (30) and Drive Housing (48) so that these members can be located in the same relative position when the Starter is reassembled.

Do not disassemble the Starter any further than necessary to replace a worn or damaged part. Do not remove any part which is a press fit in or on a subassembly unless the removal of that part is necessary for replacement or repairs. Do not press any needle bearing or bushing from a bearing recess unless a new bearing or bushing is to be installed. These members are always damaged during the removal process.

Always have a complete set of gaskets, vanes, seals and O-rings on hand before starting any overhaul of an SM450 Starter. Never reuse old gaskets, seals or O-rings.

Never wash a Bendix drive in kerosene or other solvent. Doing so will remove or dilute the factory applied lubricant within the drive clutch.

Motor Assembly

Assemble the Multi-Vane motor as follows:

1. Clean the tapered hub on the Rotor (13) and the tapered socket in the Rotor Pinion (24). Apply a small quantity of fine grain lapping compound to both tapered surfaces and lap them together. Wash both parts in clean kerosene or other solvent to remove all trace of compound.

2. Slide a Rotor Bearing Spacer (14), chamfered end first, onto each rotor hub.


AIR STARTER
1. Motor Housing Cover Assembly. 2. Housing Cover Plug. 3. 1/8" Pipe Plug. 4. Housing Cover Gasket. 5. Housing Cover Cap Screws (eight). 6. 3/8" Lock Washers (sixteen). 7. Motor Housing. 8. Cylinder Assembly. 9. Air Port Gaskets (four). 10. Spring (one for each Gasket). 11. Cylinder End Plates (two). 12. Cylinder Dowel. 13. Rotor Assembly. 14. Rotor Bearing Spacers (two). 15. Rotor Bearing Lock Nut. 16. Lock Nut Retaining Washer. 17. Pinion Retainer. 18. Pinion Retainer Screws (two). 19. Retaining Screw Lock Washers (two). 20. Lock Wire. 21. Rotor Bearings (two) Special; purchase from Ingersoll-Rand). 22. Vane Packet (Set of five). 23. Rear Rotor Bearing Spring Washer. 24. Rotor Pinion. 25. Drive Shaft Thrust Washer. 26. Drive Gear. 27. Drive Gear Key. 28. Drive Shaft. 29. Drive Shaft Front Bearing. 30. Gear Case Cover Assembly. 31. Gear Case Cover Seal. 32. Piston Seal. 33. Gear Case Cover Screws (eighteen). 34. Gear Case Screw Lock Washers (eighteen). 35. Drive Shaft Grease Seal. 36. Gear Case Bolts (six). 37. Gear Case Bolt Nuts (six). 38. Gear Case Cap Screws (two). 39. Drive Housing Cap Screws (fourteen). 40. Cap Screw Lock Washers (fourteen). 41. Piston Assembly. 42. Piston Ring. 43. Shift Ring (consists of two halves). 44. Shift Ring Retainer. 45. Shift Ring Spacer. 46. Piston Return Spring. 47. Return Spring Seat. 48. Drive Housing Assembly. 49. Drive Housing Bushing. 50. Bushing Oiler. 51. Bendix Starter Drive (pinion). 52. Gear Case Assembly. 53. Drive Shaft Rear Bearing. 54. 1/8" Pipe Plugs (two). 55. Drive Shaft Grease Seal Retainer. 56. Nameplate. 57. Nameplate Screws (three).

3. Press a Rotor Bearing (21), shielded side first, into the bearing recess in each Cylinder end Plate (11). Use an arbor that will contact only the outer ring of the Bearing.

4. Using a sleeve that will contact only the inner ring of the Bearing, press one end plate and bearing assembly onto the long hub of the Rotor until it contacts the Rotor Spacer.

5. Make certain the tapered hub on the Rotor and the tapered socket in the Rotor Pinion are clean and dry. Align the lugs on the Pinion with the tang on the rotor hub and slide the Pinion onto the hub.

6. Install the Pinion Retainer (17), engaging the cross slot in the Retainer with the tang and lugs on the Rotor and Pinion. Strike the Retainer a sharp blow with a light hammer to seat the Pinion on the hub.

7. Install the two Pinion Retainer Screws (18). Tighten the bolts evenly in small increases of torque until all the bolts are tightened to 100 lb. in. (11.3 N·m). Strike the Retainer another blow and retighten the Screws to 100 lb. in. (11.3 N·m). Pass the Lock Wire through the head of each Screw and twist the ends together.

Caterpillar Information System:

5.4" BORE, V12 VEHICULAR ENGINE Systems Operation
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Flexible Coupling<BR> (5L3395)
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Enclosed Clutches
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Hydraulic Starting System
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Air Starting Motors<BR> (3H3170, 3H3171)
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Prelubrication Pump And Air Motor
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Air Valves For Air Starting System
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Contactor Switches (Oil Pressure)<BR> 2N6955, 3N531 and 297124
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Contactor Switches (Oil Pressure)<BR> 9F7837 and 8L4537
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Shut-Off Solenoids
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Shut-Off Valve (Air Inlet)<BR> (2N9924, 7L5536)
D399, G399, D398, G398, D379, G379 ENGINES Shut-Off Valve (Water Temperature)<BR> (4L7108)
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Systems Operation
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Testing And Adjusting
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Woodward PSG Governors
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Overspeed Contactor Switch
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Starter Magnetic Switch<BR> 7M4291 24V (Delco-Remy Number 1119866)
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Shutoff Solenoids
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Magnetic Switch<BR> 9F3099 24V (Delco-Remy Number 0001481)
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Oil Pressure Contactor Switches<BR> 9F7837 and 8L4537 Contactor Switch (Earlier); 9F7837; 8L4537
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Oil Pressure Contactor Switches<BR> 2N6955, 3N531 and 2N7124 Contactor Switch (Micro Switch Type); 2N6955 and 3N531; 2N7124
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Hydraulic Starting System
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Air Starting Motor<BR> (7L8425, 8L5052, 6L4532)
4.75" BORE INDUSTRIAL & MARINE ENGINE ATTACHMENTS Pressure Switches
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