- Engine: 3400 C15 and C-15 All C16 and C-16 All C18 and C-18 All
© 2015 Caterpillar All Rights Reserved. This guideline is considered Caterpillar Confidential Green.
Reuse and salvage information enables Caterpillar dealers and customers to benefit from cost reductions. Every effort has been made in order to provide the most current information that is known to Caterpillar. Continuing improvement and advancement of product design might have caused changes to your product which are not included in this publication. This Reuse and Salvage Guideline must be used with the latest technical information that is available from Caterpillar.
For questions or additional information concerning this guideline contact your Caterpillar Dealer Technical Communicator:
Important Safety Information
Work safely. Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance, and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills, and tools in order to perform these functions properly. Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this instruction and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons. Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. Therefore, the warnings in this publication and the warnings that are on the product are not all inclusive. If a tool, a procedure, a work method, or operating technique that is not recommended by Caterpillar is used, ensure that it is safe for you and for other people to use. Ensure that the product will not be damaged or the product will not be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance, or the repair procedures that are used.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the safety alert symbol which is followed by a signal word such as danger, warning, or caution. The "WARNING" safety alert symbol is shown below.
This safety alert symbol means:
Your safety is involved.
The message that appears under the safety alert symbol explains the hazard.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by "NOTICE" labels on the product and in this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The safety information in this document and the safety information on the machine are not all inclusive. Determine that the tools, procedures, work methods, and operating techniques are safe. Determine that the operation, lubrication, maintenance, and repair procedures will not damage the machine. Also, determine that the operation, lubrication, maintenance, and repair procedures will not make the machine unsafe.
The information, the specifications, and the illustrations that exist in this guideline are based on information which was available at the time of publication. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete, most current information before you start any job. Caterpillar dealers can supply the most current information.
Caterpillar has found that many head gasket failures are due to improper inspection/repair of the liner seats. The liner seats in the cylinder block must be inspected after a head gasket failure or during engine overhaul. The liner seat is important in controlling liner projection as well as the location of the liner. Failure to inspect and repair the liner seat will result in premature head gasket failure. Premature head gasket failure, due to the need for liner seat repairs, will not be covered under Caterpillar parts warranty.
Note: Do not use a rotary wire wheel to clean the spacer plate. Excessive cleaning to the plate will cause deformation.
Cylinder Block Top Deck Surface Inspection
Inspection of the cylinder block top deck, especially in the liner seat area, is critical to head gasket life. A visual inspection of the liner seat area will determine if the block is reusable. Head gasket failure and / or liner flange cracks can result from an irregular surface on the liner seat area regardless of liner projection results. If the block needs to have the liner seats counter bored contact your local Caterpillar dealer. Your Caterpillar dealer will have the latest documentation and the capability to machine the cylinder block and install liner seat inserts.
Note: The liner seat of the cylinder block must be inspected to ensure that it is usable as is or if liner seat inserts must be installed prior to the installation of the liner. Anytime the cylinder head is removed liner projection should be measured. Refer to Testing and Adjusting Cylinder Liner Projection – Inspect for more information on how to measure liner projection. Additionally, special consideration should be given to other areas such as the spacer plate joint to ensure proper sealing and long-term reliability.
If any of the following are true, cylinder block machining and installation of liner seat inserts is necessary.
- Lack of original machining marks in the liner seat area
- Fretting, erosion, pitting, or corrosion in the liner seat area
- Liner projection is not within specification
- Engine block life is greater than 750,000 Miles or 15,000 hours
- Cylinder head is being removed because of a liner flange failure or a cylinder head gasket failure following an overhaul or previous head gasket repair
- Engine is being overhauled for a second time and liner seat inserts were not installed during first overhaul
Top Deck Visual Inspection
The following inspection process should be followed carefully. Any evidence of top deck wear, fretting, corrosion, pitting, or erosion should be addressed during the repair.
Machining marks present across the entire deck including the liner seat areas. USE AS IS. NO MACHINE WORK REQUIRED
A closer view of the machining marks still apparent in the liner seat area.USE AS IS. NO MACHINE WORK REQUIRED
Machining marks still present in the liner seat. USE AS IS. NO MACHINE WORK REQUIRED
This block shows witness marks 360* around the liner bore seat. No wear can be felt with a fingernail. The machining marks are still present in the lower part of the illustration.USE AS IS. NO MACHINE WORK REQUIRED
Liner seat showing corrosion pitting around the liner seat. MACHINE BLOCK BEFORE REUSING
Fretting around the liner seat. This fretting can be felt with a fingernail. MACHINE BLOCK BEFORE REUSING
Polishing at the top of the liner seat and fretting at the bottom. MACHINE BLOCK BEFORE REUSING
If your cylinder block requires machining and liner seat inserts installed, see your Cat dealer. Your Cat dealer will be able to service the cylinder block bringing the cylinder back into specification.
Spacer Plate Inspection
Inspection of the spacer plate is also critical. Never use a spacer plate that shows cracks. Never reuse a spacer plate gasket. Do not grind the plate to clean the spacer plate. Do not reuse spacer plates with cracks, handling damage, cleaning damage, or large amounts of corrosion/erosion.
This spacer plate has a large scratch on the left and handling damage on the right. DO NOT USE AGAIN
Spacer plate with a crack.DO NOT USE AGAIN
This spacer plate shows imprints from the gasket. USE AGAIN
If there has been a head gasket failure the use of new cylinder head bolts is recommended. It is impossible to know how many times a bolt has been used. All bolts yield when they are torqued. Repeated torquing of a bolt will eventually fatigue the bolt and failure of the joint will occur. Before installation, apply Loctite 5923 to both sides of the spacer plate gasket.
If one cylinder requires liner seat inserts it is recommended that the other five are also machined. This will ensure the best possible result and long-term reliability of the joint.