Supplemental Parts and Service Information for the C18 Marine Propulsion Engine {1901, 7470} Caterpillar


Supplemental Parts and Service Information for the C18 Marine Propulsion Engine {1901, 7470}

Usage:

C18 NAX


Engine:
C18 (S/N: NAX1-UP; NAY1-UP)

Introduction




Illustration 1g01051135

This Special Instruction contains supplemental information for the C18 Marine Propulsion engine. This special instruction is a supplement to the parts and service manuals for your engine.

Disassembly and Assembly

Electronic Control Module - Remove and Install

Removal Procedure




Illustration 2g01476835

Primary ECM and Secondary ECM

(1) Primary ECM

(2) Secondary ECM




Illustration 3g01476838

  1. Remove clips (3) .

  1. Disconnect harness assemblies (4) from ECM (6) .

  1. Position harness assemblies (4) out of the way.

  1. Remove bolts (5) .

  1. Remove ECM (6) .

Installation Procedure

Note: If changing an ECM, ensure that the correct software is flashed into it.




Illustration 4g01213650

  1. Position ECM (4) .

  1. Install bolts (3) .

  1. Connect harness assemblies (2). Tighten the bolts (3) for harness assemblies to a torque of 6 ± 1 N·m (53 ± 9 lb in).

  1. Install clips (1) .

Fuel Pressure Sensor - Remove and Install

Removal Procedure


NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, "Caterpillar Dealer Service Tool Catalog" for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates.



NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.





Illustration 5g01207743

Fuel Pressure Sensors

(1) Unfiltered Fuel Pressure Sensor

(2) Fuel Pressure Sensor

  1. Disconnect harness assembly.

  1. Remove fuel pressure sensor (1) or (2) .

  1. Remove the O-ring seal from fuel pressure sensor (1) or (2) .

Installation Procedure


NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.


  1. Install a new O-ring seal on fuel pressure sensor (1) or (2) .

  1. Install fuel pressure sensor (1) or (2) and tighten to a torque of 10 ± 2 N·m (89 ± 18 lb in).

  1. Connect harness assembly.

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor - Remove and Install

Removal Procedure


NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.





Illustration 6g01476572

(1) Oil Pressure Sensor

  1. Disconnect harness assembly.

  1. Remove engine oil pressure sensor (1) .

Installation Procedure


NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.


  1. Install engine oil pressure sensor (1) and tighten to a torque of 10 ± 2 N·m (88 ± 18 lb in).

  1. Connect harness assembly.

Exhaust Temperature Sensor

Removal Procedure




Illustration 7g01476799

Exhaust Temperature Sensors

(1) Rear Exhaust Temperature Sensor

(2) Front Exhaust Temperature Sensor


NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.


  1. Disconnect harness assembly.

  1. Remove exhaust temperature sensors (1) or (2) .

Installation Procedure


NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.


  1. Install exhaust temperature sensors (1) or (2) .

  1. Connect harness assembly.

Operation and Maintenance Manual

Emergency Stopping


NOTICE

Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or controls for normal stopping procedure.


Ensure that any components for the external system that support the engine operation are secured after the engine is stopped.

Emergency Stop Button




Illustration 8g00104303

Typical emergency stop button

The emergency stop button is in the OUT position for normal engine operation. For an emergency stop, push the emergency stop button. This shuts off the fuel to the engine. This also activates the air shutoff.


NOTICE

Do not start the engine until the problem necessitating the emergency stop has been located and corrected.


The engine control switch, the emergency stop button, and the air shutoff must be reset before the engine can be restarted. Reset the engine control switch before resetting the emergency stop button.

To reset the engine control switch, turn the switch to the "OFF/RESET" position.

To reset the emergency stop button, turn the button clockwise. The spring-loaded button will return to the OUT position. The button may also be pulled to the OUT position.

Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace

------ WARNING! ------

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. Clean up fuel spills immediately.

----------------------


NOTICE

Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, "Caterpillar Dealer Service Tool Catalog" for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and mandates.



NOTICE

Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened component life.


Replace Engine Oil Filters While the Engine is Shutdown

The oil change interval can be affected by several factors:

  • Air/fuel ratio

  • Ambient air conditions

  • Engine application

  • Fuel type

  • Oil type

  • Size of the oil sump

The S·O·S oil analysis program analyzes used oil in order to determine if the oil change interval is suitable for your specific engine.

Drain the Oil

------ WARNING! ------

Hot oil and components can cause personal injury.

Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.

----------------------

Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil cools, waste particles settle on the bottom of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed when the cold oil is drained. Drain the crankcase when the oil is warm. This method allows proper draining of the waste particles that are suspended in the oil.

Failure to follow this recommended procedure will allow the waste particles to be recirculated through the engine lubrication system with the new oil.

  1. After the engine has been operated at normal operating temperature, STOP the engine.

  1. Drain the oil according to the equipment on the engine.

      Note: Drain the oil into a suitable container. DO NOT drain the oil into the bilge sump. Dispose of the oil according to local regulations.




      Illustration 9g00574534

      Oil drain plug

      Note: If a suction device is used in order to remove the oil from the oil pan, ensure that the suction device is clean. This will prevent dirt from entering into the oil pan. Be careful not to strike the engine oil suction tubes or the piston cooling jets.

    1. If the engine does not have a drain valve or a pump, remove an oil drain plug. Allow the oil to drain. After the oil has drained, clean the drain plug and clean the fitting for the drain plug. Install the drain plug. Tighten the drain plug to 70 ± 15 N·m (52 ± 11 lb ft).

    1. If the engine has an oil drain valve, open the valve. After the oil has drained, close the valve.

    1. If the engine has a pump for removing dirty oil, connect a hose to the outlet of the pump. Place the hose in a suitable container. Open the valve for the drain line. The two marks on the valve must be turned so that one mark points to the pump and the second mark points to the drain line. Operate the pump until the crankcase is empty. Close the valve to the drain line. Disconnect the hose.

    1. If the oil drain valve has a "quick connect" coupling, attach the coupling. Open the drain valve in order to drain the crankcase. After the oil has drained, close the drain valve. Disconnect the coupling.

  1. Replace the engine oil filter elements before filling the crankcase with new oil.

Replace the Oil Filter Elements

Replace the engine oil filters when any of the following conditions occur:

  • Every oil change

  • The engine oil filter differential pressure reaches 103 kPa (15 psi).

  • The oil filter elements have been used for 1000 service hours.

Note: Do not attempt to clean the used oil filters. Used oil filters will retain waste particles. The used oil filters would not filter the oil properly.

Service tools are available to aid in the service of oil filters. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for the part names and the part numbers. Follow the instructions that are supplied with the service tools. If the service tools are not used, perform the following appropriate procedure.

------ WARNING! ------

This filter contains hot, pressurized oil that can cause burns and fire hazards, which may result in bodily injury or death. Follow the instructions given in this Operation and Maintenance Manual and stop the engine if rapid air movement exists to blow the oil.

----------------------

  1. Open the "FILL" valve for a minimum of five minutes in order to fill the oil filter elements that will not be serviced. The oil filters that will not be serviced must be full of engine oil. Close the FILL valve.

  1. Move the control valve to the "AUX RUN" position in order to change the main oil filter elements. Move the selector valve to the "MAIN RUN" position in order to change the auxiliary oil filter elements.

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Hot oil and components can cause personal injury.

    Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.

    ----------------------

    Note: Drain the oil into a suitable container. Dispose of the oil according to local regulations.

  1. Connect a hose to the drain. Place the other end of the hose into a suitable container in order to collect the oil.

  1. Open the drain valve. Remove the plug. Allow the oil to drain. Clean the plug and install the plug. Close the drain valve. Remove the hose from the drain.

    Note: Some oil will remain in the housing after the oil has been drained. This oil will pour out of the housing when the cover is removed. Prepare to catch the oil in a suitable container. Clean up any spilled oil with absorbent pillows or towels. DO NOT use absorbent particles to clean up the oil.

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Personal injury can result from parts and/or covers under spring pressure.

    Spring force will be released when covers are removed.

    Be prepared to hold spring loaded covers as the bolts are loosened.

    ----------------------

  1. Be alert to the spring force. Gradually loosen but do not remove bolts. Before removing the bolts, pry the cover loose or tap the cover with a rubber mallet in order to relieve any spring pressure.

  1. Remove the cover and the spring. Remove the O-ring seal, the retainer, and the oil filter elements.

  1. Clean the cover and the spring. Clean the O-ring seal and the retainer. Clean the inside of the oil filter housing.


    NOTICE

    Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar specifications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by Caterpillar could result in severe engine damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended by Caterpillar.


  1. Ensure that the new oil filter elements are in good condition. Install the new oil filter elements.

  1. Inspect the O-ring seal. Ensure that the surfaces for the O-ring seal are clean. Install a new O-ring seal if the old O-ring seal is damaged or deteriorated.

  1. Install a retainer, a spring and a cover. Ensure that the retainer and the spring are properly seated between the oil filter elements and the cover.

  1. Open the "FILL" valve for a minimum of five minutes in order to fill the new oil filter elements.

  1. Close the "FILL" valve. Rotate the control valve to the "RUN" position for the oil filter that was serviced.

Fill the Crankcase


NOTICE

Only use oils that are recommended by Caterpillar. For the proper oil to use, refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Engine Oil" topic (Maintenance Section).



NOTICE

If the engine is equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system, extra oil must be added when filling the crankcase. If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system that is not supplied by Caterpillar, follow the recommendations of the OEM.



NOTICE

Engine damage can occur if the crankcase is filled above the "FULL" mark on the oil level gauge (dipstick).

An overfull crankcase can cause the crankshaft to dip into the oil. This will reduce the power that is developed and also force air bubbles into the oil. These bubbles (foam) can cause the following problems: reduction of the oil's ability to lubricate, reduction of oil pressure, inadequate cooling, oil blowing out of the crankcase breathers and excessive oil consumption.

Excessive oil consumption will cause deposits to form on the pistons and in the combustion chamber. Deposits in the combustion chamber lead to the following problems: guttering of the valves, packing of carbon under the piston rings and wear of the cylinder liner.

If the oil level is above the "FULL" mark on the oil level gauge, drain some of the oil immediately.


Use the following procedure in order to fill the crankcase if the engine oil filters were replaced during engine operation.

  1. If the engine oil filters were replaced during engine operation operate the engine at low idle. Ensure that the oil level is at the "FULL" mark on the "LOW IDLE" side of the oil level gauge.

  1. Add oil, if necessary. Remove the oil filler cap. Fill the crankcase through the oil filler tube only.

Use the following procedure in order to fill the crankcase if the engine oil filters were replaced with the engine stopped.

  1. Remove the oil filler cap. Fill the crankcase through the oil filler tube only. For the amount of oil to use, see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Refill Capacities and Recommendations" topic (Maintenance Section). Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.


    NOTICE

    To prevent crankshaft or bearing damage, crank engine with fuel off to fill all filters before starting.

    Do Not crank engine for more than 30 seconds.


  1. Close the fuel supply line and crank the engine until the oil pressure gauge indicates 70 kPa (10 psi). Open the fuel supply line. Allow the starting motor to cool for two minutes before cranking again.

  1. Start the engine according to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, "Starting The Engine" procedure (Operation Section). Operate the engine at low idle for two minutes. This will ensure that the lubrication system has oil and that the oil filters are filled with oil. Inspect the engine for oil leaks. Ensure that the oil level is at the "FULL" mark on the "LOW IDLE" side of the oil level gauge.

  1. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back into the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.

  1. Remove the oil level gauge and check the oil level. Maintain the oil level to the "FULL" mark on the "ENGINE STOPPED" side of the oil level gauge.

Inspect the Used Oil Filter Elements

Cut the used oil filter element open with a utility knife. Remove the metal wrap. Cut the filter element free from the end caps. Spread apart the pleats and inspect the element for metal debris. An excessive amount of debris in the element may indicate early wear or a pending failure.

Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in the element. Ferrous metals may indicate wear on the steel and the cast iron parts of the engine. Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the aluminum parts, the brass parts, or the bronze parts of the engine. Parts that may be affected include the following components: main bearings, rod bearings, turbocharger bearings and cylinder heads.

Aluminum debris may indicate problems with the bearings of the front gears. If you find aluminum debris, inspect the crankshaft vibration damper and the idler gear bearings.

Due to normal wear and friction, it is not uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the oil filter element. If an excessive amount of debris is found in the oil filter element, consult your Caterpillar dealer in order to arrange for further oil analysis.

Sensors and Electrical Components

Failure of Sensors

A failure of any of the sensors may be caused by one of the following malfunctions.

  • Sensor output is open.

  • Sensor output is shorted to "- battery" or "+ battery".

  • Measured reading of the sensor is out of the specification.

Engine Oil Pressure Sensor




Illustration 10g00290693

Engine Oil Pressure Graph

(X) Engine RPM

(Y) Engine oil pressure in kPa

(1) Sufficient pressure

(2) Insufficient pressure

Low Oil Pressure

The engine oil pressure sensor detects engine oil pressure for diagnostic purposes. The engine oil pressure sensor sends a signal to the Electronic Control Module (ECM). No resetting procedure is required.

Low Oil Pressure Warning

The ECM monitors engine oil pressure (Y) and engine rpm (X) in order to detect an unacceptable low oil pressure condition. If the customer has specified this parameter and if this condition exists, an event is logged and a warning signal is transmitted.

Note: Mechanically controlled engines can be equipped with an oil temperature gauge and with an oil pressure gauge.

Very Low Oil Pressure Warning

The ECM monitors engine oil pressure (Y) and engine RPM (X) in order to detect a very low oil pressure condition that is dangerous. If the customer has specified this parameter and if this condition exists, a fault is logged and a warning signal is transmitted. If the customer has specified the "DERATE" parameter, the ECM will slow the engine to a safe operating range.

Failure of the Engine's Oil Pressure Sensor

If one of the following conditions exist, a failure of the engine's oil pressure sensor may have occurred:

  • Engine oil pressure sensor's output is open.

  • Engine oil pressure sensor's output is shorted to ground.

  • Engine oil pressure sensor's output is shorted to electrical power supply.

  • Measured reading of the oil pressure is out of the specification.

The ECM will detect a failure of the engine oil pressure sensor. The diagnostic lamp warns the operator about the status of the engine oil pressure sensor on the clean side of the filters. The related strategies for oil pressure will be disabled. A failure of the engine oil pressure sensor will not cause a shutdown of the engine.

Refer to the Service Manual for more information on engine electronics.

Fuel Pressure Sensor

The fuel pressure sensor monitors the fuel filter outlet pressure. Low fuel pressure or high fuel pressure will not cause a shutdown of the engine or any horsepower change. Fuel pressure that is outside of the normal range will affect the engine performance. If the fuel filter outlet pressure is low, the fuel filter may need to be replaced.

Exhaust Temperature Sensors

The ECM will automatically perform the following functions if a high exhaust temperature occurs:

  • Warning

  • Derating

The default settings that are programmed at the factory are listed in Table 1.

Table 1
Exhaust Temperature    
Parameter     Default Setting    
Warning setpoint     2T specification    
Warning delay     5 seconds    
Derate setpoint     2T specification    
Derate delay     5 seconds    
Delay per step     15 seconds    
Hysteresis    
10 °C (18 °F)    
Security level     Required password    
Derating per step     2% per step    

If the exhaust temperature is above the setpoint for the warning for five seconds, a warning will occur.

If the exhaust temperature is above the setpoint for the derating for five seconds, the derating will occur.

The factory default setting for the warning setpoint and the derate setpoint are the same value so that the warning alarm and the derate sequence are activated at the same time.

When the derate first activates, the derating reduces the available rated power by two percent, which is followed by a 15 second delay. If the exhaust temperature is not reduced below the setpoint value minus the hysteresis value after the 15 second delay, the engine's available power is derated another two percent.

When the exhaust temperature is reduced to less than the setpoint minus the hysteresis value, two percent of the engine's available power is restored for every 15 seconds. This continues until full power availability is restored. However, if the exhaust temperature rises above the setpoint again, the derating resumes.

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