Reuse and Salvage for Cast Iron Cylinder Blocks {1201, 1201} Caterpillar


Reuse and Salvage for Cast Iron Cylinder Blocks {1201, 1201}

Usage:

769C 01X


Caterpillar Products
All Cat Engines

Introduction

Table 1
Revision  Summary of Changes in SEHS8919 
20  Added new serial number prefixes 
19  Combined guideline SEBF8793, added crack detection methods, and repaired 36 pixelated illustrations. 
18  Added new serial number prefixes 
17  Added new serial number prefixes, confidential yellow note. 

© 2019 Caterpillar® All Rights Reserved. This guideline is for the use of Cat dealers only. Unauthorized use of this document or the proprietary processes therein without permission may be violation of intellectual property law.

Information contained in this document is considered Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow.

This Reuse and Salvage Guideline contains the necessary information to allow a dealer to establish a parts reusability program. Reuse and salvage information enables Caterpillar dealers and customers to benefit from cost reductions. Every effort has been made to provide the most current information that is known to Caterpillar. Continuing improvement and advancement of product design might have caused changes to your product which are not included in this publication. This Reuse and Salvage Guideline must be used with the latest technical information that is available from Caterpillar.

For technical questions when using this document, work with your Dealer Technical Communicator (TC).

To report suspected errors, inaccuracies, or suggestions regarding the document, submit a form for feedback in the Service Information System (SIS Web) interface.

Canceled Part Numbers and Replaced Part Numbers

This document may include canceled part numbers and replaced part numbers. Use NPR on SIS for information about canceled part numbers and replaced part numbers. NPR will provide the current part numbers for replaced parts.

Important Safety Information



Illustration 1g02139237

Work safely. Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance, and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills, and tools to perform these functions properly. Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this instruction and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons. Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. Therefore, the warnings in this publication and the warnings that are on the product are not all inclusive. If a tool, a procedure, a work method, or operating technique that is not recommended by Caterpillar is used, ensure that it is safe for you and for other people to use. Ensure that the product will not be damaged or the product will not be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance, or the repair procedures that are used.

------ WARNING! ------

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result in injury or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.


Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.

The hazards are identified by the safety alert symbol which is followed by a signal word such as danger, warning, or caution. The "WARNING" safety alert symbol is shown below.



Illustration 2g00008666

This safety alert symbol means:

Pay attention!

Become alert!

Your safety is involved.

The message that appears under the safety alert symbol explains the hazard.

Operations that may cause product damage are identified by "NOTICE" labels on the product and in this publication.

Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The safety information in this document and the safety information on the machine are not all inclusive. Determine that the tools, procedures, work methods, and operating techniques are safe. Determine that the operation, lubrication, maintenance, and repair procedures will not damage the machine. Also, you must determine that the operation, lubrication, maintenance, and repair procedures will not make the machine unsafe.

The information, the specifications, and the illustrations that exist in this guideline are based on information which was available at the time of publication. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete, most current information before you start any job. Caterpillar dealers can supply the most current information.

Summary

This guideline provides guidelines for reusing cast iron cylinder blocks for all Caterpillar engines.

This guideline gives the materials and the welding procedures that are needed for the salvage of a cast iron engine cylinder block. Do not make the repair if the area is critical to the structure of the block. This guideline provides information that is necessary to repair a crack. This guideline also provides information that is necessary for the repair of a missing section. The failure of a connecting rod is a likely cause of a missing section. This procedure may also be used to replace a porous section of a block.

Service Letters and Technical Information Bulletins


NOTICE

The most recent Service Letters and Technical Information Bulletins that are related to this component shall be reviewed before beginning work. Often Service Letters and Technical Information Bulletins contain upgrades in repair procedures, parts, and safety information that pertain to the parts or components being repaired.


References

Table 2
References 
Media Number  Title 
SEBF8882  Reuse and Salvage Guideline, "Using LOCK-N-STITCH® Procedures for Casting Repair" 

Tooling and Equipment


NOTICE

Failure to follow the recommended procedure or the specified tooling that is required for the procedure could result in damage to components.

To avoid component damage, follow the recommended procedure using the recommended tools.


Table 3
Required Tooling and Equipment 
Part Number  Description  Quantity 
1S-0257  Ball Peen Hammer 
1U-6393  Repair Kit 
1U-6535  Repair Kit 
1U-9915  Curved Handle Wire Brush 
4C-4804  Penetrant  As needed 
4C-8637  Grinding Disc  As needed 
4C-8638  Grinding Disc  As needed 
9S-3263  Thread Lock Compound 
9U-6182  Inspection Mirror 
154-9731  Thread Lock Compound 
222-3074  Wheel Grinder Group  As needed 
237-5181  Respirator 
263-7184  Crack Detection Kit 
303-9339  Lint Free Shop Towels 
459-0184  UV Lamp Group  As needed 
Oxy-Propane Kit 
Lifting Eye Assemblies  As needed 
Carbon Arc Gouging Torch  As needed 
Suitable Lifting Device  As needed 

Safety

------ WARNING! ------

When replacement parts are required for this product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar replacement parts or parts with equivalent specifications including, but not limited to, physical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or death.


------ WARNING! ------

Do not operate or work on this product unless you have read and understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the warnings could result in injury or death. Contact any Caterpillar dealer for replacement manuals. Proper care is your responsibility.


------ WARNING! ------

Personal injury or death can result from fumes, gases and ultraviolet rays from the weld arc.

Welding can cause fumes, burn skin and produce ultraviolet rays.

Keep your head out of the fumes. Use ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases from your breathing area. Wear eye, ear and body protection before working.

Protect yourself and others; read and understand this warning. Fumes and gases can be dangerous to your health. Ultraviolet rays from the weld arc can injure eyes and burn skin. Electric shock can cause death.

Read and understand the manufacturer's instructions and your employer's safety practices. Do not touch live electrical parts.

See "American National Standard Z49.1, Safety in Welding and Cutting" published by the American Welding Society.

American Welding Society
2501 N.W. 7th Street
Miami, Florida 33125

See "OSHA Safety and Health Standards, 29 CFR 1910", available from U.S. Department of Labor.

U.S. Department of Labor
Washington, D.C. 20210

------ WARNING! ------

Personal injury can result from flame cutting or welding on painted areas.

The effect of gasses from burned paint is a hazard to the person doing the cutting or welding.

Do not flame cut or weld on painted areas.


Recommended Welding Electrodes

Use a UTP-8 welding electrode for cast iron welding. The polarity of the electrode is DC Straight. This electrode leaves a machinable weld deposit.

Use a UTP-81 welding electrode for joints on low-quality castings. The polarity of the electrode is DC Reverse. This electrode leaves a machinable weld deposit.

Use a UTP-85FN welding electrode for castings that are contaminated. Use a UTP-85FN welding electrode when UTP-8 or UTP-81 cause a weld to spall. The polarity of the electrode is DC Reverse. This electrode leaves a machinable weld deposit.

Use a UTP-86FN welding electrode for welds that require a 13 mm (0.5 inch) diameter. UTP-86FN welding electrode can also be used to weld a mild steel plate into a missing section of casting. The polarity of the electrode is DC Straight. This electrode leaves a machinable weld deposit. The tensile strength of the weld will be increased if this electrode is used with a UTP-8 electrode.

This table includes the electrodes that are recommended for the welding procedures in this instruction.

Table 4
Recommended UTP Welding Electrodes 
UTP Part Number  Electrode Diameter  Polarity  Amperage  Welding Speed (1) 
UTP-8  1.98 mm (0.078 inch)  DC Straight  45  152 mm (6.0 inch) 
UTP-8  2.38 mm (0.094 inch)  DC Straight  60-80  152 mm (6.0 inch) 
UTP-8  3.17 mm (0.125 inch)  DC Straight  90-110  152 mm (6.0 inch) 
UTP-81  2.38 mm (0.094 inch)  DC Reverse  60-80  140 mm (5.5 inch) 
UTP-81  3.17 mm (0.125 inch)  DC Reverse  90-110  140 mm (5.5 inch) 
UTP-85FN  2.38 mm (0.094 inch)  DC Reverse  60-80  152 mm (6.0 inch) 
UTP-86FN  2.38 mm (0.094 inch)  DC Straight  60-80  140 mm (5.5 inch) 
UTP-86FN  3.17 mm (0.125 inch)  DC Straight  90-110  140 mm (5.5 inch) 
(1) Welding speed is inch mm (inch) per minute.

Identification of Structural Areas

Certain areas of a cylinder block are critical to the structure of the cylinder block. DO NOT weld on these surfaces. All questionable areas must be approved by Caterpillar. These illustrations show the structural areas of a cast iron cylinder block. DO NOT weld on these areas.



Illustration 3g06304232
In-Line Cylinder Block
(1) Saddle for main bearing cap
(2) Web for main bearing cap


Illustration 4g06304235
Vee Block
(1) Saddle for main bearing cap
(2) Web for main bearing cap

Preparation of Joint and Surface According to Type of Damage

The steps in this section will help to repair the following types of damage.

  • Cracks that are the result from handling damage or extreme operating conditions

  • Damaged sections that are the result from the failure of a connecting rod

  • Cracks that can be welded from both sides of the cylinder block

Note: If oil or water leaks from a casting, check the block for porous iron. Remove that porous section and follow the repair procedure for a missing section. Missing sections are typically welded in line with the cylinders.

Crack



Illustration 5g06304238

Cracks that can be welded from either side

If you have a crack that can be welded from both sides, clean both surfaces. Prepare both surfaces with the air carbon arc torch. Refer to "Preparation of Joint and Surface According to Type of Damage" section for more information. Once the required preparation is completed, continue with the instructions that are in the "Blocking a Crack" section of this guideline.

Repeat the same process for the other side of the crack.



Illustration 6g06304240
Remove one-third of the base material from each side of the crack (side (A) and side (C)). One-third of the casting (B) must exist for a successful weld repair.

Missing Section

If oil has caused pores in a cast iron section, it may be necessary for you to remove that section. After the section has been removed, install either a cast iron section or a steel section.



Illustration 7g06304243
When you install a piece of mild steel plate (3) as a replacement for a missing section of cylinder block, always blend the edges of the cylinder block (D) to provide a proper fit for the plate.

Carbon Arc Gouging



Illustration 8g06304245
Do not remove more than two-thirds of the base material. One-third of the wall thickness (E) must exist for a successful weld repair.

  1. When you need to prepare a deep crack that is in a thick section of the engine block, use an air carbon arc torch to prepare the crack.

  2. Remove all surface oxides that developed during the cutting process. You must remove this layer before you can make a weld pass. Use an electric grinder with a carbide round cutter to remove this surface.

  3. Use an electric die grinder to remove all sharp edges. All edges should be in the shape of an arc. Do not grind angles at an edge.

Cleaning

  1. Before the first weld pass, prepare the surface. Refer to the "Blocking a Crack" section of this guideline.

  2. Thoroughly clean the weld area before the first weld pass. If the proper cleaning procedure is not performed correctly, the weld may fail. Remove all oil, grease, and paint from the weld area. Also, clean the areas which may be affected by the heat from the weld.

  3. Make the first weld pass.

    ------ WARNING! ------

    Personal injury can result from flying debris.

    Chips or other debris can fly off objects when struck.

    Wear protective glasses to avoid injury to your eyes. All tools included in this topic must be hardened to Rockwell C 37-42 before use.


  4. Clean the weld. Wire brush or grit blast the surface to remove any slag that formed during the weld pass.

Crack Detection Methods

After the weld area has been cleaned, check for cracks. It is necessary to find small cracks before the welding process.


NOTICE

Regardless of which crack detection method is used, it is important that the instructions furnished with the detection equipment are followed closely when checking any component. Failure to do so may cause inaccurate results or may cause injury to the operator and/or surroundings.


Crack detection methods or Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) are utilized for examining components for cracks without damaging the component. Visual inspection (VT), Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT), Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT), Ultrasonic Testing (UT), Radiographic Testing (RT) and Eddy-Current Testing (ET) are recommended methods. There may be more than one acceptable crack detection method for the inspection of a given part, though the liquid penetrant is the most versatile. For example, the liquid penetrant method can be used when inspecting smooth machined components such as shafts, gear teeth, and splines, but using the Wet Magnetic Particle Inspection is more accurate. Refer to Table 5 for advantages and disadvantages and Table 6 for standards and requirements for these NDT methods.

Table 5
Crack Inspection Method Advantages vs. Disadvantages 
Inspection Method  Advantages  Disadvantages 
Visual Surface Inspection (VT)  - Least expensive
- Detects most damaging defects
- Immediate results
- Minimum part preparation 
- Limited to surface-only defects
- Requires inspectors to have broad knowledge of welding and fabrication in addition to non-destructive testing 
Liquid Penetrant (PT)  - Inexpensive
- Minimal training
- Portable
- Works on nonmagnetic material 
- Least sensitive
- Detects surface cracks only
- Rough or porous surfaces interfere with test 
Dry Magnetic Particle (MT)  - Portable
- Fast/Immediate Results
- Detects surface and subsurface discontinuities 
- Works on magnetic material only
- Less sensitive than Wet Magnetic Particle 
Wet Magnetic Particle (MT)  - More sensitive than Liquid Penetrant
- Detects subsurface as much as 0.13 mm (0.005 inch) 
- Requires Power for Light
- Works on magnetic parts only
- Liquid composition and agitation must be monitored 
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)  - Most sensitive
- Detects deep material defects
- Immediate results
- Wide range of materials and thickness can be inspected 
- Most expensive
- Requires operator training and certification
- Surface must be accessible to probe 
Eddy-Current Testing (ET)  - Surface and near surface flaws detectable
-Moderate speed/Immediate results
-Sensitive to small discontinuities 
- Difficult to interpret
- Only for metals
-Rough surfaces interfere with test
- Surface must be accessible to probe 
Radiographic Testing (RT)  -Detects surface and internal flaws
- Minimum part preparation
- Can inspect hidden areas 
- Not for porous materials
- Radiation protection needed
- Defect able to be detected is limited to 2% of thickness 

Table 6
Applicable Crack Detection Standards 
Inspection Method  Standard  Acceptance
Criteria 
Required
Personnel
Qualifications 
Visual Surface Inspection (VT)  EN-ISO 5817
AWS D1.1 
EN-ISO 5817 - Level B
AWS D1.1 - Table 6.1 
EN-ISO 9712 - Level 2
ANSI-ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level 2 
Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)  EN-ISO 3452
ASTM E165 
EN-ISO 23277
AWS - D1.1 
EN-ISO 9712 - Level 2
ANSI-ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level 2 
Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)  EN-ISO 17638
ASTM E709 
EN-ISO 23278 - Level 1
AWS D1.1 - Table 6.1 
EN-ISO 9712 - Level 2
ANSI-ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level 2 
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)  EN-ISO 17640 - Level B
AWS D1.1 
EN-ISO 11666 Technique 2 - Level 2
AWS D1.1 - Class A - Table 6.3 
EN-ISO 9712 - Level 2
ANSI-ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level 2 
Eddy-Current Testing (ET)  EN-ISO 15549
ASTM E426 
EN-ISO 20807  EN-ISO 9712 - Level 2
ANSI-ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level 2 
Radiographic Testing (RT)  EN-ISO 5579
ASTM E94 
EN-ISO 10657-1  EN-ISO 9712 - Level 2
ANSI-ASNT SNT-TC-1A Level 2 

Visual Surface Inspection (VT)



Illustration 9g06085008
Example of Visual Inspection Tools
(A) Flashlight or adequate light source
(B) Magnifying eye loupe
(C) Tape measure or other measuring device
(D) Inspection mirror
(E) Weld size inspection gauges

Components and welds that are to be inspected using PT, MT, or UT shall first be subject to Visual Surface Inspection (VT). Visual Inspection is often the most cost-effective inspection method and requires little equipment as seen in Illustration 9. It is suggested that at a minimum personnel performing Visual Inspection are either trained to a company standard or have sufficient past experience and knowledge with regard to the components being inspected. It is also suggested that personnel performing visual inspections take some type of eyesight test on a regular basis.

Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)

------ WARNING! ------

Personal injury can result from improper handling of chemicals.

Make sure you use all the necessary protective equipment required to do the job.

Make sure that you read and understand all directions and hazards described on the labels and material safety data sheet of any chemical that is used.

Observe all safety precautions recommended by the chemical manufacturer for handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals.


Materials and Equipment Required

Refer to Tooling and Equipment Table 3 for part numbers.

  • Cleaner: Removes dirt before dye application and dissolves the penetrant making possible to wipe the surface clean.

  • Penetrant: This solution is highly visible, and will seep into openings at the surface of a part with capillary action.

  • Developer: Provides a blotting action, bringing the penetrant out of the discontinuities and providing a contrasting background to increase the visibility of the penetrant indications.

  • Wire Brush: Removes dirt and paint.

  • Cloth or Wipes: Use with cleaner and for other miscellaneous uses.

Procedure



    Illustration 10g06107074
    Typical example of pre-cleaning area.

  1. Preclean inspection area. Spray on cleaner / remover to loosen any scale, dirt, or any oil. Wipe the area to inspect with a solvent dampened cloth to remove remaining dirt and allow the area to dry. If there is visible crack remove paint using paint remover or wire brush.


    Illustration 11g06107081
    Typical example of applying penetrant.

  2. Apply penetrant by spraying to the entire area to be examined. Allow 10 to 15 minutes for penetrant to soak. After the penetrant has been allowed to soak, remove the excess penetrant with clean, dry wipe.


    Illustration 12g06107088
    Typical example of removing excess penetrant oil.

  3. The last traces of penetrant should be removed with the cleaner solvent dampened cloth or wipe. Allow the area to dry thoroughly.


    Illustration 13g06107094
    Typical example of applying developer.

  4. Before using Developer, ensure that it is mixed thoroughly by shaking can. Holding can approximately 203.20 - 304.80 mm (8.00 - 12.00 inch) away from part, apply an even, thin layer of developer over the area being inspected. A few thin layers are a better application method than one thick layer.


    Illustration 14g06084042
    Typical example of cracks found during a liquid penetrant testing.

  5. Allow the developer to dry completely for 10–15 minutes before inspecting for cracks. Defects will show as red lines in white developer background, refer to Illustration 14. Clean the area of application of the developer with solvent cleaner.

Dry Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

Materials and Equipment Required

Refer to Tooling and Equipment Table 3 for part numbers.



Illustration 15g06085930
(A) Indications shown by magnetic particle testing.
(B) Typical electromagnetic yoke.
(C) Dry powder bulb.

  1. Dry magnetic powder shall be of high permeability and low retentively and of suitable sizes and shapes to produce magnetic particle indications. The powder shall be of a color that will provide adequate contrast with the background of the surface being inspected.

  2. Dry magnetic particles shall be stored in suitable containers to resist contamination such as moisture, grease, oil, non-magnetic particles such as sand, and excessive heat. Contaminants will manifest in the form of particle color change and particle agglomeration. The degree of contamination will determine further use of the powder.

  3. Dry magnetic powder shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E709 Section 18 (Evaluation of System Performance/Sensitivity) when not performing.

  4. Equipment should include a "U" shaped electromagnetic yoke made from highly permeable magnetic material, which has a coil wound around the yoke. This coil carries a magnetizing current to impose a localized longitudinal magnetic field into the part. The magnetizing force of the yoke is related to the electromagnetic strength and can be tested by determining the lifting power of a steel plate. The yoke shall have a lifting force of at least 4.5 kg (10 lbs).

  5. Check dry powder blower routinely to ensure that the spray is a light, uniform, dust-like coating of the dry magnetic particles. Blower should also have sufficient force to remove excess particles without disturbing those particles that are evidence of indications.

  6. All equipment shall be inspected at a minimum of once a year or when accuracy is questionable.

Procedure

  1. Ensure surface to be inspected is dry and free from oil, grease, sand, loose rust, mil scale, paint, and other contaminants.

  2. Apply the magnetic field using the yoke against the faces and inside diameter of each bore.

  3. Simultaneously apply the dry powder using the dry powder blower.

  4. Remove excess powder by lightly blowing away the dry particles.

  5. Continue around the entire circumference of each bore. Position the yoke twice in each area at 1.57 rad (90°) to ensure that multiple directions of the magnetic field are created.

  6. Observe particles and note if any clusters of particles appear revealing an indication.

  7. Record the size and shape of any discontinuities or indications found.

Wet Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)

Materials and Equipment

Refer to Tooling and Equipment Table 3 for part numbers.



Illustration 16g06085937
(A) Indications shown by magnetic particle testing.
(B) Typical electromagnetic yoke.
(D) UV Lamp used in wet magnetic particle inspection process.


Illustration 17g06003178
Pear Shaped Centrifuge Tube

  1. Wet magnetic particles are fluorescent and are suspended in a vehicle in a given concentration that will allow application to the test surface by spraying.

  2. Concentration:

    1. The concentration of the suspended magnetic particles shall be as specified by the manufacturer and be checked by settling volume measurements.

    2. Concentrations are determined by measuring the settling volume by using an ASTM pear shaped centrifuge tube with a 1 mL (0.034 oz) stem with 0.05 mL (0.0017 oz) 1.0 mL (0.034 oz) divisions, refer to Illustration 17. Before sampling, the suspension shall be thoroughly mixed to assure suspension of all particles, which could have settled. A 100 mL (3.40 oz) sample of the suspension shall be taken and allowed to settle for 30 minutes. The settling volume should be between 0.1 mL (0.0034 oz) and 0.25 mL (0.0085 oz) in a 100 mL (3.40 oz) sample.

    3. Wet magnetic particles may be suspended in a low viscosity oil or conditioned water.

    4. The oil shall have the following characteristics:

      • Low viscosity not to exceed 50 mSt (5.0 cSt) at any temperature at which the vehicle is to be used.

      • Low inherent fluorescence and be non-reactive.

    5. The conditioning agents used in the conditioned water shall have the following characteristics:

      • Impart good wetting characteristics and good dispersion.

      • Minimize foaming and be non-corrosive.

      • Low viscosity shall not exceed a maximum viscosity of 50 mSt (5.0 cSt) at 38° C (100° F).

      • Non-fluorescent, non-reactive, and odorless.

      • Alkalinity shall not exceed a pH of 10.5.

  3. Equipment should include a "U" shaped electromagnetic yoke made from highly permeable magnetic material, which has a coil wound around the yoke. This coil carries a magnetizing current to impose a localized longitudinal magnetic field into the part. The magnetizing force of the yoke is related to the electromagnetic strength and can be tested by determining the lifting power of a steel plate. The yoke shall have a lifting force of at least 4.5 kg (10 lbs).

Procedure

  1. Ensure surface to be inspected is dry and free from oil, grease, sand, loose rust, mil scale, paint, and any other contaminants.

  2. Apply the magnetic field using the yoke against the surface in the area to be inspected.

  3. For case hardened and ground surfaces:

    • Due to the sensitivity required to locate the grinding cracks, inspection of case hardened and ground surfaces require that the yoke is applied so that the magnetic field is 1.57 rad (90°) to the expected direction of the indications. Also, due to the increased sensitivity resulting when the yoke is energized, the yoke is not moved until the evaluation is completed in the first direction. An AC yoke shall be used.

  4. Visually inspect for indications of discontinuities using the proper illumination.

  5. Record the size and shape of any discontinuities found.

Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Note: Crack depth cannot be accurately determined by UT, only full depth cracking can be consistently determined. For cracks that are not full depth, an indication of a partial depth cracks can be detected by an experienced technician.


NOTICE

All personnel involved in ultrasonic testing shall be qualified to Level 2 in accordance to standards stated in Table 6.


Refer to Tooling and Equipment Table 3 for part numbers.

  1. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) is a method of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) using short ultrasonic pulse waves (with frequencies from 0.1-15 MHz up to 50 MHz) to detect the thickness of the object. Ultrasonic testing consists of an ultrasound transducer connected to a diagnostic machine and passed over the object being inspected.

  2. There are two methods of receiving the ultrasound waveform from the transducer: reflection and attenuation.

    1. Reflection - Ultrasonic pulses exit the transducer and travel throughout the thickness of the material. When the sound waves propagate into an object being tested, the waves return to the transducer when a discontinuity is discovered along the sonic path. These waves continue and reflect form the backsurface of the material to project the thickness of the material.

    2. Attenuation - A transmitter sends ultrasound through one surface, and a separate receiver detects the amount that has reached it on another surface after traveling through the medium. Any discontinuities or other conditions within the medium will reduce the amount of sound transmitted, revealing the presence of the imperfections.

Eddy-Current Testing (ET)


NOTICE

All personnel involved in Eddy-Current Testing shall be qualified to Level 2 in accordance to standards stated in Table 6.




Illustration 18g06090873
Eddy-Current Testing

Eddy-Current Testing (ET) is a Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method in which eddy-current flow is induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the specimen are reflected in to a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques. Major applications of eddy-current testing are surface inspection and tubing inspections.

Radiographic Testing (RT)

Note: CAUTION: This process is dangerous. Only qualified personnel and test equipment should be appointed to perform this type of testing.


NOTICE

All personnel involved in radiographic testing shall be qualified to Level 2 in accordance to standards stated in Table 6.




Illustration 19g06090892
Radiographic Testing

Radiographic Testing (RT) is a Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method in which short wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is used to penetrate materials to find hidden discontinuities such as cracks. In radiographic testing, the test object is placed between the radiation source and the film, or x-ray detector. The electromagnetic radiation will penetrate the thickness of the test object and, when all the way through, will project onto the film any indications that have been in the path of the radiation waves.

Heat Treatment

This welding procedure does not require a preheat or a postheat process. However, the cylinder block must be protected from cold weather. Store the cylinder block at room temperature. Room temperature is approximately 20 °C (68 °F).

Basic Welding Process

Always follow these rules for welding to make a good repair to a cast iron cylinder block.

  • Use an air carbon arc torch to remove two-thirds from the depth of the crack.

  • Remove all sharp corners.

  • Always clean the surface and prepare the surface before you start a weld pass. A clean surface is critical to a good weld.

  • Always ignite the electrical arc on the weld. DO NOT ignite the electrical arc on the base metal (casting).

  • Locate each end of the crack.

  • Block the crack. Make a weld pass across each end of the crack to block the crack.

  • When a pressurized area is repaired, use the correct electrode and the correct weld length.

  • For a successful weld, verify that both the polarity and the amperage are in the correct position.

  • Make the first weld pass. Butter the edges during the first weld pass. This method will form a ductile layer of transition to prevent cracks from progressing.

  • Keep a short arc to maintain a voltage between 16 volts and 17 volts. Fill the crater at the end of each weld pass. Guide the electrode at a steep angle so that the welding arc is vertical.

  • Stress can increase the length of a crack even after the first weld pass. If the crack progresses, locate the new end of the crack and block the crack again. Continue the welding procedure.

  • Completely remove all slag from the weld after every weld pass.

  • Peen the first weld before the weld cools.

  • Allow the weld to cool before welding another pass.

  • The weld must not be porous. If you suspect that oil has contaminated the weld, use a grinder to check for pores in the weld.

  • The repair shall be free from cracks, porosity, undercut, and incomplete fusion. The weld quality must conform to the AWS D14.3 weld specifications. Blend the surface with a grinder and paint the surface after the repair has been made.


NOTICE

This welding procedure is referred to as cold welding. As previously stated, the temperature of the weld must be cooled to 60 °C (140 °F) (hand warm) to prevent the weld from cracking. The length of each weld must not exceed 25.4 mm (1.00 inch) (ten times the diameter of the welding electrode). Any variation from this welding procedure that causes an increase in heat input, will also cause the weld to crack.


Note: Follow all surface preparation and cleaning procedures before you begin the repair. Refer to the section "Preparation of Joint and Surface According to Type of Damage". Once you have prepared the welding area, continue with the following instructions.

Note: A pure nickel welding rod may not work on some cast iron cylinder blocks. This can occur when glycol is present in the base metal. If so, use the following electrode and specifications when you weld.

  1. Use a UTP-85FN electrode with a 2.4 mm (0.09 inch) diameter when a pure nickel welding rod does not work.

  2. Set the amperage of the welder to 70 amp.

  3. Set the polarity of the welder to DC REVERSE.

  4. Before welding on cast iron, always determine the correct polarity to get the desired results. Each electrode has a designated polarity. Use Table 4 to determine the polarity for the electrode. Also, refer to Table 4 to set the welder to the correct amperage. Refer to the following lists for additional information about each polarity.

    Straight Polarity

    • Shallow penetration

    • Less heat input

    • High weld due to less mixing of the base material

    Reverse polarity

    • More penetration

    • Greater heat input

    • Low weld due to more mixing of the base material

  5. Use the correct electrode for each type of weld. Use Table 4 to determine the correct electrode.

  6. The width of the weld must not be more than two times the wire diameter in the core of the electrode.

  7. The length of the weld must not exceed ten times the diameter of the welding electrode ( 25.4 mm (1.00 inch)). If the length of the weld is longer than the maximum length, the electrode may overheat. Use Table 4 to determine the maximum weld length.

  8. Be sure to fill the crater at the end of each weld pass. This will help to prevent cracks from occurring at the end of the weld (crater cracks).

  9. Immediately after each weld pass has been made, peen the weld with a ball peen hammer. This will help to relieve the stress from the weld. Do not use air-actuated tools for this step. The exhaust from the tool can cool the weld too quickly. A rapid cooling rate will crack the weld.

  10. Allow the weld to cool to a temperature of 60 °C (140 °F) before cleaning the weld or before welding another pass.

  11. Remove the slag from the weld. Then, use a stainless steel brush to remove the loose chips.

    Note: Oil can produce pores in the weld during the first pass if the weld area was not clean prior to the weld pass. The first weld must not be porous. to test the weld joint for porosity, use an electric grinder with a rotary carbide steel cutter. Do not use a grinding wheel that has grit for the material.

  12. If there are pin holes in the weld, follow these steps.

    • Use a grinder to remove one-third of the weld so that larger cavities can be seen. This will uncover pits or large cavities that could have been caused by oil contamination.

    • Use a UTP-8 electrode with a 1.98 mm (0.078 inch) diameter to make the weld. Set the amperage to 45 amp. This will increase the strength of the weld.

    • Repeat this process if pin holes are still present in the weld. Remove only the porous layer and continue with the welding process.

Salvage Procedure for Welding Cracked Cast Engine Cylinder Blocks

Blocking a Crack

Perform this procedure when a crack has not completely advanced through the cylinder wall.

  1. Prepare the crack and clean the crack. Refer to the "Cleaning" section of this guideline. After you have cleaned the surface, check for cracks with one of the methods in the proper section of this guideline. Refer to the "Crack Detection Methods" section. This will ensure that all cracks have been found. This method will also help to determine if the true end of each crack has been correctly found.

  2. Block the crack. This will help to keep the crack from increasing in length.

    • All welds must be perpendicular to the crack.

    • Distance (F) between stringer welds (G) must not exceed 76 mm (3.0 inch). Refer to Illustration 20.

  3. Locate each end of the crack. Measure the length of crack (F).


    Illustration 20g06304254

  4. If the length of crack (F) is shorter than 76 mm (3.0 inch), make a stringer weld (G) at each end of the crack. Each stringer weld must be perpendicular to the crack. Illustration 20 shows these welds. Make these weld beads 25.4 mm (1.00 inch) to 38 mm (1.5 inch) long.


    Illustration 21g06304257

  5. If the length of crack (H) above exceeds 76 mm (3.0 inch), block the crack with two welds (J).

  6. Divide the crack with as many stringer welds (K) as necessary. Make sure that no section of the crack is longer than 76 mm (3.0 inch). This measurement is shown in location (L).

Welding a Crack

Note: Always use the welding electrode that is recommended for each specific application. Refer to Table 4 in the "Recommended Welding Electrodes" section.

  1. Block the crack.

  2. Once you have blocked the crack, begin the weld from the center of the crack. Weld from the center to the right. Then, weld from the center to the left.

  3. To avoid overheating, the length of each weld must not be more than ten times the diameter of the welding electrode. For this electrode, do not make a weld that is longer than 25.4 mm (1.00 inch).

  4. After each weld pass is made, immediately peen the weld. Allow the weld to cool before making the next weld pass.

  5. Continue to alternate weld passes between sections of the crack until one complete weld is made for the full length of the crack.

Cylinder Block that is Not Contaminated

Thickness of the Block Does Not Exceed 6.0 mm (0.24 inch)



Illustration 22g06304264

Use one of the following electrodes for this weld.

Table 7
Part  Diameter 
UTP-8 Electrode  1.98 mm (0.078 inch) 
UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Make all welds to the correct length and in the numerical sequence shown.

Use one of the following electrodes for this weld. Set the amperage of the welder to 45 amp. This will increase the strength of the weld.

Table 8
Part  Diameter 
UTP-8 Electrode  1.98 mm (0.078 inch) 
UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 

Thickness of the Block Exceeds 6.0 mm (0.24 inch)



Illustration 23g06304266

For weld (1) through weld (9), use one of the following electrodes.

Table 9
Part  Diameter 
UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

For weld (10) through weld (16), use one of the following electrodes.

Table 10
Part  Diameter 
UTP-86FN-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-86FN-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

For weld (17) through weld (20), use the same welding electrode that was used for weld (1) through weld (9).

For weld (21), weld (22) and weld (23), use the same welding electrode that was used for weld (10) through weld (16).

Make all welds to the correct length and in the numerical sequence shown.

Cylinder Block that is Contaminated

Thickness of the Block does not Exceed 6.0 mm (0.24 inch)



Illustration 24g06304269

Use one of the following electrodes to make this repair.

Make all welds to the correct length and in the numerical sequence shown.

Table 11
Part  Diameter 
UTP-81-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-81-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Thickness of the Block Exceeds 6.0 mm (0.24 inch)



Illustration 25g06304266

For weld (1) through weld (9), use one of the following electrodes.

Table 12
Part  Diameter 
UTP-81-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-81-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Use one of the following electrodes for weld (10) through weld (16).

Table 13
Part  Diameter 
UTP-86FN-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-86FN-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Use one of the following electrodes for weld (17) through weld (19).

Table 14
Part  Diameter 
UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

For weld (20) and weld (21), use one of the following electrodes.

Table 15
Part  Diameter 
UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

For welds (22) and (23), use one of the following electrodes.

Table 16
Part  Diameter 
UTP-86FN-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-86FN-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Weld Repair for Missing Sections

Typically, when a cylinder block casting has a severe fracture or a complicated fracture, it is economical for you to first remove this area. Then weld a piece of mild steel plate into position. The thickness of the mild steel plate must not be more than 60 percent of the wall thickness. A piece of mild steel plate should NOT be rectangular in shape. A round shape or an oval shape is ideal for this steel plate. Weld at 90 degree intervals. Overheating will be reduced if you follow this sequence: top, bottom, right, and left. Make sure that each weld bead is short.

Note: If the shape of the steel plate must be rectangular, make sure that all corners of the steel plate are rounded as much as possible. Weld the sides first and weld the round corners last.

Missing sections may span critical angles or machined surfaces. It is possible to remove a good section, that is identical to the damaged section or the missing section, from another damaged cylinder block. The good section can then be welded into the missing section. All mating surfaces must be aligned during this welding procedure. After welding on the mounting surface of an oil pan, the seal must be airtight. Do not weld on an area that is critical to the structure of a block. These areas are shown in the following illustrations. DO NOT weld in these locations.

  • Structural area

  • Surfaces on the top deck

  • Oil and/or water passages that would require welding from both sides

  • Camshaft bearing surfaces and/or bores

Cylinder Block that is Not Contaminated

Thickness of the Block Does Not Exceed 6.0 mm (0.24 inch)



Illustration 26g06304272
(M) Cylinder block
(N) Steel plate

Use one of the following electrodes to make this repair.

Table 17
Part  Diameter 
UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Make all welds to the correct length and in the numerical sequence shown.

Thickness of the Block Exceeds 6.0 mm (0.24 inch)



Illustration 27g06304275
(M) Cylinder block
(N) Steel plate

  1. Use one of the following electrodes to weld in an identical cast iron section. For welds (1) through weld (3), use one of the following electrodes.

    Table 18
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-81-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-81-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  2. Use one of the following electrodes to weld in a mild steel plate. For welds (4) through weld (6), use one of the following electrodes.

    Table 19
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
    UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  3. Use one of the following electrodes for weld (7) through weld (11).

    Table 20
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
    UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  4. Use one of the following electrodes for weld (12) through weld (14).

    Table 21
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-86FN-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-86FN-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the weld is complete.

Make all welds to the correct length.

Cylinder Block that is Contaminated

Thickness of the Block Does Not Exceed 6.0 mm (0.24 inch)



Illustration 28g06304278
(M) Cylinder block
(N) Steel plate

Use one of the following electrodes to weld in an identical cast iron section for weld (3) through weld (4).

Table 22
Part  Diameter 
UTP-81-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-81-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Make all welds to the correct length.

Use one of the following electrodes to weld in a mild steel plate for welds (1), (2) and (5).

Table 23
Part  Diameter 
UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

Make all welds to the correct length.

Thickness of the Block Exceeds 6.0 mm (0.24 in)



Illustration 29g06304280
(M) Cylinder block
(N) Steel plate

  1. Use one of the following welding rods to weld in an identical cast iron section. Use one of the following electrodes for weld (1) through weld (3).

    Table 24
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-81-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-81-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  2. Use one of the following welding rods to weld in a mild steel plate. Use one of the following electrodes for weld (4) through weld (6).

    Table 25
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
    UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  3. Use one of the following welding rods for this welding procedure. Use one of the following electrodes for weld (7) through weld (11).

    Table 26
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-8-564 Electrode  1.9 mm (0.07 inch) 
    UTP-8-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-8-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  4. Use one of the following welding rods for this welding procedure. Use one of the following electrodes for weld (12) through weld (14).

    Table 27
    Part  Diameter 
    UTP-86FN-332 Electrode  2.4 mm (0.09 inch) 
    UTP-86FN-18 Electrode  3.2 mm (0.13 inch) 

  5. Continue the repair by alternating steps 3 and 4 until the weld area is filled with welding material.

Make all welds to the correct length.

Final Checks

  1. Grind the weld. The weld must be flush with the cylinder block.

  2. Apply the cleaner, the penetrant and the developer.

    Note: Never use magnaflux to check a nickel weld on a cast iron cylinder block. This test will reveal the crack that has been repaired. Always use the dye-penetrant to check for cracks.

  3. If cracks or pin holes appear in the welded area, grind out the faulty section and perform the welding procedure again, until an acceptable solid repair is completed.

Repairing a Cylinder Block with an Oil Porosity

Examples of Damage



Illustration 30g06304296
Source of cylinder block oil porosity (arrow)


Illustration 31g06304297
Source of cylinder block oil porosity (arrow)

The Illustration 30 and Illustration 31 show the examples of the source of oil leakage on a cylinder block. A salvage repair for this type of damage is possible using the procedure given in this publication.

Explanation of Repair Procedure

The type of repair procedure demonstrated in this publication is accomplished with the use of pipe plugs or special pins.

Pipe Plugs



Illustration 32g06304298
Typical example of a pipe plug.

The pipe plugs have a thread pitch diameter that is tapered and create a pressure tight, metal-to-metal fit.

Special Pins



Illustration 33g06304299
Ironstich pin

The pins have an oversized thread pitch diameter that gives a pressure tight, metal-to-metal fit. (The initial threads are tapered to aid in pin installation.)

The non-threaded shoulder, which is located above the threads, crushes into the upper threads of the casting, creating a metal-to-metal seal.

The tapered thread, along with the break-off groove that is located above the shoulder, controls the break-off torque to insure the uniformity of the installation depth.

Cleaning and Inspection of Casting

The casting that is to be repaired must be degreased completely and thoroughly cleaned by using a pressure washer or steam cleaner.

Repair Procedure

Note: The procedure shown in this instruction was performed with the engine out of chassis.

This procedure can be performed with the engine in chassis providing that the necessary components are removed to access the area to be repaired.



Illustration 34g06304300
Preparing the surface

  1. To prepare the casting for repair, use a suitable tool to remove any paint from the area.


    Illustration 35g06304296
    Example of marked area

  2. Use a hammer and center punch to mark the casting prior to drilling.


    Illustration 36g06304304
    Greased paper towel in place

  3. Apply grease to a suitable rag or paper towel. Place the towel or the rag in the cylinder block at the repair site that will trap metal particles created in the following steps.


    Illustration 37g06304308
    Pin, Tap, and drill bit

  4. Select the proper size drill bit and tap for the size of plug or pin that is to be installed.


    Illustration 38g06304311
    Drilling the hole

  5. Carefully drill the hole in the cylinder block.


    Illustration 39g06304313
    Tapping the hole

  6. Apply grease to the tap to trap the metal particles. Apply penetrating oil to the hole drilled in the cylinder block in Step 5. Cut threads in the hole to install the plug or the pin.

  7. Remove the rag or paper towel and the remaining grease from inside the cylinder block.


    Illustration 40g06304314
    Cleaning the threads

  8. Use a suitable cleaning fluid to clean the threads that were cut in Step 6.


    Illustration 41g06304315
    Drying the threads

  9. Use compressed air to dry the threads.


    Illustration 42g06304318

  10. Applying thread lock to the pin

    1. If the special pin is used, apply 9S-3263 Thread Lock Compound to the threads.

    2. If a pipe plug is used, apply 154-9731 Thread Lock Compound to the threads.


    Illustration 43g06304319
    Pin installed in tapped hole


    Illustration 44g06304320
    Tighten the pin


    Illustration 45g06304321
    Installed pin (head separated)

  11. Install the plug or the pin.

    1. If a pin is used, then tighten the pin until the pin head separates from the pin body.

    2. If a plug is used, then tighten the plug to the torque found in chart A.

      Table 28
      Chart A
      Torque for Pipe Plugs 
      Pipe Thread Size  Recommended Torque 
      1/16  10 N·m (7 lb ft) 
      1/8  16 N·m (12 lb ft) 
      1/4  20 N·m (15 lb ft) 
      3/8  35 N·m (26 lb ft) 
      1/2  45 N·m (33 lb ft) 
      3/4  60 N·m (44 lb ft) 
      75 N·m (55 lb ft) 


    Illustration 46g06304323
    Grinding the pin flush


    Illustration 47g06304324
    Example of pin ground flush

  12. Grind off the pin or the plug until flush with the casting surface.


    Illustration 48g06304326
    Pin peening the area


    Illustration 49g06304327
    Example of pin peened area

  13. Use a suitable tool to pin peen the repaired area, to help relieve stresses and aid in sealing.


    Illustration 50g06304328
    Pin extending into the cylinder block

  14. Check to ensure that the amount of the pin or the plug that extends into the cylinder block will not interfere with the rotating components of the engine.

Test Procedure

After a repair is complete, a test should be performed to make sure that there is good seal. The two acceptable testing methods are listed below.

Soap and Water

Apply air pressure to the inside of the repaired area. Put a soap and water solution on the opposite side. Soap bubbles will appear if the repaired area has a leak.

Dye Penetrant

Repaired areas should be tested by applying dye penetrant to one side of the repair. The penetrant will soak through if a leak exists.



Illustration 51g06304329
Completed repair

After the testing is completed, the repaired area can be cleaned and painted to give a nearly invisible repair, as shown in Illustration 51

Reinstall the components that were removed to perform the repair.

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