3406E, C-10, C-12, C-15, C-16 and C-18 On-highway Engines Caterpillar


Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Calibrate

Usage:

3406E 1MM


System Operation Description:

Use this procedure under the following situation:

Use this procedure if any of the following conditions exist:

  • The ECM has been replaced and the old ECM will not communicate with the Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET).

  • 22-13 Check Timing Sensor Calibration is active.

  • Work has been done to the front gear group.

The primary engine speed/timing sensor provides an engine speed signal (rpm) to the ECM. The signal is created as the crankshaft gear rotates past the pickup of the primary engine speed/timing sensor. The secondary engine speed/timing sensor provides the timing signal to the ECM. The signal is created as the camshaft gear rotates past the pickup of the secondary engine speed/timing sensor. A unique pattern on the gear allows the ECM to determine the crankshaft position. This unique pattern on the gear allows the ECM to determine the top center position of the piston in the No. 1 cylinder. If the signal is lost from one of the sensors, a diagnostic code is generated. If the signal is lost from one of the sensors, the ECM will use a special type of logic that will allow the engine to start on only one sensor and this special type of logic will allow the engine to run on only one sensor.

Timing calibration is accomplished by installing a special magnetic transducer into the side of the engine block. The magnetic transducer senses a special slot on the crankshaft counterweight. The magnetic transducer is connected to the ECM through the P400 Speed/Timing Calibration Connector that is on the engine wiring harness.

When the engine rpm is from 1000 to 1200 rpm, the ECM is placed in timing calibration mode with Cat ET.




Illustration 1g00660979

Note: The Timing Calibration will not increase the available engine power or the Timing Calibration will not decrease the available engine power. Do not expect an increase in power due to the performance of the timing calibration.

Replacement ECM

If a replacement ECM is required, the ECM parameters and the timing calibration can be transferred from the suspect ECM to the replacement ECM. Timing calibration will NOT be necessary. This feature requires Cat ET and this feature is only possible if the existing ECM can communicate with Cat ET.

Table 1
Required Special Tools    
Part Number     Description    
6V-2197     Magnetic Transducer    
7X-1695     Cable    
7X-1171     Transducer Adapter    
9S-9082     Engine Turning Tool    

Test Step 1. Install the 7X-1171 Transducer Adapter

  1. Turn the key switch to the OFF position.

  1. Use the 9S-9082 Engine Turning Tool to put either the No. 1 piston or the No. 6 piston at top center. Rotate the engine in the opposite direction of the correct engine rotation by the following amount:

    • 60 Degrees

  1. Use the following procedure for a C-10 or C-12 engine:

    1. Remove the timing calibration plug from the right side of the cylinder block as the engine is viewed from the flywheel. The timing calibration plug is located on the No. 4 cylinder rod pocket.

    1. Install the 7X-1171 Transducer Adapter into the hole for the plug.

  1. Use the following procedure for a 3406E, C-15, C-16 or C-18 Engine:

    1. Remove the timing calibration plug from the left side of the cylinder block as the engine is viewed from the flywheel.

    1. Install the 7X-1171 Transducer Adapter into the hole for the plug.

Results:

  • OK - Proceed to Test Step 2.

Test Step 2. Install the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer on the Engine


    NOTICE

    If the crankshaft is not in the correct position when the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer is installed, the Magnetic Transducer will be damaged when the engine is started.


  1. Put a 2D-6392 O-Ring Seal on the end of the magnetic transducer.

    Note: A small amount of clean engine oil will allow the seal to slide onto the transducer more easily.

  1. Push the magnetic transducer through the adapter until the magnetic transducer comes in contact with the outermost portion of the crankshaft counterweight. Move the O-ring seal downward against the adapter.

  1. Withdraw the magnetic transducer 1.0 mm (0.04 inch) and hand tighten the nut on the adapter sleeve in order to secure the magnetic transducer in place.

  1. Connect the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer to the 7X-1695 Cable .

Results:

  • OK - Proceed to Test Step 3.

Test Step 3. Start the Engine and Allow the Coolant to Reach Operating Temperature

  1. Start the engine and run at low idle until the engine has warmed up enough to exit cold mode operation. The status screen on Cat ET will display "COLD MODE" in the upper corner when cold mode operation exists. The engine will adjust idle rpm from cold mode idle to the programmed low idle rpm when cold mode operation is complete.

  1. Check for active diagnostic codes. Use the procedures in this manual to troubleshoot and repair any active diagnostic codes before attempting a calibration check. The engine must not have any diagnostic fault conditions that are present during the timing calibration except the following condition:

    • 22-13 Engine Speed Signal Calibration Not Performed

  1. After the engine has warmed up, set the engine speed to 1100 rpm by the use of the cruise control switches or the accelerator pedal.

    Note: The engine rpm must be steady within the 1000 to 1200 rpm range in order to perform a timing calibration.

Results:

  • OK - Proceed to Test Step 4.

Test Step 4. Connect Cat ET

  1. Connect Cat ET to the data link connector.

  1. After the engine has exited cold mode operation, access the "Timing Calibration Screen" on Cat ET. Access the following display screens in order:

    • "Service"

    • "Calibrations"

    • "Timing Calibration"

    Note: To perform a timing calibration, the engine rpm must remain as steady as possible at approximately 1100 rpm. This can be performed by the use of the cruise control switches or a steady foot on the accelerator pedal. Any changes to engine rpm that are more than 100 rpm will slow down the procedure. These changes will also reduce the accuracy of the procedure.

  1. Connect the 7X-1695 Cable for the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer to the P400 Speed/Timing Calibration Connector.

  1. Ensure that all of the connections are made correctly.

Results:

  • OK - Proceed to Test Step 5.

Test Step 5. Calibrate the Speed/Timing Sensor

  1. To calibrate the timing to the correct setting, select "Continue" on Cat ET. Wait until Cat ET indicates that the timing is "CALIBRATED".

    Note: If Cat ET displays "CALIBRATION UNSUCCESSFUL", the electronic injection timing has not been set. Recheck the tool installation and tool operation and try again to calibrate electronic injection timing. If the crankshaft and camshaft gears have been reassembled incorrectly, the engine will not calibrate.

    If the timing calibration has been successfully completed, do not exit the timing calibration screen on Cat ET until you have disconnected the 7X-1695 Cable for the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer from the P400 Speed/Timing Calibration Connector.

Expected Result:

The timing calibration procedure was completed successfully.

Results:

  • OK - The timing calibration procedure was completed successfully. Proceed to Test Step 6.

  • Not OK -

    Repair: Perform the following procedure:

    1. Verify that the engine rpm was stable during the testing (± 50 rpm). If the engine rpm was unstable or the engine rpm could not be controlled within ± 50 rpm because of mechanical factors or electrical factors, refer to Troubleshooting, "Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or Is Unstable".

    1. If all of the problems have been corrected but the timing can not be calibrated, check the cable of the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer and check the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer in order to verify that the Magnetic Transducer is not bent. If the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer is not bent, restart this procedure.

    STOP

Test Step 6. Disconnect the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer Before Exiting the "Monitor/Calibrate Timing" Screen

  1. Disconnect the 6V-2197 Magnetic Transducer from the P400 Speed/Timing Calibration Connector.

  1. Exit the timing calibration screen on Cat ET.

    Note: Exiting the timing calibration screen on Cat ET will drop the engine rpm to the programmed low idle if the cruise control switches were used to maintain engine rpm during calibration. This is normal.

Expected Result:

The magnetic transducer was disconnected before exiting the timing calibration screen on Cat ET.

Results:

  • OK - STOP

  • Not OK - If the magnetic transducer is still installed after exiting the timing calibration screen on Cat ET, vehicle speed diagnostic codes may be generated.

    Repair: If vehicle speed diagnostic codes are generated, the vehicle speed diagnostic codes should be cleared.

    STOP

Caterpillar Information System:

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